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The generation of megagauss fields for science and technology is an exciting area at the extremes of parameter space, involving the application and controlled handling of extremely high power and energy densities in small volumes and on short time scales. New physical phenomena, technological challenges, and the selection and development of materials, together create a unique potential and synergy resulting in fascinating discoveries and achievements. This book is a collection of the contributions of an international conference, which assembled the leading scientists and engineers worldwide working on the generation and use of the strongest magnetic fields possible. Other research activities include generators that employ explosives to create ultra-high pulsed power for different applications, such as megavolt or radiation sources. Additional topics are the generation of plasmas and magnetized plasmas for fusion, imploding liners, rail guns, etc.
Year:
2004
Language:
english
Pages:
718 / 749
ISBN 10:
9812560165
ISBN 13:
9789812702517
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MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC
FIELD GENERATION,
ITS APPLICATION TO
SCIENCE AND ULTRA-HIGH
PULSED-POWER TECHNOLOGY

This page intentionally left blank

MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC
FIELD GENERATION,
ITS APPLICATION TO
SCIENCE AND ULTRA-HIGH
PULSED-POWER TECHNOLOGY
Proceedings of the
Vlllth International
Conference on Megagauss
Magnetic Field Generation
and Related Topics
Tallahassee, Florida, USA
18-23 October 1998

Edited by

Hans J. Schneider-Muntau
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Florida State University, USA

NEW JERSEY

*

LONDON

*

\:

World Scientific

SINGAPORE * EElJlNG

*

SHANGHAI

*

HONG KONG

-

TAIPEI * CHENNAI

Published by
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224
USA ofice: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601
UK ofice: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE

British Library Cataloguing-in-PublicationData
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

The editor of this book wishes to thank those who worked so hard to make the conference such a
success. A greater challenge turned out to be the peer review of all the articles and the editing of the
book. The untiring efforts of Ms. Pam Houmere for the technical editing of the papers are especially
recognized. Without her help this book would not have been possible. Many thanks also go to the
people who helped over the years with the follow-up on the collection of the original and reviewed
papers: Ms. Terry Pace, Janet Neff-Shampine,again Pam Houmere, and others.
The peer review of the papers and the book was produced with ultimate care. Nevertheless,we cannot
warrant the information contained in this book to be free of errors. The quality of the pictures, figures,
and equations stems from the originals we received from the authors.
Particular thanks go to Mr. Walter Thorner for the design and lay-out of the book.

On the Cover: The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, Florida with a
reproduction of the 2800 T (28 MGauss) field pulse obtained in;  Sarov in 1998.

MEGAGAUSS VIII
Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Megaguass Magnetic Field Generation
and Related Topics
Copyright 0 2004 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd
All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof; may not be reproduced in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, includingphotocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval
system now known or to be invented, without written permissionfrom the Publisher.

For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright
Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to
photocopy is not required from the publisher.

ISBN 982-256-016-5

This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Printed in Singaporeby Mainland Press

Vlllth INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATEDTOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

This page intentionally left blank

DEDICATED TO THE 80th BIRTHDAY OF MAX FOWLER

Max Fowler, 1998
During the “Megagauss VII” Conference in Sarov, the International Steering Committee
voted to ask the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory to host the next “MegagaussVIII” Conference in Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.A. and to dedicate it to the 80Ih birthday of
Dr. Clarence M. Fowler, known simply as “Max” to his many friends and colleagues. By
this decision, the International Steering Committee emphasized not only the outstanding
contribution of Max Fowler as a pioneer in the field of megagauss magnetic field generation,
design of generators of magnetic fields and electromagnetic energy, and the application of
the generators to various problems of experimental physics, but especially his outstanding
contribution to the creation of the International Megagauss Community.
It is a great honor for us to write this short article about Max, our wonderful colleague
and friend. To write about Max is simultaneously easy and difficult. There are two attributes
which we find remarkable; his outstanding scientific success, because many of his papers
became classical and well known to the scientific community, and his scientific drive
infecting everyone he met with his enthusiasm and passion for research.
Max Fowler was born in November 26, 1918, in the small town of Centralia, Illinois,
U.S.A. He obtained a B.S. degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Illinois in
1940. After graduation, he worked at the American Steel and Wire Company in Cleveland,
Ohio. There, he met his future wife, Janet Brown. Max and Janet will soon celebrate their
60Lhwedding anniversary. Following the outbreak of WWII, he enlisted in the Navy. Upon
his discharge in mid 1946, he enrolled as a graduate student in Physics at the University of
Michigan. After completing his graduate work in late 1949, Max accepted an appointment
at Kansas State University (KSU) as Assistant Professor. He set up a laboratory at KSU
dedicated mainly to the beta and gamma ray spectroscopy of neutron induced radioactive
rare-earth elements. In the early 1950’s, he started at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory as
a summer Visiting Scientist. It was during these visits that Max fired his first flux compression
shots. He eventually resigned from his position as Full Professor of Physics at KSU in 1957
to devote all of his time to a broad program in Magnetic Flux Compression at Los Alamos.

vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998

A pioneer himself, Max is linked to early pioneers such as Peter Kapitza and Francis
Bitter. Bitter worked as a consultant during many summers in Los Alamos developing new
designs of pulse magnets to increase the seed field of flux compression devices. Max is also
connected to another pioneer, Heinz Knoepfel, who developed a flux compression facility
with Fritz Herlach in Frascati, Italy.
Dr. Fowler is the author or coauthor of nearly 200 open-literature publications on such
different subjects as difference equation stability, diffusion, nuclear spectroscopy, shock
wave induced phase transitions and other effects in metals, and most predominantly in
explosive flux compression. Over the years, he and his colleagues have utilized explosive
flux compression to produce very large magnetic fields and to generate large electromagnetic
pulses. They have used both techniques in many applications, including megagauss field
generators for solid state research, pulsed power supplies for a number of devices including
theta pinches, plasma guns, plasma focuses, lasers, imploding foils for soft X-ray production,
e-beam accelerators, rail guns and, more recently, as magnetic field generators to study hightemperature superconductors in megagauss fields.

We mention here explicitly three of Max’s especially worthy publications. His very first
paper was titled “Analysis of Numerical Solutions of Transient Heat Flow Problems” [l].
Max is very proud of this paper. He told us that he has received the most reprint requests for
this paper. His contribution was awarded the Miller Prize in mathematics at the University
of Michigan. Max’s most significant and well-known paper is the “Production of very high
magnetic fields by implosion” [2].It was the first report of magnetic field generation above
10 MG and up to 14 MG. It stimulated much work in liner implosion of plasmas, material
research in megagauss fields and ultimately, the Megagauss Conferences. Let us note that it
took almost 40 years to double the field value to 28 MG as reported at this conference [3].
As the third paper, we wish to cite the review paper at this conference [4] where Max gives a
thorough overview of his work in flux compression.
Max’s earlier work had a strong influence on subsequent megagauss-field solid-state
research, liner implosion of plasmas, and on the initiation of the International Conferences
on Explosive Generation of Megagauss Fields and Related Topics, now known as the
Megagauss (MG) Conferences. Dr. Fowler chaired the MG Conference held in Santa
Fe, NM in 1986 and, as a member of the International Steering Committee, assisted in
organizing most of the other Megagauss Conferences. Relations with Russian colleagues,
within limitations imposed by the political climate of those times, were greatly stimulated
by the relationship that developed between Fowler and Gennady Shvetsov, of the Lavrentyev
Institute of Hydrodynamics in Novosibirsk. This collegial relationship then led to one with
the late Academician Alexander Pavlovski, who directed a similar flux compression effort at
Sarov, a complex similar to Los Alamos and now Los Alamos’ “sister city”. The existence
of the subsequent, unclassified scientific programs carried out jointly between these two
“weapons” laboratories, was due in considerable part to the Pavlovski-Fowler relationship.
It was their profound friendship and the peaceful scientific cooperation that helped to break
the ice between the U.S. and Russia at the end of the cold war. Max was also instrumental in
helping the Florida State UniversityiUniversity of FloridaiLos Alamos Proposal to develop
the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory partly due to the high magnetic field research
done at Los Alamos by the Explosive Flux Compression Team.
Dr. Fowler has served on a number of panels and committees including the National
Science Foundation Panel on High Magnetic Fields, the Defense Science Board, NATO,
DOE, DoD, and has directed a number of programs for some of these organizations. He
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
i t s Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-PowerTechnology

is a long-time Fellow of the American Physical Society (1964) and was one of the early
Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellow Appointees (1982). Dr. Fowler was awarded an
Honorary Doctorate from Novosibirsk State University for his work in high energy density
physics and for furthering scientific relations between the United States and Russia. He
was honored in a special session of the MG VIII Conference held in Tallahassee in 1998.
Although retired for several years, he has remained active in both publishing and lecturing.
In the last two years, besides lectures in the US., he has presented lecture series in Korea,
Russia and Germany.
At the special session of the MG-VIII Conference at which friends and colleagues
congratulated Dr. Max Fowler on his anniversary, conference participants of the Lavrtentyev
Institute of Hydrodynamics read out the following congratulation:
“Dear M a ,
In everyone j . life there happen events that can be considered the most
important andyears later the person realizes better and better how many things
in his personal life would be dijferent if this event did not occur For us, such
an event was the acquaintance and cooperation with you. In yourperson we
have an outstanding scientist, a reliable friend, and a wonderful man. Today,
many-many years after ourJirst meetings in Los Alamos and Novosibirsk, we
thank our lucky stars that we have the good,fortune to know and love you and
work together with you.

Our hearts are with you and your incomparable Janet. On the occasion ofyour
80th birthday we wish you good health andgreat success.”
We would like to conclude this dedication by joining in the above wishes,from
the depth ofour hearts.
Gennady A. Shvetsov
Hans J. Schneider-Muntau

References
1. Fowler, C. M., Analysis of Numerical Solutions of Transient Heat Flow Problems, Quart. Appl. Math.
3 (1946) p. 361.
2. Fowler, C. M., Gam, W. B., Caird, R. S., Production of Very High Magnetic Fields by Implosion, J.
Appl. Phys. 31 (1960) p. 588. Also, Bull. Am. Phys. Sac., 4 (1959) p. 96.
3. Boyko, B. A,, Bykov, A. I., Dolotenko, M. I., Kolokol’chikov, N. P., Markevtsev, 1. M., Tatsenko,
0. M., Shulvalov, A. M., Generation of Magnetic Fields Above 2000T with the Cascade MagnetoCumulative Generator MC-1, this conference.
4. Fowler, C. M., Explosive Flux Compression: a Review of 50 Years of Los Alamos National Laboratory
Activities, this conference.

vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998

This page intentionally left blank

EDITOR'S PREFACE
The generation of megagauss fields for science and technology i s an exciting area
where new physical phenomena, technological challenges, and the selection
and development of materials together create a unique potential and synergy
resulting in fascinating discoveries and achievements. The controlled handling and
applications of extremely high power and energy densities in small volumes and
on short time scales i s the common theme of this collection of contributions. A l l
papers have been peer-reviewed and carefully edited.
The Vlllth International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation
and Related Topics (MG-VIII) united more than 200 participants from over 14
countries, with 87 delegates from the U.S. and 30 from Russia. These Proceedings
provide the latest research results on the generation of very high magnetic f elds
up to and well above the megagauss level. One of the highlights i s the report on
the highest magnetic field ever generated, 2800 T (28 MG), using explosive flux
compression technology. An entire session i s devoted t o the Dirac series of scientif c
experiments in fields up to 1000 T. Contributions about the generation of fields in
the millisecond pulse range, f elds in small volumes, and material developments in
this area, conclude the f rst section of the Proceedings.
Megagauss Vlll was held in connection with the conference “Physical
Phenomena at High Magnetic Fields - 111” (PPHMF-Ill) in order to encourage and
facilitate cross-links between the two scientif c communities. This was highly
successful since 26 PPHMF participants also registered at MG-VIII. The chapter
“Science in Megagauss Magnetic Fields” ref ects these contributions.
The following section of the Proceedings i s devoted to new results in the
more traditional fields of the Megagauss conference: generation of plasmas,
magnetized plasma, imploding liners, and fusion. Two major chapters describe
progress with generators that use explosives to create ultra-high pulsed power for
different applications, and other activities such as rail guns and launchers, codes
and modeling. All of these contributions underline the ever-growing importance
of advancing ultra-high power density technologies. The Proceedings close with
descriptions of magnetic f eld facilities that are open to users who wish t o do
experiments in high and ultra-high magnetic f elds.
The conference organizers want to thank the members of the International
Steering Committee, the Program Committee, and the Local Organizing Committee.
Help and assistance by the Megagauss Institute Inc. i s especially recognized. Our
gratitude also goes t o the numerous conference sponsors who helped to make the
conference become such a congenial and successful meeting.
It i s impossible t o acknowledge all those who helped to organize the
conference. Special thanks go t o Ysonde Jensen, Joanne Palmer, and Brenda
Cornett. These Proceedings would not have been possible without the guidance
of the Board of Editors and the untiring help of Pam Houmere and Walter Thorner.
Peer review, editing of the many foreign contributions and putting them into a
coherent electronic format turned out t o be a major effort.

Hans J. Schneider-Muntau

vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998

This page intentionally left blank

INTERNATIONAL STEERING COMMITEE
Larry L. Altgilbers - Missile Defense Space Technology Center
William L. Baker - Phillips Laboratory
Evgenii I. Bichenkov - Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics/RussianAcademy
of Sciences
Jay B. Chase - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Maynard (Bill) Cowan - Sandia National Laboratories
Dennis J. Erickson - Los Alamos National Laboratory
C. Max Fowler - Los Alamos National Laboratory
James H. Goforth - Los Alamos National Laboratory
F. Herlach - Catholic University, Leuven
Noboru Miura - Institute for Solid Physics/University of Tokyo
Bob Reinovsky - Los Alamos National Laboratory
Hans J. Schneider-Muntau - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Victor D. Selemir - All-Russian Scientif c Research Institute of Experimental
Physics
Gennady A. Shvetsov - Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics/RussianAcademy
of Sciences
Vladimir M. Titov - Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics/RussianAcademy of
Science
Peter J. Turchi - The Ohio State University
E. P. Velikhov - Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy

PROGRAM COMMITTEE
L. Campbell - Los Alamos National Laboratory
R. Clark - University of New South Wales
J. Degnan - Air Force Research Laboratory, Phillips Reseach Site, Kirtland AFB
P. Frings - Van Der Waals-Zeeman Institute
J. Goforth - Los Alamos National Laboratory
F. Herlach - Catholic University, Leuven
H. Jones - University of Oxford
W. Joss - Grenoble High Magnet Field Laboratory
K. Kindo - Osaka University
A. Lagutin - Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy
N. Miura - Institute for Solid State Physics
N. Popkov - Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russian Scientif c Research
Institute of Experimential Physics
R. Reinovsky - Los Alamos National Laboratory
G.A. Shneerson - St. Petersburg Technical University
G. Shvetsov - Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics
R. Spielman - Sandia National Laboratories
M. Springford - H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol
P. Turchi - The Ohio State University
M. von Ortenberg - Humboldt University, Berlin

vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998

LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Jim Brooks - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Jack E. Crow - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
James H. Degnan - Phillips Laboratory
Lloyd Engel - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
C. Max Fowler - Los Alamos National Laboratory
Jerry T. Jones - Air Force Wright Laboratory
Daniel A. Matuska - Orlando Technology, Inc.
Bob Reinovsky - Los Alamos National Laboratory
Dwight Rickel - Los Alamos National Laboratory
Alita Roach - Los Alamos National Laboratory
Hans J. Schneider-Muntau - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Rick 6 . Spielman - Sandia National Laboratories

SPONSORING ORGANIZATIONS
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Sandia National Laboratories
Air Force Research Laboratory, Phillips Site, Kirtland AFB
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Megagauss Institute
Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of
Experimental Physics
Oxford Instruments
Keithley Instruments
F.W. Bell, Division of Bell Technologies
GMW Associates
Lakeshore Cryotronics
Janis Research Co.
Leon County Tourist Development Council

Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
i t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o S c i e n c e a n d U l t righ
a - HPulsed-Power
igh Pulsed-P
ower Technology
Technology

TABLE OF CONTENTS
OVERVIEWS AND LECTURES
ADVANCED HIGH EXPLOSIVE PULSED POWER TECHNOLOGY AT VNllEF

1

1

V. K. CHERNYSHEV

THE DIRAC EXPERIMENTS - RESULTS AND CHALLENGES
R. G. CLARK, J. L. O’BRIEN, A. 5. DZURAK, B. E. KANE, N. E. LUMPKIN,

12

D. J. RNLLEY, R. I? STARRETT; 0. G. RICKEL, J. D. GOETEE, L. J. CAMPBELL,
C. M. FOWLER, C. MIELKE, N. HARRISON, W. D. ZERWEKH, D. CLARK,
B. D. BARTRAM, J. C. KING, D. PARKIN, H. NAKAGXVIIAWA, and N. MIURA

EXPLOSIVE FLUX COMPRESSION: 50 YEARS OF LOS A M O S ACTIVITIES

22

C. FOWLER, D. THOMSON, and W. GARN

A REVIEW OF

U. S. HIGH EXPLOSIVE PULSED POWER SYSTEMS

29

J. H. GOFORTH

MEGAGAUSS FIELDS FROM FORTY YEARS AGO INTO THE
NEXT CENTURY
F: HERLACH
THEORIES OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

34
39

J. R. SCHRIEFFER

INVESTIGATIONS OF FLUX COMPRESSION ENERGY SOURCES AND
ULTRA-HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATORS IN VNllEF

46

V. D. SELEMIR, and V. A. DEMIDOV

ELECTROMAGNETIC LAUNCH - STATE OF THE ART AND OPPORTUNITIES

55

G. A. SHVETSOV

GENERATION OF MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELDS

Ultra

-

Hi3h Magnetic Fields

MORE THAN 20 MG MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION IN THE CASCADE
MAGNETOCUMULATIVE MC-1 GENERATOR

61
61

B. A. BOYKO, A. 1. BYKOV, M. 1. DOLOTENKO, N. I? KOLOKOL‘CHIKOV,
1. M. M A R K M S N , 0. M. TATSENKO, and A. M. SHUVALOV

ULTRA-HIGH MAGNETIC FIELDS GENERATION USING A DISK
FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATOR OF ENERGY

67

V. D. SELEMIR, V. A. DEMIDOV, A. A. KARPIKOV, YU. V. VLASOV, 5. A. KAZAKOV,
and N. P. KOLOKOLCHIKOV

MULTIPLE-TURN MAGNETOCUMULATIVE GENERATOR

71

A. J. KARTELEV and V. K. CHERNYSHN

GENERATION OF MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELDS BY INITIATION AND
GROWTH OF MHD INSTABILITIES
I?

75

1. ZUBKOV and K. A. TEN

INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF MC-1 GENERATOR CASCADES
MATERIAL MADE FROM POWDER COMPOSITE

80

V. V. ASENA, B. A. BOYKO, A. 1. BYKOV, M. 1. DOLOTENKO, N. I? KOLOKOL’CHIKOV,
0. M. TATSENKO, and V. 1. TIMARNA

GENERATION OF MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELDS

Non-Destructive High Magnetic FieldsIConductor Development
MEGAGAUSS FIELDS DURING MILLISECONDS
L. J. CAMPBELL, D. EMBURY, K. HAN, D. M. PARKIN, A. G. BACA, K. H. KIHARA,
J. R. SIMS, G. BOEBINGER, Y. EYSSA, B. LESCH, L. LI, J. SCHILLIG,
H. J. SCHNEIDER-MUNTAU, and R. WALSH

vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998

85
85

PULSED POWER SUPPLY BASED ON MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE
FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE HIGH FIELD MAGNETS
G. AUBERT; 5. DEFOUG, W. JOSS, F! SALA, M. DUBOIS, and V. KUCHINSK
HIGH FIELD PULSED MAGNETS FOR CHARACTERISATION OF
TECHNICAL HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS
F! M. SALEH, D. T: RYAN, and H. JONES
GENERATION OF MEGAGAUSS FIELDS IN INDESTRUCTIBLE
SOLENOIDS WITH QUASI-FORCE-FREE WINDINGS

91
95
99

G. A. SHNEERSON, E. L. AMROMIN, V. % KHOZIKOV, and A. 1. BOROVKOV

SPATIAL MULTI-TURN STRUCTURE OF FLAT SHEETS FOR
MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
1. P. EFIMOV, 5. 1. KRIVOSHEYEV, and G. A. SHNEERSON
OPTIMAL USE OF MAGNETIC ENERGY IN A MAGNET
R. KRATZ, % M . EYSSA, L. LI, H. J. SCHNEIDER-MUNTAU, M. R. VAGHAR,
a n d 5. W. VAN SCIVER
I-,
2- AND N-COIL SYSTEMS

108
112
116

R. KRATZ, % M . EYSSA, L. LI, H. J. SCHNEIDER-MUNTAU, M. R. VAGHAR,
a n d 5. W. VAN SCIVER

THE CONSTRUCTION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE PULSE MAGNETS
AT NHMFL
B. LESCH, b! COCHRAN, L. LI, F! PERNAMBUCO WISE, 5. TOZER,

120

H. J. SCHNEIDER-MUNTAU, a n d 5. VAN SCIVER

DESIGN OF A 90 T PULSE MAGNET

124

M . R. VAGHAR, L. LI, % EYSSA, H. J. SCHNEIDER-MUNJAU, a n d R. KRATZ

HIGH FIELD PULSE MAGNETS WITH NEW MATERIALS

128

L. LI, B. LESCH, V. G. COCHRAN, % EYSSA, 5. JOZER, C. H. MIELKE,
D. RICKEL, 5. W. VAN SCIVER, and H. J. SCHNEIDER-MUNJAU

NEW CONDUCTORS FOR MAGNETS
5. ASKENAZY , F: LECOUTURIER, L. THILLY, a n d G. COFFE
INVESTIGATION, DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF HIGH
STRENGTH, HIGH CONDUCTIVITY CUlSS WIRE FOR LARGE
SCALE MAGNETS
b! PANTSYRNYI, A. SHIKOV, A. NIKULIN, G. VEDERNIKOV, 1. GUBKIN,

132

141

and N. SALUNIN

A SURVEY OF PROCESSING METHODS FOR HIGH
STRENGTH-HIGH CONDUCTIVITY WIRES FOR HIGH
FIELD MAGNET APPLICATIONS

147

J. D. EMBURY a n d K. HAN

INTERNAL STRESSES IN WIRES FOR HIGH FIELD MAGNETS
K. HAN, J. D. EMBURY, A. C. LAWSON, R. B. VON DREELE, J. T: WOOD,

154

a n d J. W. RICHARDSON, JR.

FABRICATION ROUTES FOR HIGH STRENGTH-HIGH
CONDUCTIVITY WIRES
J. D. EMBURY, K. HAN, J. R. SIMS, J. % COULTER, V. 1. PANTSYRNYI,

158

A. SHIKOV, and A. A. BOCHVAR

GENERATION OF MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELDS
High Maqnetic Fields in Small Volumes
GIGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION FROM HIGH
INTENSITY LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS
J. SEFCIK, M. D. PERRY, B. F: LASINSKI, A. B. LANGDON, 5: COWAN,
J. HAMMER, 5. HATCHET, A. HUNT, M. H. KEY, M . MORAN, D. PENNINGTON,
R. SNAVELY, J. TREBES, a n d 5. C. WlLKS

MesagaussMagnetic Field Generation,
i t s Application t o Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-PowerTechnology

161

161

ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF
MICROELECTROMAGNETS FOR ATOM MANIPULATION
M. DRNDIC, K. 5. JOHNSON, M. PRENTISS, and R. M. WESTERVELT
NONDESTRUCTIVE MINI-COILS APPROACHING
MEGAGAUSS FIELDS

167
171

M. VON ORTENBERG and H.-U. MUELLER

MAGNETO-OPTIC MEASUREMENTS UP TO 50 T USING
MICRO-COILS

175

K. MACKAY, M. BONFIM, D. GIVORD, A. FONTAINE, and J. C. PEUZIN

FEASIBILITY OF MICRO-COILS

179

L. LI, H. J. SCHNEIDER-MUNTAU, 5. WIRTH, V. NEU, I? XIONG,
and 5. VON MOLNAR

MICRO-MAGNETS
E HERLACH, A. VOLODIN, and C. VAN HAESENDONCK
EARLY ATEMPTS AT MINI (SUPERCONDUCTING)
MAGNETS - ON THE WAY TO MICRO MAGNETS?

185
188

H. JONES

HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING THIN FILM MAGNETS
Y. 5. HASCICEK, Y. EYSSA, 5. W. VAN SCIVER, and H. J. SCHNEIDER-MUNTAU
SCIENCE IN MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELDS

PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN DYNAMIC MAGNETIC FIELDS TO 800 T
J. 5. BROOKS, J. COTHERN, J. A. SIMMONS, M. J. HAFICH, W. LEWIS,
5. GALLEGOS, D. DEVORE, B. MARSHALL, M. GROVER, G. LEACH,

191

195
195

C. H. MIELKE, D. RICKEL, J. D. GOElTEE, D. CLARK, M. FOWLER, J. KING,
L. TABAKA, J. DETWILER, E. C. CLARK, 0. TATSENKO. V. PLATONOV, A. BYKOV,
C. LANDEE, and M. TURNBULL

MAGNETIC SYSTEMS IN MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELDS:
~,
RESULTS OF DIRAC AND KAPITSA EXPERIMENTS

207

0. M. TATSENKO and V. D. SELEMIR

OVERVIEW OF THE 1997 DIRAC HIGH-MAGNETIC-FIELD-EXPERIMENT
SERIES AT LOS ALAMOS

21 3

D. A. CLARK, L. J. CAMPBELL, K. C. FORMAN, C. M. FOWLER,
J. D. GOETEE, C. H. MIELKE, D. G. RICKEL, and B. R. MARSHALL

QUANTUM TRANSFORMATIONS OF Fe8 MAGNETIC
NANOCLUSTERS IN MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELDS
A. 1. BYKOV, M. 1. DOLOTENKO, A. V. FILIPPOV, N. I? KOLOKOL’CHIKOV,

217

V. V. PLATONOV, 0. M. TATSENKO, 1. A. LUBASHEVSKY, A. A. MUKHIN,
G. G. MUSAEV, V. 1. PLIS, A. 1. POPOV, V. D. SELEMIR, and A. K. ZVEZDIN

SPIN-FLIP TRANSITION AND FARADAY EFFECT IN MnFz
IN MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD

221

V. V. PLATONOV, 0. M. TATSENKO, D. A. CLARK, C. M. FOWLER,
J. D. GOElTEE, D. G. RICKEL, W. LEWIS, B. MARSHALL, A. A. MUKHIN,
V. 1. PLIS, A. I. POPOV, and A. K. ZVEZDIN

NANO-SCALE FERRIMAGNET MnlzAc IN MEGAGAUSS
MAGNETIC FIELD

22s

V. V. PLATONOV, 0. M. TATSENKO, A. 1. BYKOV, D. A. CLARK, C. M. FOWLER,
J. D. GOEITEE, D. G. RICKEL, A. K. ZVEZDIN, A. A. MUKHIN,
1. A. LUBASHEVSKY, V. 1. PLIS, A. 1. POPOV, B. BARBARA, A. CANESCHI,
D. GAlTESCHI, and R. SESSOLI

INVESTIGATION OF LEVEL CROSSING EFFECT IN RARE-EARTH
PARAMAGNETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH MAGNETIC FIELDS UP TO 500 T
V. V. PLATONOV, 0. M. TATSENKO, 1. M. MARKEVTSEV, M. ?t MONAKHOV,
2. A. KAZEI, R. 2. LEVITIN, N. I? KOLMAKOVA, and A. A. SIDORENKO

Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCEON MEGAGAUSSMAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23,1998

230

BAND CALCULATION STUDY OF METAMAGNETIC
TRANSITIONS OF FeSi IN MEGAGAUSS FIELD
H. OHTA, 7: ARIOKA, E. KULATOV, S. HALILOV, and L. VINOKUROVA
ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION OF ARGON AND KRYPTON
USING AN MC-1 FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATOR

233
237

L. VEESER, C. EKDAHL, H. OONA, I? RODRIGUEZ, G. SCHMln, J. SOLEM,
5. YOUNGER, 5. BAKER, C. HUDSON, W. LEWIS, 6. MARSHALL, W. TURLU,
A. EYKOV, G. EORISKOK M. DOLOTENKO, N. EGOROV, N. KOLOKOL’CHIKOV,
M. KOZLOV, K KUROPATKIN, and A. VOLKOV

HIGH SENSITIVITY MEGAGAUSS SPECTROSCOPY

241

N. PUHLMANN, 1. STOLPE, H . 4 . MULLER, 0. PORTUGALL,
and M. VON ORTENEERG

EIGENSTATES OF BLOCH ELECTRONS IN A HIGH MAGNETIC
FIELD: OPTICAL PROPERTIES

244

Y. YA. DEMIKHOVSKII, A. A. PEROV, and D. Y. KHOMITSKY

CYCLOTRON RESONANCE MEASUREMENT OF BEDT-lTF
SALT UNDER HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD
H. OHTA, K OSHIMA, K. AKIOKA, 5. OKUEO, and K. KANODA
MAGNETO-RESISTANCE OF La0,67Ca~,~,MnO, FILMS IN
PULSED HIGH MAGNETIC FIELDS
5. S A L N I ~ I U S ,B. VENGALIS, F: ANISIMOVAS, J. NOVICKIJ, R. TOLUTIS,

250
254

0. KIPRIJANOVIC, J. NOVICKIJ, and L. ALTGILEERS

MAGNETIZATION OF AN 5 = 112 AND 1 FERRIMAGNETIC
CHAIN N i C ~ ( p b a ) ( D ~ 0 ) ~ 2 D
IN~ HIGH
O
MAGNETIC FIELDS
M. HAGIWARA,

K

259

NARUMI, K. TATANI, K. KINDO, and K. MlNAMl

MAGNETIZATION AND MAGNETORESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
UP TO 60 T AT 70 mK

262

K

NARUMI, N. TAKAMOTO, K. KINDO, T. C. KOBAYASHI, N. SHIMIZU,
F: IGA, 5. HIURA, T. TAUEATAKE, and M. VERDAGUER

MAGNETIZATION CURVES AND MAGNETIC PHASE TRANSITIONS
OF NEW ISING FERRIMAGNETS
A. S. LAGUTIN, G. E. FEDOROV, J. VANACKEN, and F: HERUCH
HIGH FIELD MAGNETIZATION PROCESSES OF 5 = 1
ANTIFERROMAGNETIC CHAINS WITH BOND ALTERNATION
M. HAGIWARA, K NARUMI, K. KINDO, R. SATO, H. NAKANO, M. KOHNO,

266
2 70

and M. TAKAHASHI

COMPRESSION OF METALS UNDER INTENSE SHOCK WAVES

274

R. F: TRUNIN

PLASMAS, MAGNETIZED PLASMAS, FUSION
FUSION IN MAGNETICALLY COMPRESSED TARGETS

28 1
281

K N. MOKHOV

MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION (MTF): A LOW-COST FUSION
DEVELOPMENT PATH

289

1. R. LINDEMUTH, R. E. SIEMON, R. C. KIRKPATRICK, and R. E. REINOVSKY

INITIAL EXPERIMENTS WITH THE PLASMA CHAMBERS MAGO,
HAVING NO CENTRAL CURRENT-CARRYING POST IN THE
PLASMA HEATING COMPARTMENT

294

A. A. EAZANOV, and N. 1. POZDOV

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MAGOIMTF CHAMBER
OPERATION AND COMPARISON OF COMPUTED DATA
WITH SOME EXPERIMENTS
A. A. EAZANOV, 5. E GARANIN, 5. D. KUZNETSOV, Y. 1. MAMYSHN,
Y. N. MOKHOV, A. N. SUEEOTIN, and Y. 6. YAKUEOV
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

298

THE ROLE OF DRIFTS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMA OF THE
MAG0 SYSTEM
5. F: GARANIN
CHARACTERIZATION OF A TARGET PLASMA FOR MTF

302
305

F: J. WYSOCKI, J. M. TACCE7T1, G. IDZOREK, H. OONA,
R. C. KIRKPATRICK, 1. R. LINDEMUTH, F! 7: SHEEHEY, and K C. E THlO

MODELING OF PRESENT AND PROPOSED MAGNETIZED
TARGET FUSION EXPERIMENTS

309

P. SHEEHEY, R. FAEHL, R. KIRKPATRICK, and 1. LINDEMUTH

MEASUREMENTS OF DENSE PLASMA PARAMETERS BY
THE INTERACTION OF PLASMA WITH STRONG
MAGNETIC FIELD
V. B. MINTSEV, 5. V. DUDIN, V. K. GRYAZNOV, A. E. USHNURTSN,
N. 5. SHILKIN, and V. E. FORTOV
THE STABILITY OF QUASI-ADIABATIC PLASMA COMPRESSION
BY A LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD

312

316

V. F: YERMOLOVICH, A. 1. IVANOVSKY, K 1. KARELIN, A. I? ORLOV,
and V. D. SELEMIR

PERPENDICULAR SHOCK WAVE STRUCTURE IN COLD
COLLISIONLESS PLASMA CONSISTING OF TWO
ION SPECIES
0. M. BURENKOV, and 5. F: GARANIN
PLASMA HEATING AND EXPANSION IN ELECTRICAL
EXPLOSION OF A CONDUCTOR IN STRONG MAGNETIC
FIELD
K E. ADAMIAN, V. M. VAS/LEVSKlY, 5. N. KOLGATIN,

320

324

and G. A. SHNEERSON

INTERACTION OF BOUNDARY MATERIAL WITH MAGNETIZED
PLASMA

328

J. H. DEGNAN, G. E K I U T U , B. B. KREH, R. E. PETERKIN, JR,
N. F: RODERICK, E. L. RUDEN, K. E STEPHENS 11, I? J. TURCHI,
5. K. COFFEY, M. H. FRESE, D. G. GALE, J. D. GRAHAM, D. MORGAN
and D. P L A m

IMPLODING LINERS FOR CONTROLLED FUSION:
SOME LESSONS LEARNED

334

I? J. TURCHI

RAILGUNS, LAUNCHERS, AND RELATED TOPICS
HYPERVELOCITY RAILGUN: THE OPTIMAL SOLUTIONS
V. E. OSTASHEV, E. F: LEBEDEV, and K E. FORTOV
CRYOGENIC LAUNCHER EXPERIMENTS: THE QUEST FOR
A VERY HIGH EFFICIENCY

337
337
341

B. M. NOVAC, M. C. ENACHE, t? SENIOR, 1. R. SMITH, and K. GREGORY

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF
MAGNETIC-IMPULSE PLATE ACCELERATION
A. V. BABKIN, 5. V. FEDOROV, 5. V. LADOV, V. A. GRIGORYAN,

345

V. A. KRUZHKOV, and A.V. SHERBAKOV

BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC SHAPED-CHARGE JETS
UNDER THE ACTION OF A CURRENT PULSE

349

G. A. SHVETSOV, A. D. MATROSOV, A. V. BABKIN, 5. V. LADOV,
and 5. V. FEDOROV

FEATURES OF METAL SHAPED CHARGE JET DEFORMATION
IN LONGITUDINAL LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELD
5. V. FEDOROV, A. V. BABKIN, 5. V. LADOV, and V. M. MARlNlN
vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
ANDRELATEDTOPICS
RELATED TOPICS.Tallahasse
TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998
AND

.

353

EXPLOSIVE ULTRA-HIGH PULSED POWER GENERATORS
ANALYSIS OF THE DISK EXPLOSIVE MAGNETIC GENERATOR
OPERATION IN THE HEL-1 EXPERIMENT
V.
A.
A.
A.
A.
R.

357

357

K. CHERNYSHEV, V. N. MOKHOV, V. N. BUSIN, 0. M. BURENKOV,
M. BUYKO, V. V. VAKHRUSHEV, B. E. GRINEVICH, YU. 1. GORBACHEV,
1. KUZAEV, A. 1. KUCHEROV, V. 1. MAMYSHEV, YU. 1. MATSEV,
A. PETRUKHIN, A. 1. PISCHUROV, A. 1. STARTSEV, V. B. YAKUBOV,
G. ANDERSON, C. A. EKDAHL, D. CLARK, 1. R. LINDEMUTH,
E. REINOVSKY, R. FAEHL, a n d 5. M. YOUNGER

1.3 MV VOLTAGE PULSE FORMATION ON 13 OHM RESISTOR WITH
MCG- 160
A. 5. KRAVCHENKO, A. 5. BORISKIN, YU. V. VILKOV, V. D. SELEMIR,
YE. M . DIMANT, A. 5. YURYZHN, D. 1. ZENKOV, A. A. TKACHUK,

361

YE. N. KIRSHANOVA, M. B. KOZLOV, a n d T. BOUET

TRANSFORMER EXPLOSIVE MAGNETIC GENERATOR

364

A. JA. KARTELEV and V. K. CHERNYSHEV

HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER SOURCE ON THE BASIS OF
MAGNETOCUMULATIVE GENERATOR OF THE
TYPE EMG-80
A. 5. BORISKIN, YE. M. DIMANT, V. D. SELEMIR, a n d A. A. SOLOV’YEV
AUTONOMOUS MAGNETOEXPLOSIVE GENERATOR OF
MEGAVOLT, 100 NS PULSES

367
371

V. YE. GURIN, V. N. KATAEV, P V. KOROLEV, V. 1. KARGIN,
G. F: MAKARTSEV, V. N. NUDIKOV, A. 5. PIKAR, N. F: POPKOV,
and A. F: SARATOV

HIGH VOLTAGE PULSED MCG-BASED ENERGY SOURCE

376

E. V. CHERNYKH, V. E. FORTOV, K. V. GORBACHEV, E. V. NESTEROV,
5. A. ROSCHUPKIN, a n d V. A. STROGANOV

THE OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS OF A TWO-STAGED
EXPLOSIVE MAGNETIC COMPRESSION GENERATOR
WITH HIGH INDUCTIVE LOAD
X. G. GONG, C. W. SUN, W. P XIE, Q. Z. SUN, a n d Z. F: LIU
ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MCG WITH ARMATURE,
ASSEMBLED FROM SEPARATE TUBES

380
386

L. N. PLYASHKEVICH

TWO-STAGED MAGNETOCUMULATIVE GENERATORS FOR HIGH
IMPEDANCE LOADS
A. E. USHNURTSEV, 5. V. DUDIN, V. B. MINTSEV, V. E. FORTOV,
V. E. OSTASHEV, A. A. ULYANOV, E. F: LEBEDEV, A. A. LEONTYEV,

390

a n d A .V. SHURUPOV

CLASSIFICATION OF HELICAL FLUX-COMPRESSION
GENERATORS

394

B. M . NOVAC a n d 1. R. SMITH

AUTONOMOUS ENERGY SOURCE ON THE BASIS OF HELICAL
MCG WITH SIMULTANEOUS HE-CHARGE INITIATION
ON THE AXIS
A. 5. KRAVCHENKO, YU. V. VILKOV, A. 5. YURYZHN, M . M . SAITKULOV,

401

a n d 1. M . BRUSNlGlN

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF OPERATION OF HELICAL
GENERATOR WITH TRANSFORMER ENERGY OUTPUT
A. 5. KRAVCHENKO, A. 5. BORISKIN, YU. V. VILKOV, YE. M. DIMANT,
A. 1. KARPOV, 5. T: NAZARENKO, V. 5. PAVLOV, and M. B. KOZLOV

Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
i t s Application to Science and Ultra-Hiph Pulsed-Power Technology

404

COMPACT HELICAL MAGNETOCUMULATIVE GENERATOR
FOR THE FORMATION OF POWERFUL HIGH-VOLTAGE
ENERGY PULSES
A. 5. KRAVCHENKO, V. D. SELEMIR, A. 5. BORISKIN, YU. V. VILKOV,

407

YE. M. DIMANT, and A. 6. YERMAKOV

ONE APPROACH TO SELECTING THE MAIN PARAMETERS
OF THE EMG HELICAL COIL
V. K. CHERNYSHEV and B. 7: YEGORYCHEV
HELICAL EMG EFFECTIVE RESISTANCE

41 1
414

V. K. CHERNYSHEV, E. 1. ZHARINOV, V. N. BUSIN, B. E. GRINEVICH,
0. V. SOKOLOVA, G. N. SMIRNOVA, and K. N. KLlMUSHKlN

INVESTIGATION OF MAGNETO-PLASMA COMPRESSOR
OPERATION POWERED FROM A HELICAL FLUX
COMPRESSION GENERATOR
5. N. GOLOSOV, YU. V. VLASOV, V. A. DEMIDOV, and 5. A. KAZAKOV
HELICAL EXPLOSIVE FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATOR
RESEARCH AT THE AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY

418
422

M. LEHR, D. CHAMA, J. DEGNAN, G. KIUlTU, O
T CAVAZOS, D. GALE,
f? PELLITIER, W. SOMMARS, 5. COFFEY, L. BAMERT, and K. BELL

SIMULATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PULSED
POWER SUPPLY FOR HIGH POWER MICROWAVES USING
EXPLOSIVELY DRIVEN MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION

425

M. KRISTIANSEN, J. DICKENS, M. GIESSELMANN, E. KRISTIANSEN,
and 7: HURTIG

GENERATING MICROWAVE RADIATION PULSES WITH MCG

429

A. G. ZHERLITSYN, G. G. KANAEV, G. V. MELNIKOV,
V. TSVETKOV, A. E. USHNURTSEV, 5. V. DUDIN, V. B. MINTSEV,
and V. E. FORTOV

CONSIDERATIONS OF AN AUTONOMOUS COMPACT SOURCE FOR
HIGH POWER MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
B. M. NOVAC and 1. R. SMITH
COMPACT EXPLOSIVE DRIVEN SOURCES OF MICROWAVES:
TEST RESULTS

432
438

L. ALTGILBERS, 1. MERRIn, M. BROWN, J. HENDERSON,
D. HOLDER, A. VERMA, M. J. HOEBERLING, R. F: HOEBERLING,
G. CARP, W. FENNER, C. M. FOWLER, J. PINA, and M. LEWIS

EXPLOSIVE DEVICE FOR GENERATION OF PULSED FLUXES
OF SOFT X-RAY RADIATION
V. D. SELEMIR, V. A. DEMIDOV, A. V. IVANOVSKY,

446

V. F: YERMOLOVICH, V. G. KORNILOV, V. 1. CHELPANOV,
S. A. KAZAKOV, Y. V. VLASOV, and A. I? ORLOV

SHOCK COMPRESSION OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN Csl

450

I? TRACY, L. L. ALTGILBERS, 1. M E R R l n and M. BROWN

EXPLOSIVE MHD GENERATORS

458

E. F: LEBEDEV, V. E. OSTASHEV and K E. FORTOV

OPTIMIZING THE RANCHERO COAXIAL FLUX COMPRESSION
GENERATOR
D. G. TASKER, J. H. GOFORTH, W. L. ATCHISON,
C. M. FOWLER, D. H. HERRERA, J. C. KING, 1. R. LINDEMUTH, E. A. LOPEZ,

464

E. C. MARTINEZ, H. OONA, R. E. REINOVSKY,
J. STOKES, L. J. TABAKA, D. T. TORRES, and f? J. MILLER

ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY OF MCG-BASED
LIGHTNING SIMULATORS
E. V. CHERNYKH, V. E. FORTOV, K. V. GORBACHEV,
1. I? KUJEKIN, E. V. NESTEROV, V. A. STROGANOV,
YU. A. KARPOUSHIN, and A. V. SHOURUPOV
Vlllth INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATEDTOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

468

IMPLODING LINERS
STABILITY OF MAGNETICALLY IMPLODED LINERS FOR HIGH
ENERGY DENSITY EXPERIMENTS

473
473

R. REINOVSKY, W. ANDERSON, W. ATCHISON, R. BARTSCH,
D. CLARK, C. EKDAHL, R. FAEHL, J. GOFORTH, R. KEINIGS,
1. LINDEMUTH, D. MORGAN, G. RODRIGUEZ, J. SHLACHTER,
and 0. TASKER

INSTABILITY GROWTH OF MAGNETICALLY IMPLODED
CYLINDRICAL ALUMINUM AND HIGH-STRENGTH
ALUMINUM ALLOY LINERS
A. M. BUYKO, 0. M. BURENKOV, 5. F: GARANIN, YU. N. GORBACHN,
B. E. GRINEVICH, V. V. ZMUSHKO, G. G. IVANOVA, A. 1. KUZYAYN,

479

V. N. MOKHOV, I? N. NIZOVTSEV, A. A. PETRUKHIN, A. 1. PISHCHUROV,
V. P. SOLOVYEV, V. N. SOFRONOV, V. K. CHERNYSHEV, V. B. YAKUBOV.
B. G. ANDERSON, W. E. ANDERSON, W. L. ATCHISON, R. R. BARTSCH,
W. BROSTIE, J. COCHRANE, C. A. EKDAHL, R. FAEHL, 1. R. LINDEMUTH,
D. V. MORGAN, H. OONA, R. E. REINOVSKY, J. STOKES, L. C. TABAKA,
and 5. M. YOUNGER

STUDIES OF SOLID LINER INSTABILITY DURING
MAGNETIC IMPLOSION

482

W. ATCHISON, R. FAEHL, and R. RElNOVSKY

HYDRODYNAMIC LINER EXPERIMENTS USING THE
RANCHERO FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATOR SYSTEM

485

J. H. GOFORTH, W L. ATCHISON, C. M. FOWLER, D. H. HERRERA,
J. C. KING, E. A. LOPEZ, H. OONA, R. E. REINOVSKY,
J. L. STOKES, L. J. TABAKA, 0. G. JASKER, D. T: TORRES,
F; C. SENA, J. A. MCGUIRE, 1. R. LINDEMUTH, R. J. FAEHL,
R. K. KEINIGS, 0. F; GARCIA, and B. BROSTE

LINER STABILITY EXPERIMENTS AT PEGASUS: DIAGNOSTICS
AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

489

D. A. CLARK, D. V. MORGAN, and G. RODRIGUEZ

IMPLODING LINER MATERIAL STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS
AT HIGH-STRAIN AND HIGH-STRAIN RATE

493

R. BARTSCH, H. LEE, 0. HOLTKAMe 6. WRIGHT, J. STOKES,
D. MORGAN, W. ANDERSON, and W. BROSTE

Z AND &CURRENT GEOMETRY FEATURES OF METALLIC
TUBES COMPRESSION IN PULSED HIGH MAGNETIC
FIELDS TO STUDY CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS AT HIGH
STRAIN RATE

497

Y. A. ALEXEEV, M. N. KAZEEV, and J. PETIT

MAGNETIC IMPLOSION FOR NOVEL STRENGTH
MEASUREMENTS AT HIGH STRAIN RATES

501

H. LEE, D. L. PRESTON, R. R. BARTSCH, R. L. BOWERS,
D. HOLTKAMR and B. L. WRIGHT

AN EVALUATION OF THE LOS ALAMOS PRECISION AUTOMATED
TURNING SYSTEM (PATS) AS A PRODUCTION TOOL FOR
ATLAS LINERS

505

W. ANDERSON, R. DAY, D. HATCH, R. GORE, D. MACHEN,
J. BARJOS, M. SALAZAR, and I? HANNAH

FABRICATION PROCESS FOR MACHINED AND SHRINK-FITTED
IMPACTOR-TYPE LINERS FOR THE LOS ALAMOS
HEDP PROGRAM
B. RANDOLPH
FABRICATION OF HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS LOADS
M. A. SALAZAR, W. ANDERSON, E. ARMIJO, and F; GARCIA
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,

its Application to Science and Ultra-High
Pulsed-Power
igh Pulsed-Power
Technology Technology

508
512

CODES, ANALYSIS, SIMULATIONS
CAGEN: A MODERN, PC BASED COMPUTER MODELING TOOL
FOR EXPLOSIVE MCG GENERATORS AND ATACHED
LOADS
J. B. CHASE, D. CHATO, G. PETERSON, P. PINCOSY,

515

515

and G. F: KIUTTU

AN INTEGRATED SOFWARE PACKAGE FOR THE DESIGN OF
HIGH PERFORMANCE PULSED MAGNETS

521

J. VANACKEN, LI LIANG, L. TRAPPENIERS, K. ROSSEEL,
W. BOON, and F: HERLACH

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF OPERATION OF
MAGNETOCUMULATIVE GENERATORS WITH HIGH
ENERGY GAIN
A. 5. KRAVCHENKO and YU. V. VILKOV
A FIELD-THEORY APPROACH TO MODELING HELICAL FCGS

525
529

C. M. FORTGANG

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION
IN HELICAL-CONE MAGNETOEXPLOSIVE GENERATORS
YU. N. DERYUGIN, I? V. KOROLN, V. 1. KARGIN, A. 5. PIKAR,

536

N. F: POPKOV, and E. A. RYASLOV

SEMI-EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR THE RESISTANCE OF SPIRAL
MAGNETOCUMULATIVE GENERATORS

540

L. ALTGILBERS, 1. MERRITT, M. BROWN, and I? TRACY

VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION OVER EMG HELIX WIRES

546

V. R. CHERNYSHN, E. 1. ZHARINOV, V. N. BUZIN, B. E. GRINEVICH,
K. N. KLIMUSHKIN, 1. D. KUDELKIN, A. A. BAZANOV,
0. V. SOKOLOVA, M. M. GUBIN, 5. V. PAK, and A. N. SKOBELEV

CALCULATION OF THE AUTONOMOUS MC-GENERATOR
WITH A PERMANENT MAGNET
V. E. GURIN, V. 1. KARGIN, A. 5. PIKAR, N. F: POPKOV,

550

and E. A. RYASLOV

2-D HYDRODYNAMIC FLOWS CALCULATION AT ISENTROPIC
SUBSTANCE COMPRESSION WITH ULTRA-HIGH
MAGNETIC FIELD PRESSURE

553

V. V. ASENA, G. V. BORISKOV, a n d A . 1. PANOV

EXPLOSIVE AXIAL MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION
GENERATOR ARMATURE MATERIAL STRENGTH
AND COMPRESSION EFFECTS

557

E. L. RUDEN, G. E KIUTTU, R. E. PETERKIN, JR, and J. B. CHASE

ON FEASIBILITY OF RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY
MAGNETIC STABILIZATION OF LINER IMPLOSIONS
5. F: GARANIN, 5. D. KUZNETSOV, V. N. MOKHOV, L. V. YAKUBOVA,

563

V. B. YAKUBOV, and C. EKDAHL

2-D INSTABILITY SIMULATION OF MAGNETICALLY DRIVEN
CYLINDRICAL ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM
ALLOY LINERS
A. M. BUYKO, 5. E GARANIN, V. V. ZMUSHKO, V. N. MOKHOV,

567

I? N. N I Z O V S N , V. F? SOLOVYN, and V. B. YAKUBOV

EXPLORING WAYS TO IMPROVE Z-PINCH CALCULATIONS

571

W. MATUSKA, J. AUBREY, R. BOWERS, H. LEE, 0. PETERSON,
C. DEENEY, M. DERZON, and T. NASH

THE APPLICATION OF 2-D SIMULATIONS TO Z-PINCH
EXPERIMENT DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
D. L. PETERSON, R. L. BOWERS, W. MATUSKA, G. A. CHANDLER,
C. DEENEY, M. 5. DERZON, M. K. MATZEN, R. C. MOCK,
T. J. NASH, T. W. L. SANFORD, R. B. SPIELMAN, and K. W. STRUVE
Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATEDTOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

576

PLASMADYNAMIC SWITCHING AT MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC
FIELD LEVELS
F! J. TURCHI
MACH2 SIMULATIONS OF THE DECADE PLASMA OPENING
SWITCH USING A TEFLON PLASMA

580
589

D. KEEFER and R. RHODES

SHOCK-WAVE DRIVEN FLUX COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE

593

E. 1. BICHENKOV

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE DETONATION PRODUCTS
F! 1. ZUBKOV
ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL VARIATION AND TIME DEPENDENCE
OF THE CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN A SINGLE-TURN
COIL FOR MEGAGAUSS FIELDS

599

604

H.-U. MUELLER, 0. PORJUGALL, and M. VON ORJENBERG

SWITCHES AND OTHER

609

CURRENT PULSE SHARPENING BY FERROMAGNETIC
OPENING SWITCH
G. A. SHNEERSON, 1. F! EFIMOV, 5. 1. KRIVOSHEEV,

609

and YU. N. BOTCHAROV

OPENING MECHANISMS IN AN EXPLOSIVELY FORMED
FUSE OPENING SWITCH
D. KEEFER, M. H. FRESE, L. D. MERKLE, R. E. PETERKlN, JR., N.

614
F; RODERICK,

and K. F: STEPHENS I1

HIGH VOLTAGE APPLICATIONS OF EXPLOSIVELY
FORMED FUSES
D. G. TASKER, J. H. GOFORTH, C. M. FOWLER, D. H. HERRERA,
J. C. KING, E. A. LOPEZ, E. C. MARTINEZ, H. OONA, 5. P MARSH,

61 9

R. E. REINOVSKY, J. STOKES, L. J. TABAKA, D. T: TORRES,
F: C. SENA, G. KIUTTU, and J. DEGNAN

HIGH EFFICIENCY CLOSING SWITCHES FOR MEGAMP
PULSED CURRENTS

625

P SENIOR and 1. SMlTH

FIRST RESULTS OF MULTI-RADIOGRAPHY IN THE
EXPERIMENTS WITH MC-1 GENERATOR

629

G. V. BORISKOV, A. 1. BYKOV, M. 1. DOLOJENKO, N. 1. YEGOROV,
N. I? KOLOKOL'CHIKOV, YU. F! KUROPATKIN, N. B. LUKYANOV,
I! D. MIRONENKO, V. N. PAVLOV, and V. 1. TIMAREVA

EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATION FOR ELECTRODYNAMIC
COMPRESSION
B. E. FRIDMAN, N. N. KUSTOV, A. G. LEX, and PH. G. RUJBERG
GENERATION OF HIGH-POWER SHOCK WAVES ON
PIRIT-2 FACILITY
M. V. ZHERNOKLETOV, V. 1. KARGIN, D. V. KOJELNIKOV,

633
637

A. V. MELKOZEROV, A. L. MIKHAILOV, A. Y: NAGOVITSIN,
N. F: POPKOV, and E. A. RYASLOV

STEEL AND GRAPHITE HEATING BY MEGAAMPERE
CURRENT PULSES

641

B. E. FRIDMAN, A. G. LEX, 1. F? MAKAREVICH, PH. G. RUTBERG,
a n d A . D. RAKHEL

A HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE TRANSFORMER FOR EXPLOSIVE
PULSED-POWER DEVICES
C. FORJGANG, A. ERICKSON, and J. GOETEE

Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
i t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o S c i e n c e a n d U l tigh
ra-H
i g h P u l s e d -Technology
Power Technology
Pulsed-Power

648

1 MV, 20 NS PULSE GENERATOR FOR HIGH-CURRENT MAGNETRON
V. 1. KARGIN, A. 5. PIKAR, N. E POPKOV, E. A. RYASLOV,

653

E. B. ABUBAKIROV, N. F: KOVALEV, and M . 1. FUCHS

HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD FACILITIES

Z: A FAST PULSED POWER GENERATOR FOR ULTRA-HIGH
MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION

657
657

R. B. SPIELMAN, W. A. S N G A R , K. W. STRUVE, J. R. ASAK
C. A. HALL, M . A. BERNARD, J. E. BAILEY and D. H. MCDANIEL

GENERATION OF MEGAGAUSS FIELDS BY ELCTROMAGNETIC
FLUX COMPRESSION AND THE SINGLE-TURN COIL
TECHNIQUE AT ISSP
N. MIURA, Y. H. MATSUDA, K. UCHIDA, and 5. TODO
THE ATLAS PULSED POWER SYSTEM; A DRIVER FOR
PRODUCING MULTI-MEGAGAUSS FIELDS

663
671

C. COCHRANE, JR, R. R. BARTSCH, G. A. BENNEU,
W. BOWMAN, H. A. DAVIS, C. A. EKDAHL, R. E GRIBBLE,
J. KIMERLL; K. E. NIELSEN, W. M. PARSONS, J. D. PAUL,
W. SCUDDER, R. J. TRAINOR, M. C. THOMPSON,
and R. G. WA77

J.
D.
H.
D.

MULTI-MODULE FLUX COMPRESSION ENERGY
SOURCE “SPRUT”
V. A. DEMIDOV, V. D. SELEMIR, 5. A. KAZAKOV, YU. V. VLASOV,
R. M . GARIPOV, a n d A. I? ROMANOV
CONVENTIONAL AND EXPLOSIVE PULSED POWER
DEVELOPMENT AT TEXAS AEtM UNIVERSITY

676

680

B. FREEMAN, T: FALESKI, 1. HAMILTON, J. ROCK, a n d T: PARISH

THE HUMBOLDT HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD CENTER:
MEGAGAUSS OPERATION AND RESULTS UP TO 300 TESLA

684

M. VON ORTENBERG, 0. PORTUGALL, N. PUHLMANN,
H.-U. MUELLER, 1. STOLPE, and A. KIRSJE

THE EUROPEAN 100 T PROTOTYPE PROJECT
I? R J. VAN ENGELEN a n d W. JOSS
HIGH FIELD LABORATORY DRESDEN

690
694

R. KRATZ

THE TOULOUSE 14 MJ CAPACITOR BANK PULSE GENERATOR
5. ASKENAZK L. BENDICHOU, G. COFFE, I? FERRE,
J. M . LAGARRIGUE, J. I? LAURENT, F: LECOUTURIER, J. MARQUEZ,
5. MARQUEZ, and D. RICART
GENERATION OF HIGH MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE
MEGAGAUSS RANGE AT THE OSAKA FACILITY

697

704

K. KIND0

THE NEW OXFORD HIGH FIELD FACILITY

710

H. JONES

AUTHOR INDEX

Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSSMAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATEDTOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

7 15

This page intentionally left blank

OVERVIEWS AND LECTURES
aDVANCED HIGH EXPLOSIVE PULSED POWER TECHNOLOGY AT VNIIEF
V. K. CHERNYSHEV
All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Russia
The primary purpose of this presentation is to present the possibilities of super high power
explosive magnetic energy sources and to demonstrate some of their applications where
their use would be most impressive and beneficial.

1

Introduction

High-power sources storing 10 to 100 MJ, and capable of generating pulsed currents from
50 to 100 MA in different loads, are required to solve a number of important problems of
modem science and technology. Large and costly stationary capacitor bank facilities have
been created for these purposes and are being designed and built abroad. There exist the
PEGASUS facility in LANL (5 MJ), Shiva star facility in the Phillips Laboratory (10 MJ),
ATLAS facility in LANL (36 MJ), JUPITER facility in Sandia (100 MJ), and others. The
energy carriers in these facilities are dielectrics in which energy storage is limited to about
100 JA.

VNIIEF chose a unique path of experimentation [l-71. In 1951, the academician A.
D. Sakharov proposed using an explosive to carry energy, creating energy storage five
orders of magnitude greater than previously available. To convert the chemical energy of
the explosive into electromagnetic energy, Sakharov proposed using magnetic cumulation,
an effect based on compression assisted by the explosion of a conducting contour with a
magnetic flux introduced fkom an outside source. The results were very fruitful.
In the process of implementing magnetic cumulation, the MC-2 system design
proposed by Dr. Sakharov was considerably improved, and the new generation of devices
called helical EMGs. Principally new types of explosive systems were created [8-251 based
on different operation principles. The research results follow:

1.
2.

3.

2

The "Potok" family of EMGs with record performance were created.
New systems of power amplification were created fast opening switches made
possible the generation of a current pulse with 70-100 MA amplitude, a 1 ps front
of increase and an output voltage of 500 kV.
Application of fast-operating superpower helical EMGs and opening switches, in
particular, allowed formation of an ionized and magnetized plasma in a volume
of 1000 cm3with a temperature of 0.2 to 1 keV and 2 ps lifetime. This plasma is
suitable for additional adiabatic compression and achievement of thermonuclear
ignition [26-281.

Quick-OperatingHelical EMGs

The design simplicity and compactness of helical EMGs, as well as their high power and
energy characteristics, attracted the attention of both development engineers and users.
After the first open publications of papers [ 1,2] dozens of international investigators
developed helical EMGs. However, not all were successful.
vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998

The helical EMG is a very complex 3-D system that seems initially simple. Such a
3-D problem has had neither solution nor expression, theoretically or computationally.
Success in its solution depends on the skills of the scientists and development engineers.
Under rapid compression of the circuit, when the active resistance may be neglected
and the magnetic flux may be considered to be constant, current and energy increase
proportionally to the circuit compression ratio K, = L,/ Lo .
LoIo = Qo = LrI = Const, If = I, = L f . K,. Ef = ( L f . 42)/2=@:/21,f = Eo .K,
Subscripts ‘0’ and ‘f‘ mark the initial and final values of inductance, current, and energy,
respectively.
It is difficult to conserve magnetic flux in the compression process. There are always
flux losses in real constructions (only some part of initial flux may be conserved, q=@,/@.,)
because of the geometrical imperfection of the compression contour, the ohmic resistance
of the conductor material and the high voltages leading to electrical breakdowns. The
current and energy increase less I, = q.Ic>.KL,
E, = qz.E ; KL;q, in its turn, largely depends
on K,, making it difficult to use this characteristic.
The best characteristic of coil operation during the process of magnetic cumulation
was proposed by J. Shearer in 1968 [29]. It is the perfection index (“Figure of merit”),
determined from the expression F(t) = - (i/I)(L/L).
The high-power helical EMGs developed in the Electrophysical Department at
VNIIEF are comparable in energy with the largest US capacitor bank facilities and have
been used successfully in Russia, the USA and France to solve a variety of scientific
problems.
3
Plasma Focus Powering By Helical EMG Raises Neutron Yield And Makes The
Entire System Transportable
The chamber using plasma focus was suggested and developed by N. V. Filippov and T. I.
Filippova in 1955 [30] and was later refined in many countries [31-401. A French article
published in 1971 noted that when an EMG with 0.7-1.0 MA current powered a plasma
focus chamber (filled with D-D mixture), a yield of 1.5x109neutrons/pulseat 2.5 MeV was
recorded [35]. Later, information surfaced that research on PF type discharges using the
EMG was done in the United States [34,37-391. This research occurred simultaneously at
VNIIEF.
In 1986, a Russian article was published announcing that a small EMG with an
opening switch at a discharge current of -400 kA produced a neutron yield of -3.10’O
rdpls [36]. In that experiment, the influence of the rate of current increase on plasma shell
dynamics and neutron pulse parameters was studied in the gas discharge chambers, which
were analogous to the Filippovs’ chambers. These chambers were filled with a 1:1 mixture
of deuterium and tritium within the pressure range of 5-20 tor.
The experiments showed that, in the plasma focus chambers, application of the
EMG resulted in a neutron yield 3-4 times higher than the use of a capacitor source at
approximately the same discharge current. This occurred because the current rise rate was
increased by 2.5-3 times in the EMG compared to an ordinary energy source.
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
i t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o S c i e n c e a n d U l t r aigh
- H iPulsed-Power
g h P u l s e d - P oTechnology
wer Technology

For the EMG experiment providing a 1 MA current with 0.5 ps duration of the
increase front, in the chamber filled with D-T mixture up to 15 torr pressure, the neutron
yield was -1.0*1O1*dpls. We can conclude that using explosive magnetic energy sources
produces a factor of 3-4 times higher neutron yield in comparison with capacitive energy
sources, while preserving the same current pulse amplitude in the chamber, and rendering
the entire system transportable.
4

Study of Instability Growth in High-speed Implosion

When the liner is accelerated by a magnetic field [41-481, various phenomena may occur
between the liner and the electrode walls. There can occur some advance or lag of the
liner boundaries in a pre-wall region of the electrodes, melting or vaporization of the liner
material, or a local distortion of the liner shape.
In [44,45], the aluminum liner interactions with the electrode walls are described
and the choice made by which the liner and electrodes are attached to provide a
continuous contact. To make the experiments more informative, a system consisting of
two independent liners was used at strictly the same discharge current. To define the liner
shape, a radiographic image of the walls-electrodes interaction was made.
The helical EMG-100, used as the energy source, had an inner helix turn diameter of
100 mm, length of 700 mm, effective current rise time of 15-17 ps, and it could provide
currents of up to 5.8 MA io the liner system (LS). X-rays having pulse duration of -50-70
ns and charging voltage -700 kV recorded the liner motions.
A series of explosive experiments was performed and the results are described in
detail in [44,45].
5

Helical EMG as Energy Preamplifier for High-Power Disk EMG

A schematic of a disk explosive magnetic generator (2) powered by a helical generator (1)
is shown in Fig. 1.

Figure 1. 1. Helical explosive magnetic generator (HEMG), 2. Disk explosive magnetic
generator (DEMG), 3. Load
To power a large, multielement disk generator of 1 m in diameter, a helical generator
of 240 mm was developed. [49,50]. When powering a 3-element generator, the following
parameters were obtained:
Initial inductance of the helical generator
115 pH
85 nH
Initial inductance of a 3-element disk generator
Initial current of the helical generator powering
28 kA
Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED
FL,USA,
USA, October
OCTOBER
18-23,1998
1998
RELATED TOPICS.
TOPICS TALLAHASSEE,
Tallahassee, FL,
18-23,

Final current at the exit of the helical generator
Initial energy in a 3-element disk generator of 0 1 m
6

13.7 MA
8MJ

Magnetized Plasma Preliminary Heating in MAGO Chamber

A device designed to power the plasma chamber is presented in Fig. 2. The helical explosive
magnetic generator, II, provides preliminary powering of chamber I using magnetic flux.
Upon completion of preliminary powering, a source of rapid powering, III, consisting of
the helical explosive magnetic generator, A, and a fast opening switch, B, switches on. Gas
discharge takes place in section 1 of the chamber resulting in "sticking" in the magnetic
field plasma. Under the effects of the magnetic field, the formed plasma flows out of the
first section to the second through nozzle 3. The plasma flow becomes supersonic at the
nozzle exit due to the rapid increase in magnetic field. A high-temperature region is formed
in the second section, in which deceleration and heating of plasma take place [27].

Figure 2. The schematic of MAGO chamber powered by two HEMGs.
Table 1 presents the results of chamber testing in which a 200 mm diameter helical
generator with a fast opening switch served as a quick-operating source. A 160 mm
diameter helical generator was used as a preliminary powering source.
Table 1

7

No.

IpnL,

1
2
3

MA
4
3
1.01

I,
MA
9.5
10.5
8

ij
A/s

sTTo"2
3.9-10'
4.0-1012

EEMG.
MJ
6.9
10
6.8

N
neutrons
1.4-10' J
2.0-1013
4.0-1013

Quick-Operating Superpower Disk EMG

High-power, quick-operating sources of energy, able to provide current pulses of tens of
megaamperes in the outer load for tens of microseconds (rate of rise is 1012 A/s and higher)
are increasingly used in many world laboratories to solve both scientific and engineering
problems.
Increasingly, in large facilities, the energy delivered to the load during a single
experiment is higher and the cost of the parts destroyed in the shot (not only the load, but
the facility parts around it, as well) becomes much higher. The protective measures to be
taken must be great if the energy delivered to the load is, for example, 100 MJ (equivalent
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

_____________

~

~

~

to 25 kg of trinitrototluene (TNT)). VNIIEF presently possesses much experience in the
development and application of EMGs [ 1,2,22-241.
There are advantages in using single-action EMGs at certain energies. Also, there are
no stationary systems (e.g. for energy 200 MJ at currents of more than 200 MA) that could
provide the output characteristics of EMGs. It is expedient to use helical EMGs for energy
levels up to 50 MJ and currents up to 50 MA, while disk EMGs [22-251become preferable
for energy levels of 20-30 MJ at currents greater than 30 MA (up to 100 MJ at currents up
to 300 MA, see Fig. 3, Table 2). Transition from helical to disk EMGs allows the speed of
the current rise in the load to increase by an order of magnitude (up to l O I 3 A/s and higher)
without using fast opening switches, although their use is very important in some cases.
Among the three types of disk EMGs, the one with disk modules of 400 mm diameter
are most widely used. This is due to its modest dimensions, high specific characteristics
and comparatively low cost. Several dozens of experiments have been performed with this
EMG using between 5 to 25 disks. This EMG was used in the first joint VNIIEFiLANL
experiment successfully performed at Sarov in 1993. A l m diameter disk EMG has also
been repeatedly and successfully tested.

Disks

Explosives

Insulator
I

Load
-

Detonators

Figure 3. High-power quick-operating “POTOK’ family disk generator.

Table 2. Characteristics of

8

Implosion of 1.5 Kg Condensed Liner with 100 MA Current Pulse

One might hope for the creation of a stationary superpower facility in 10 or 20 years capable
of accelerating I kg solid liners carrying a 100 MA current pulse, by transmitting 20 MJ
or more energy to the liners. However, the technology of quick-operating superpower
‘4111th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND
Tallahassee, FL,
18-23,
AND RELATED TOPICS
TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE,
FL,USA,
USA,October
OCTOBER
18-23,1998
1998

“POTOK” family helical and disk EMGs, developed at the Electrophysical Department of
VNIIEF, accomplished this 10 years ago. The experiments were performed in 1988 [19].

To demonstrate this technology potental, a joint VNIIEFILANL experiment at Sarov,
aimed at liner acceleration, was planned two years ago. The initial mass of the accelerated
part would be more than 1600 grams, the current pulse no less that 100 MA [20]. Fig. 4
shows the schematic of the device. The current pulse shape from that experiment is shown
in Fig. 5.
?20 [---

1

I00

“d 80
60
t40

9
20
V

0
100

Figure 4. Experimental device schematic.

150

200
250
TIME (psec)

300

Figure 5. Current through the liner pulse
shape.

Solid, high-velocity liners can be applied to:
1. Generate superhigh pressures of tens of megabars
2. Generate superhigh magnetic fields of 50 MG and more
3 . Magnetize plasma compression until thermonuclear ignition is achieved
Magnetic compression of the preliminary heated magnetized plasma is the shortest and the
most economical way to achieve ignition
9

MAGO Position

Two principle ways to achieve thermonuclear ignition have already become classical:
magnetic confinement and inertial confinement.
The drawbacks of magnetic confinement are the “cyclopean” dimensions of the
facility, high cost and long construction time. The drawbacks of inertial fusion are a very
high ratio of the target compression, difficulty in achieving the required compression
symmetry and high cost. The drawbacks of magnetic compression (MAGO) are its novelty
and singularity.
The advantages of MAGO are:
1. Pre-heating and magnetizing the plasma considerably simplify the gas
compression ratio requirements (compared to ICF, the requirements are 10 times
lower) and ensure necessary symmetry (the requirements become 100 times
lower).
2. Bulky and high-cost facilities are unnecessary. Ignition becomes possible with
the help of the existing superpowered EMGs.
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,

its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

3.

The cost can be reduced significantly and the ignition occurs much faster.

10 Principle Tenets of MAGO
Superhigh magnetic fields formed by explosive magnetic generators are used to:
Pre-heat (up to several hundred electron-volts) DT-gas (plasma)
provide the required thermal insulation of the fuel
confine the charged reaction products within the chamber volume.
Subsequent adiabatic compression of the volume occurs with a pre-heated DT-gas by
the chamber wall, set in motion by a quick-increasing magnetic field from a superpower
EMG having 100-500 MJ of energy storage.
The proposed solution of a controlled thermonuclear fusion problem based on
thermonuclear target compression by magnetic field, i.e MAGO in Russian, was first
presented in 1976 in a very detailed report by Yu. B. Khariton, V. N. Mokhov, V. K.
Chernyshev and others at one of the sessions of the USSR Academy of Sciences [181. A
short version was published in 1979 in the Reports of the Academy of Sciences (DAN)

WI.
The MAGO chamber schematic is presented in Fig. 6.

Figure 6. MAGO Chamber Schematic

vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998

Table 3 describes the parameters of the required energy sources and the sequence and
conditions of operations.
Fable 3

VNIIEF specialists succeeded in photographing a hot zone in self-neutrons (Fig. 7)
with a pinhole camera. They have also achieved good repeatability of the results. The
following plasma parameters were obtained:
Current, generating magnetic field in the chamber
Main current pulse with the amplitude of
Main current risetime
Number of thermonuclear reactions
Neutron radiation duration
Electron temperature

2 MA
7 MA
1.5-2.0 V S
5 10'3
2 CLS
0.2-0.5 keV
Fig. 7 Camera image.

Conclusion
New types of powerful, fast operating explosive magnetic generators for different
thermonuclear and physical applications were invented and then widely successfully used
in a large number of experiments. They allowed handling of multi-megampere (up to
several hundreds of MA) current sources and made it possible to study many interesting
physical phenomena in such fields as high energy density, plasma physics and liner
implosions, among others.

References
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Sakharov, A. D., Ludayev, R. Z., Smimov, E. N., et al., Mugnitnuyu kumulafsiu. DAN USSR
196 NO. 1 (1965) pp. 65-68.
Sakharov, A. D. Vzryvomagnitnie generatory U.RN.88 No. 4 (1966) p. 725.
Sakharov, A. D. Vospominaniya,1 (Prava cheloveka, Moscow, 1996).
Terletskii, Ya. P., Poluchenie sverkhsilnykh magnitnykh polei putem bystrogo szhatiya
provodiashchikh obolochek. In ZhETF, 32 No.2 (I 957).
Fowler, C. H., Gam, W. B., Caird, R. S., Production of very high magnetic fields by implosion.
J. Appl. P h y ~31
. NO.3 (1960) pp. 588-592.

Megapuss Magnetic Field Generation,
its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.
18.
19.

20.

21.

22.

Shearer, J. W., Abraham, F. F., Alpin, C. M. et al., Explosive- Driven Magnetic- Field
Compression Generators. J. Appl. Phys. 39 No. 4 (1968) pp. 2102-2116.
Knoepfel, H., Sverkhsilnie magnitnie polya. Moscow, Mir (1972) p. 221.
Chernyshev, V. K., Zhariniov, E. I., Kazakov, S. A,, et al., Magnetic Flux Cutoffs in Helical
Explosive Magnetic Generators. In Proceedings of the fourth International Conference on
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, pp. 455-469.
Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields. Physics. Techniques. Applications. Proceedings of the Third
International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics.
Novosibirsk, June 13-17, 1983, Ed. by V. M. Titov, G. A. Shvetsov (Moscow, Nauka, 1984).
Demidov, V. A,, Zharinov, E. I, Kazakov, S. A,, Chernyshev, V. K., Visokoinduktivnie
vzryvomagnitnie generatory s bol'shim koeffitsientom usileniya energii. PMTF, No. 6, (1981)
pp.106-111.
Chernyshev, V. K., Zhariniov, E. I., Kazakov, S. A,, et al., I.,Magnetic Flux Cutoffs in Helical
Explosive Magnetic Generators. In Proceedings of the fourth International Conference on
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, pp. 455-469.
Megagauss Physics and Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, Washington, D.C., May 30-June 1,
1979, Ed. by P. J. Turchi (Plenum Press, New York and London).
Megagauss Technology and Pulsed Power Applications. Proceedings of the Fourth
International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, Santa
Fe, July 14-17, 1986, ed. by C. M. Fowler, R. S. Caird, D. J. Erickson (Plenum Press, New York
and London).
Megagauss Fields and Pulsed Power Systems. Proceedings ofthe F f t h International Conference
on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, Novosibirsk, July 3-7, 1989, ed.
by V. M. Titov and G. A. Shvetsov (Nova Science Publishers).
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Pulsed Power applications. Proceedings of the
6IhInternational Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Pulsed Power
Applications, New York. Ed. by M. Cowan and R. B. Spielman (Nova Science Publishers).
Digest of Technical Papers of the Ninth IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference.
Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 21-23,1993, ed. by K. R. Prestwich and W. L. Baker (Institute
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).
Digest of Technical Papers of the Tenth IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference.
Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1995, ed. by W. Baker and G. Cooperstein.
Khariton, Yu. B., Mokhov, V. N., Chernyshev, V. K., Yakubov, V. B., 0 rabote termoyadernykh
mishenei s magnitnym obzhatiem. URN., 120 (1976) p. 706.
Chernyshev, V. K., Mokhov, V. N., Protasov, M. S., et al., Investigation of Liner Ponderomotor
Units, Used as Drivers on Magnetic Implosion System. In: Proc. VZIIZEEE International Pulsed
Power Conference. San Diego, 1991, ed. by R. While and K. Prestiwich (Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineering, New York, 1991) pp. 438-456.
Reinovsky, R. E., Anderson, B. G., Clark, D. A,, et al., HEL-1: a DEMG Based Demonstration
of Solid Liner Implosion at 100 MA., I l l h IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference,
Baltimore, Maryland, 1997.
Chernyshev, V. K., Protasov, M. S., Shevtsov, V. A., Penye diskovye vzrivomagnitnye
generatory. Protasov, M. S.,Arkhipov, B. V., Petrukhin,A. A., Prokopov, V. A., Chernyshev, V.K.,
Shvetsov, V. A., Bystrokhodnyi diskovyi vzryvomagnitnyi generator. Sverkhsylnye magnitnye
polya., Fizika. Tekhnika. Primenenie. Trudy 3 Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii. Moscow, Nauka
(1983) p. 23,26.
Chernyshev V. K., Mohov, V. N., On the progress in the creation ofpowerful explosive magnetic
energy Sources for thermonuclear target implosion. Proceedings of 8IhPulsed Power Conz, San
Diego (1991) p. 395.

vIIthINTERNATIONAL
CONFERENCE
ONON
MEGAGAUSS
MAGNETIC
GENERATION
Vlllth
INTERNATIONAL
CONFERENCE
MEGAGAUSS
MAGNETICFIELD
FIELD
GENERATION
TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE,
FL,USA,
USA,October
OCTOBER
18-23,1998
1998
AND RELATED TOPICS
Tallahassee, FL,
18-23,

23.
24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.
30.
3 1.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

37.
38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

Chemyshev, V. K., Protasov, M. S., Shvetsov, V. A,, et al., Explosive magnetic generators of
"Potok" family. Proceedings of 8IhPulsedPower Conz, San Diego (1991) p. 419.
Chernyshev, V. K., Grinevich, B. E., Vakhrushev, V.V., Mamyshev, V. I., Scaling Image of
90 MJ Explosive Magnetic Generators. In Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, p. 347.
Chemyshev, V. K., Demidov, V. A,, Kazakov, S. A., et al., Multielement Disk EMG powering,
Using High-Inductive Helical Generators. In: Megagauss Magnetic Generation and Pulsed
Power Applications, Ed. by M. Cowan and R. B. Spielman. (Part I., Nova Science Publishers,
Inc., N.Y., 1994) pp. 519-524.
Mokhov, V. N., Chemyshev, V. K., Yakubov, V. B., et al., 0 vozmozhnosti resheniya problemy
upravlyaemogo termoyademogo sinteza na osnove magnitogazodynamicheskoi kumulatsii
energii. DAN USSR, 247 No. 1, (1979).
Buyko, A. M., Volkov, G. I., Garanin, S. F. el al., Issledovanie vozmozhnosti polucheniya
termoyademoi zamagnichennoi plasmy v sisteme s magnitnym obzhatiem - MAGO. 3
Zababakhinskie nauchnye chteniya, January 1992 , Kyshtym, Russia.
A.Buyko,, G.Volkov,, S.Garanin,, et al., Investigation of Possibility of Thermonuclear
Magnetized Plasma in the System with Magnetic Implosion-MAGO. Proceedings of the 9'h
International Pulsed P ower Conference, Albuquerque (1993).
Shearer, J. W., Abraham, F. F., Alpin, C. M., el al., Explosive-Driven Magnetic Field Compression
Generators. Journal OfAppliedPhysics, 39 No. 4 (1968) pp. 2102-2116.
Filippov, N. V., Obzor eksperimental'nykh rabot vypolnennykh v IAE im. Kurchatova I.V., PO
issledovaniyu plasmennogo focusa. Fizikaplasmy, 9 No. 1 (1983) pp. 25-44.
Ware, K. D., Williams, A. H., Clark, R. W., Operation of a 720 kJ, 60 kV, Dense Plasma Focus.
Bull. Amer. Phys. SOC.,18 No. 10 (1973) p. 1363.
Haines, M. G., Dense Plasma in Z-pinches and the Plasma Focus. Phil. Trans. Roy. SOC.Lond.
A300 (1981) pp. 649-663.
Gribkov, V. A,, Filippov, N. V., Istoriya razvitiya i poslednie dostizheniya v issledovaniyakh PO
plsmennomu focusu. Preprint FIANNo. 94, Moscow (1979) p. 49.
Getes, D. C., Demeter, L. I., Production of 14 MeV Neutrons with a 500 kJ Coaxial Plasma Gun.
Bull. Amer. Phys. SOC.15 No. 11 (1970) p. 1464.
Bernard, J., Boussinesq, J., Morin, J. et al., An Explosive Generator - powered plasma focus,
Phys. Lett. 35 A No.4 (1971) pp. 288-289.
Chemyshev, V. K., Tsukerman, V. A., Gerasimov, V M., et al., Vliyanie zameny kondensatomogo
istochnika energii induktivnym na parametry plasmennogo focusa. ZhTF 56 No. 5 (1986).
Freeman, B. L., Caird, R. S., Erickson, D. J. et al., Plasma Focus Experiments Powered by
Explosive Generators. LA-UR-83.1083.
Caird, R. S., Erickson, D. J., Freeman, B. L. et al., Neutron Yields from an Explosive Generator
Powered Plasma Focus. IEEE Int. Con$ on Plasma Science, (Madison, 1980. Conf. Rec.) pp.
40-41.
Freeman, B. L., Caird, R. S., Erickson, D. J. et al., Plasma Focus Experiments Powered by
Explosive Generators. Third Int. Con$ on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related
Topics. BookofAbsfracts. Novosibirsk, (1983) p. 17.
Azarkh, Z. M., Makeyev, N. G., Tsukerman, V. A. et al., Primenenie kamer s plasmennym
focusom dlya rentgenostruktumykh issledovanii polikristallicheskykh obraztsov s
nanosecundnymy ekspozitsiyami. DAN USSR 232 No. 5 (1977) pp. 1049-1051.
Pavlovskii, A. I., Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields Cumulation. Megagauss Fields and Pulsed Power
Systems. MG- V, ed. by V. M. Titov and G.A. Shvetsov (Nova Science Publishers, New York) pp.
1-13.
Degnan, J. H., Baker, W. L., Beason, J. D., et al., Multi-Megajoule Shaped Solid Liner
Implosions. Ibid, pp. 623-630.

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its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

43. Degnan, J. H., Alme, M. L., Baker, W. L., Buff, J. S. et al., Megagauss Technology and Pulsed
PowerApplications. MG-iV, ed. by C. M. Fowler, R. S. Caird and D. J. Erickson. (Plenum Press.
New York and London, 1987) pp. 699-706.
44. Chernyshev, V. K., Zharinov, Ye. I., Kudelkin, I. D., et al., Cylindrical Liner: Implosion
Dynamics Under EMG Magnetic Pressure. Book of abstracts. MG-Vi, Albuquerque, New
Mexico (1992) p. 92.
45. Chernyshev, V. K., Zharinov, Ye. I., Mokhov, V. N., et al., Study of Imploding Liner-Electrode
Wall Interaction. BEAMS ’96. Proceedings 1, I”‘ International Conference of High Power
PurticleBeams (Prague. Czech Republic June 10-11, 1996) p. 558.
46. Bujko, A. M., Garanin, S. F., Demidov, V. A,, et al., Investigation of the Dynamic of a Cylindrical
Exploding Liner Accelerated by a Magnetic Field in the Megagauss Range. Megagauss Fields
and Pulsed Power Systems, Ed. by V. M. Titov and G. A. Shvetsov. MG-V, (Nova Science
Publishers) p, 743.
47. Megagauss and Megaainpere Pulse Technology and Applications. Ed. by V. K. Chemyshev,
V. D. Selemir, L. N. Plyashkevich. Proceedings of 7IhInternational Conference on Megagauss
Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, (Sarov, VNIIEF, 1997).
48. Chemyshev, V. K., Zharinov, E. I., Grinevich, B. E., et al., Uskorenie ploskikh metallicheskikh
i dielektricheskikh lainerov magnitnym polem. Zababakhinskie nauchnye chteniya, 14-17
January 1992 (tezisy dokladov), Kyshtym, Dal’nya Dacha.
49. Chernyshev, V. K., Volkov, G. I., Ivanov, et al., Explosive Magnetic Source, Storing 30 MJ of
Energy to Power Gaseous Ponderomotor Unit. In Proceedings of the 6Ihinternational Conference
on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Pulsed Power Applications, p. 551.
50. Chernyshev, V. K., Grinevich, B. E., Vakhrushev, V. V., Mamyshev, V. I., Scaling Image of 90
MJ Explosive Magnetic Generators. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, p. 347.

Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED
RELATEDTOPICS
TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE,
FL,USA,
USA,October
OCTOBER
18-23,1998
1998
Tallahassee, FL,
18-23,
AND

THE DIRAC EXPERIMENTS - RESULTS AND CHALLENGES
R. G. CLARK, J. L. O’BRIEN, A. S. DZURAK, B. E. KANE,
N. E. LUMPKIN, D. J. REILLEY, R. P. STARRETT
National Pulsed Magnet Laboratory and Semiconductor Nanofabrication Facility,
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
D. G. RICKEL, J. D. GOETTEE, L. J. CAMPBELL, C. M. FOWLER,
C. MIELKE, N. HARRISON, W. D. ZERWEKH, D. CLARK, B. D. BARTRAM, J.
C. KING, D. PARKIN
Los Alamos National Laborato y, New Mexico, USA

H. NAKAGAWA, N. MIURA
Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Japan
The 1997 international Dirac I1 Series held at Los Alamos National Laboratory involved
low temperature electrical transport and optical experiments in magnetic fields exceeding
800 T, produced by explosive flux compression using Russian MC-1 generators. An
overview of the scientific and technical advances achieved in this Series is given, together
with a strategy for future work in this challenging experimental environment. A significant
outcome was achieved in transport studies of microfabricated thin-film YBCO structures
with the magnetic field in the CuO plane. Using a GHz transmission line technique at an
ambient temperature of 1.6 K, an onset of dissipation was observed at 150 T (a new upper
bound for supcrconductivity in any matcrial), with a saturation of resistivity at 240 T.
Comparison with the Pauli limit expected at B = 155 T in this material suggests that the
critical field in this geomehy is limited by spin paramagnetism. In preparation for a Dirac
111 series, a systematic temperature-dependent transport study of YBCO using in-plane
magnetic fields of 150 T generated by single-turn coils, at temperatures over the range
10-100 K, has been undertaken in collaboration with the Japanese Megagauss Laboratory.
The objective is to map out the phase diagram for this geometry, which is expected to be
significantly different than the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg model due to the presence
of paramagnetic limiting. Nanofabricated magnetometers have also been developed in a
UNSW-LANL collaboration for use in Dirac 111 for Fermi surface measurements ofYBCO
in megagauss fields, which are described.

1 Introduction
The Dirac Series of experiments was instituted in 1996 at Los Alamos National Laboratory
so that a variety of experimental projects could access fields approaching 1000 T to study
new physical phenomena in condensed matter systems. The second Series was undertaken
in 1997 and a third Series is planned for 1999, with the overall program including groups
from six nations. Central to this has been a US-Russia collaboration in which Russiandeveloped MCl-class [ 11 flux-compression generators have been provided for the
experiments. The Series has included studies of magneto-optics in magnetic materials [2]
and semiconductors [3], quantum limit effects in organic metals [4] and chemical bond
strengths in organic materials [ 5 ] .

Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,

its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

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Figure 1. Configuration for implosive flux compression experiments at Los Alamos
National Laboratory, USA. The thick lines at top-left represent low-loss cables for the
GHz transport measurements.
One of the most ambitious experiments within the Dirac Series has been the attempt to
obtain reliable transport data on both semiconductor and high-? superconductor materials
by an Australia-Japan-USteam. The experiments required a number of innovations for the
elimination of Faraday pick-up [6]. Measurements during Dirac I [6,7] on semiconductor
heterostructures demonstrated the success of the technique, paving the way for a fruitful
and detailed investigation of the high-? superconductor, YBa,Cu,O,, (YBCO) during
Dirac 11. Here we discuss the measurements on YBCO in detail, which have provided the
first evidence of paramagnetic limiting in the high-T cuprates [8,9], as well as previewing
planned experiments for Dirac I11 in 1999.

2

Experimental Innovations for ps Transport Measurements

The conditions during an MC1 generator pulse are extreme, with the generator, cryostat and
samples all destroyed after the pulse. Fig. 1 shows the experimental arrangement for the
low temperature measurements. During the pulse, dB/dt can reach lo9T/s, creating voltage
up to1 kV in a conducting loop of area 1 mm2. Minimization of Faraday pick-up was
vIIthINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS. TALLAHASSEE, FL, USA, OCTOBER 18-23, 1998

~

therefore critical and specially designed [6] coplanar transmission lines (CTLs) patterned
on a printed circuit board (PCB) substrate were used to achieve this. Eddy current heating
of the CTL connections represented a potential problem, since Cu of thickness 9 ym can
heat above 10 K during the field pulse [6].Thermal isolation of the samples was achieved
by patterning thin (80 nm) Au CTLs directly onto the samples, bridging a 2 mm gap in the
thick CTLs on the PCB (see Fig. 2). To avoid the problem of erratic ohmic contacts at large
B, a layer of Si,N, dielectric was sandwiched between the YBCO and the metal CTLs [lo],
to achieve a capacitive coupling to the sample.

t
-

I
f
PCB

Figure 2. Flip-chip sample mounting. Thin Au transmission lines (80 nm) bridge gaps in
the thicker lines on the PCB. Six Au pads (300 nm) provided contacts and the chips were
held in place using a heat curable epoxy. Here a = 150 ym, b = 10 ym, t = 9 ym and w =
410 pm.
3 Transport Measurements of YBCO to 300 T
We first discuss results obtained during the Dirac-I1 Series in 1997, which suggest
that critical fields in YBCO for Blc-axis are determined by paramagnetic limiting.
The experimental configuration shown in Fig. 2 probes the in-plane resistivity pab of
YBCO through its modulation of the transmission S of GHz radiation. If the sample is
superconducting, the inner and outer conductors of the CTL triplet are shorted so that S
is zero, except for a small contribution from cross-talk, whereas a perfect insulator has no
effect on transmission. Although the sample impedance at 1 GHz is a complex quantity
the measurement provides no phase information, so for simplicity, we assume that the
impedance corresponds to a scalar resistivity p.
Figure 3 shows results for T = 1.6 K, i.e. TI? - 0.02, in an 850 T MC1 field pulse.
Only data to 320 T are plotted, since results above this field were obscured by noise,
discussed below.
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

0

100

2 00

300

Magnetic Fteld, B (7)
Figure 3. Measured normalised transmission S data
for YBCO with B l c obtained in an
MCl pulse with T = 1.6 K, v = 0.9 GHz and a power -1 mW at the sample. The bold line is
a fit to this S data. A small averaged noise background (fine line) has been subtracted from
the data. The upper curve is the calculated resistivity, assuming the transmission function
S(pOb)shown in the inset. The dip in Sat p - 5 ~ 1 0Bm
. ~ is well understood and results from
interference between ingoing and reflected signals on the CTLs. Taken from Ref. [8].
( 0 )

We observe the onset of a dissipative (p > 0) state at B0;* = (150 f 20) T
and define B e g b= (240 2 30) T as the field at which S, and therefore p. saturates, using
an asterix to indicate that the transition may result from paramagnetic limiting. The
uncertainties in B reflect the noise-limited accuracy with which we can define inflection
points in the S data, together with an estimate of timing accuracy.
To our knowledge Bonab- 150 T is the largest field in which a superconducting phase
has been observed. A broader superconductor-normal(S-N) transition than observed here,
spanning 75 T - 340 T, has been observed in previous measurements [ 11,121,possibly due
to the high frequency (94 GHz) used. We also note that the strongest saturation feature
present in this data [ 11,121 is near our critical field of 240 T.

Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

To determine the response in Fig. 3 accurately it was necessary to subtract from the raw
data a noise background (as shown). Below 300 T the noise is small and occurred in the
interval 150 T - 180 T [8], due to the fusion of metal wires comprising the second of the
three generator liners. Above 300 T wire fusion proceeded in the third liner with the noise
creating severe problems for transport measurements. To avoid this problem during Dirac
I11 in 1999, one or two of the inner liners will be removed from the MC-1 generators. Thus
configured, the generators are still capable of reaching 400 T, which exceeds the critical
field in these samples and offers the opportunity of observing any possible reentrant states
above B*c2ab.

Figure 4. GHz transport data on YBCO obtained in destructive single-turn coil pulses
to 150 T. (Top) Raw transmission S data at T = 60 K and 70 K. The inset shows the
experimental arrangement and the field profile B(t). Data is shown for times after the arrow
marked a in the inset. (Bottom) Magnetorcsponse S(B) at T = 80 K, 77 K, 70 K, 66 K,
65 K and 60 K, in order of increasing Born.The curves are fits to the data, with the raw data
at 80 K shown for comparison. Also shown are the definitions used for B, and the onset
field, Bo,,.
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

4

Single Turn Coil Measurements of YBCO to 150 T

For Dirac I1 and the coming Dirac I11 Series, complementary measurements have been
made at the Japanese Megagauss Laboratory using single-turn coil pulsed field systems [ 131
to collect systematic data sets and study dynamic effects through an examination of any
hysteresis present. For bore sizes -10 mm these systems produce -30 T non-destructively,
or -150 T in pulses which destroy the generator but leave the sample unperturbed. The rise
time is -3 p s (see inset to Fig. 4, Top), giving a peak dB/dt -lo8 T/s which, while around
an order of magnitude smaller than the MCl generators, provides indicative information
about dynamic effects.
Results obtained prior to Dirac I1 using non-destructive pulses to 30 T showed that
dynamic effects on a ps timescale are negligible in YBCO with B l c [8]. This conclusion
has been reinforced in recent measurements using destructive shots to 150 T [14]. Fig. 4
shows GHz transmission S data obtained at a variety of temperatures below T,. For these
measurements it was possible to tune the frequency so that S = 0 when the film was
superconducting. Transmission increased monotonically with p as B drove the sample into
the normal state. The raw data in Fig. 4 show a number of positive-going perturbations to
S corresponding to GHz noise, probably associated with RF emissions from the vaporizing
coil. The underlying sample response S(B) is clear, however, and has been fitted for a series
of temperatures in Fig. 4(BOttOm).
As the inset to Fig. 4(Top) shows, the coil generates a damped oscillating B that
produces a number of cycles before destruction. The raw data in Fig. 4(Top) show S over
this h l l period except for the first 2 ps, where large electrical noise obscures the data. Note
that there is no measurable hysteresis in S between B increasing and decreasing throughout
the resistive transition. This is significant, since it implies that the S-N transition is a
quasi-equilibrium process, even in p s pulses to 150 T. Dynamic effects associated with
flux motion or heating caused by the large dB/dt are clearly not as important as one might
suspect, providing confidence in interpretation of the data from Dirac flux-compression
measurements.
The critical fields B, and resistive onsets Boris as defined in Fig. 4(BOttOm) are plotted
for a detailed data set on a single YBCO sample to create a B-Tphase diagram (Fig. 5). B,
varies linearly with T u p to -100 T, with a slope close to the often quoted value dBJdT
= - 10.5 T/K obtained by Welp et al. [15] from magnetization measurements in magnetic
fields up to 6 T.
5

Discussion and Strategy for Dirac I11

It is clear from our data that the low-TS-Ntransition for YBCO is very different for the two
orientations B l c and B//c. The phase diagram for B//c (inset to Fig. 5a), from Ref. [ 161, is
in good agreement with the BCS model of Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg (WHH) which,
neglecting contributions from the Zeeman energy of the electron spins, gives B0,2(T= 0) =
0.70 T,(dBc~/dT)I~,
[17]. Inserting the slope a = -2.0 T/K gives Boc,(T= 0) = 120 T which

.

Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

T (I0
Figure 5 . (a) YBCO phase diagram for B l c determined from GHz measurements using
single-turn coils. The symbols marked
(A) represent B, (BonJ values as defined
in Fig. 4(b). The dashed line corresponds to dBJdT = - 10.5 T K , determined from
magnetisation measurements by Welp et al. [I 51. Inset: Phase diagram for Bllc determined
from transport measurements using single-turn coils [taken from Ref. 161. (b) Full YBCO
phase diagram for B l c . The symbols (A)represent B, (Bon3)values obtained from MC1 and single-turn coil data in Figs. 3 and 4. The solid line represents B, calculated for a
d superconductor while the dashed line depicts a first order transition from a BCS state
2-2
to a Fulde-Ferrell state [taken from Ref. 201. The dotted function is the WHH prediction
assuming no spin paramagnetism. The vertical lines show planned temperatures for MC-1
shots during Dirac 111.
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

is consistent with that observed experimentally. Using the same model for B l c , however,
predicts B',(T = 0) = 625 T which is almost a factor of three greater than the measured
value (see Fig. 5b). One explanation is that a misalignment of B could probe properties
in the a-b planes, which would reduce the observed Bc,. This effect can be dramatic for
highly anisotropic materials such as organic superconductors [ 181 but should be small for
YBCO that has much smaller anisotropy. A more probable explanation is that for B l c the
Zeeman energy associated with maintaining the singlet state exceeds the superconductor
energy gap well before Boc,is reached. The field B, at which this occurs is referred to as
the paramagnetic (or Clogston) limit which, from BCS theory, is given by B, = y? with y
= 1.84 T/K [19]. For our samples we have B,- 155 T, which is above B L for Bllc but well
below it for B l c . Our data may therefore represent the first observation of paramagnetic
limiting for a cuprate superconductor, providing additional experimental information
relevant to current models of high-? superconductivity.Recent interpretations in terms of
a d2-2 state have motivated a number of new models. The phase diagram predicted by one
model [20], which considers the coupling of B only to the spins of the electrons, is plotted
in Fig. 5(b). The agreement with our low-T data is remarkably good. In this model a first
order phase transition (dashed line) occurs for TI?< 0.5 between a zero momentum pairing
state at low B and a finite momentum, or Fulde-Ferrel (FF), state at higher B. We note that
our low-T Bon5coincides with this transition, although p would be expected to remain at
zero throughout the FF phase. Our data provide a usehl preliminary picture of the YBCO
phase diagram with strong paramagnetic effects and the primary aim for Dirac 111 is to
complete this diagram, with shots at several temperatures as shown in Fig. 5(b).
6

Development of de Haas-van Alphen Coils for Dirac I11

For the 1999 Dirac 111 series it is also planned to extend a previous measurement of the de
Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect and Fermi surface of YBCO in a 100 T flux compression
system [21] to higher magnetic fields. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to develop
sensitive, perfectly compensated dHvA coils using electron beam lithography, for use with
small samples, which can be connected to the coplanar transmission line geometry that
minimizes dB/dt pickup in the MC-1 generator environment.

Figure 6. dHvA coil
magnetometers used in pulsed
fields and fabricated at UNSW. a)
Optical micrograph showing full
device with bond wires attached.
The outermost coil is 450 pm on
a side. (b) SEM image showing
the individual windings of the
coil, fabricated by electron-beam
lithography.This coil has 250 nm
metal wires with 250 nm spacing.

Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATEDTOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

,

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, ,L

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j";,

As a first step in this direction, dHvA coils of this design have been fabricated for tests
in ms pulsed fields (see Fig. 6). The coil geometry and data taken for a LaB, single crystal
test sample in a 50 T pulse at 4 K are shown in Fig. 7. For the orientation of this crystal, the
three branches of the a frequency (al,az,aJ [22,23] are clearly observed at 4 K (together
with the second harmonic 2 a J on a small sample with a coil comprised of only 46 inner
and 16 outer windings of 0.5 pm width and 1.5 pm spacing, using a preamplifier gain of
only 5000.

5000

loow

15000

Frequency (T)

20~0

Figure7. Fourier transform of the dHvA
signal measured in LaB, at 4 K on the falling
magnetic field, analyzed over the range
30-50 T in a ms pulse. The single crystal
sample with linear dimensions -200 pm
was orientated with the [OOl] axis at an
angle of -15" to the pulsed field (towards
[loll). The inset shows the nanofabricated
dHvA coil geometry. Compensated coils with
both 0.5 pm and 0.25 pm wide gold lines
on a GaAs substrate have been developed,
comprised of46 (181) inner turns and 16 (60)
countenvound outer turns, respectively. The
coils are designed for connection to coplanar
transmission lines developed for the Dirac
Series transport measurements.

A number of technical difficulties remain to be solved for the more stringent
environment of the MC-1 shots, associated with details of the connection of the
magnetometer coil to the CTLs and screening of the CTLs for dHvA measurements. The
ms pulsed field test results are nevertheless encouraging and highlight the importance of
nanofabrication technology to advances in megagauss magnetic field measurements.

7 Conclusions
The Dirac Series has motivated significant innovations for electrical transport
measurements in megagauss magnetic fields, allowing a detailed study of the phase
diagram of YBa,Cu,O,-,. Our data suggests that with B directed along the CuO planes,
paramagnetic limiting determines the upper critical field, the first evidence of this effect
in an optimally doped high-T, material. Additional developments in nanofabricated
dHvA coils provide an opportunity to study the Fermi surface of this important cuprate
superconductorabove 100 T.

Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

~~

References
1. Pavlovskii, A.I., et al., in Megagauss Physics and Technology, Ed by P.J. Turchi, Plenum, New
York, (1980) p. 627.
2. O.M. Tatsenko, et al., Physica B 246-247, (1998) p. 315; and these proceedings.
3. Brooks, J. S., et al., Physica B 246-247, p. 50 (1998); and these proceedings.
4. Brooks, J. S., et al., Los Alamos Preprint Report LA-UR 96-3472; J. S. Brooks, J. S. et al., Proc.
Megagauss VIL Sarov - Russia, (1996).
5. Maverick, A. S., Butler, L. G., Int. J. Quant. Chem. 64, (1997) p. 607.
6 . Kane, B. E., et al., Rev. Sci. Instu. 68, (1997) p. 3843.
7. Kane, B.E., et al., Proc. Megagauss VIZ, Sarov - Russia, 1996.
8. Dzurak, A. S. et al., Phys. Rev. B 57, R14084 (1998).
9. Dzurak, A. S., et al., Physica B 246-247, (1998) p. 40.
10. For fabrication details see: Lumpkin, N. E., et al., Physica B 246-247, (1998) p. 395.
11. Goettee, J. D., et al., Physica C 235-240, (1994) p. 2090.
12. Bykov, A. I., et al., Physica B 211, (1995) p. 248.
13. Nakao, K., et al.,J. Phys. E 18, (1985) p. 1018.
14. O’Brien, J. L. et al., to be published.
15. Welp, U., et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, (1989) p. 1908.
16. Nakagawa, H., et al., Physica B 246-247, (1998) p. 429.
17. Werthamer, N. R., Helfand, E., Hohenberg, P. C. Phys. Rev. 147, (1966) p. 295.
18. Wanka, S., et al., Phys. Rev. B 53, (1996) p. 9301.
19. Clogston, A. M., Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, (1962) p. 266.
20. KunYang and Sondhi, S. L., cond-mat!9706148 2 (1998).
21. Fowler, C. M., et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, (1992) p. 534; and Comment by Springford, M., Meeson,
P., Probst, P-A,, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, (1992) p. 2453.
22. Ishizawa, Y., et al., J. Phys. SOC.Jap. 42, (1 997) p. 112.
23. Harrison, N., et al., Phys. Rev. Left. 80, (1998) p. 4498.

Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

EXPLOSIVE FLUX COMPRESSION: 50 YEARS OF LOS ALAMOS
ACTIVITIES
C. FOWLER, D. THOMSON, W. GARN
Los Alamos National Laboratov, Los Alamos, NM, USA
Los Alamos flux compression activities are surveyed, mainly through references in view
of space limitations. However, two plasma physics programs done with Sandia National
Laboratory are discussed in more detail.

1

Introduction

In this section, we briefly outline major Los Alamos (LANL) flux compression activities.
More detailed discussions are given of two programs done with Sandia National
Laboratories, (SNL) intermittently from 1966 to 1973. Use of flux compression generators
(FCGs) to power 8-pinches is discussed below. The “Birdseed” program, in which 150200 kJ of neon plasma was injected into the ionosphere, is discussed later in this paper,
together with plans for a more energetic system. The first open description of the Los
Alamos objectives was published in [l], which featured the use of high magnetic fields
made at Los Alamos to compress D-T plasmas to make large neutron bursts, for solid-state
investigations, and to accelerate matter. These are all topics that remain relevant today.
Later, unclassified Los Alamos activities were surveyed at the first Megagauss Conference
(1965), [2]. The next Megagauss Conference took place in 1979 [3]. Other activities
between these conferences included high field solid-state and isentropic compression
experiments. Component development included construction of megavolt transformers
and FCG improvements, as with the plate generator. FCG uses as power supplies for
railguns, the plasma focus, laser generation, e-beam machines and soft X-ray generators
are described in later Megagauss Conference Proceedings, as is the development of high
current opening switches.A collaborative flux compression program with Los Alamos and
Russian scientists from Arzamas- 16 began in 1993,and included Magnetized Target Fusion
and high field experiments [4], also reported at MG VII. Little of our solid-state work has
appeared in the Megagauss Proceedings. However, surveys appear in [5,6,7]. More recent
work has been done in the “Dirac” shot series where scientists from the USA and several
other countries have collaborated on high field experiments using Russian MC-1 high field
generators and Los Alamos strip generators. Various aspects of this program are treated at
this conference and at the preceding MG VII Conference.

2

Explosive-Driven @-Pinch Experiments

2.1 @-PinchLiner Implosion Experiments
Early experiments [2a,c, 81 at Los Alamos to apply explosively driven flux compression
(MG fields) to high temperature plasmas were exploratory, and involved creating a fast
theta pinch inside a thin, implodable cylindrical 8-coil. Parameters were chosen to achieve
MG fields with systems then available at Los Alamos, and used early 8-pinch data (Scylla
I, Scylla 111) [9,10]. Implosion of the plasmdmagnetic system was started using high T
high @ plasma confined by the axial magnetic field.
Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation,
its Application to Science and Ultra-High Pulsed-Power Technology

In these experiments, a good diagnostic neutron signal verified that the initial plasma
was in place as expected, and gave a measure of the plasma behavior vs time during the
explosive driven phase. Fundamental problems existed. Plasma confinement in the short
coil (-25 cm) @pinches available for the firing point was limited to 2-3 psec due to endloss, flute instabilities [8,10,11] and to field asymmetries [2c]. In 1966, a new &pinch
(Scyllacita) with a faster capacitor bank was used to create the initial plasma [8]. A new
side-fed coil implosion system eliminated field asymmetries. Since the basic plasma
confinement time limitation with the short 0-coil (-3 ps) remained, as did the quenching
effect of the imploding discharge tube, we did not pursue this approach beyond one
Scyllacita shot at the firing site. However, the goal of achieving fusion with MG fields in
imploding liners remains valid today. We suggest developing a technique, such as an FRC
[ 121, to inject an initial, high-beta plasma axially into a clean, resistive liner implosion
system at the proper time [2c] for explosive compression to 4 MG or greater. For good
confinement, the implosion system length should be increased to one half meter or more.
Parameter studies of FRC transport and injection characteristics at high densities (>lOI7/
cm’) would be needed to fully explore the feasibility of this approach, since only plasmas
of substantially lower densities have been so transported to date.

2.2 The Explosive Generator Powered @Pinch
In 1967, Los Alamos and Sandia Laboratories collaborated in a series of generator powered
0-pinch experiments using Sandia generators [ 13-16]. Two sizes of helical generators were
used: the Model 106 generator (5# of PBX 9404 explosive) and the larger Model 169 (17#
of PBX 9404 explosive). Exploding wire fuses were used to sharpen the pulses to drive
the &pinch coils. The 0-coils were switched in when the voltage across the fuses reached
preselected voltages. The initial plasma was created by first putting a few kG bias field Bz
in the coil, then passing a linear z-current through the deuterium to preionize it, and finally
applying the main drive field to heat and compress the plasma.
Nine shots were fired, five with the Model 106 generator and four with the Model 169.
Table 1 of [ 161 lists conditions for each shot. The pre-ionized plasma was created inside a 2
mm wall Pyrex or quartz discharge tube with a 40 kA linear current discharge (from a 7.5
pF, 15 kV bank), which was shorted out after a half-cycle to eliminate axial current before
switching in the generator.
Discharge tube conditioning for each shot involved warm-up 8-pinch shots with an
auxiliary capacitor bank [ 14-16]. The generator-powered 0-pinch shot was then fired,
complete with preionization, bias field and diagnostics, within 30-60 minutes of the last
warm-up shot. Results of the nine generator driven pinch shots are also given in Table I
[ 161. Time resolved neutron yields, measuring plasma behavior, have been reported [14171. The shot series demonstrated the importance of reverse bias field, tube conditioning,
preionization, and particularly the initial voltage, V,, applied to the preionized plasma.
Good diagnostic neutron yields were obtained on 7 of the 9 shots. Results for shots 8 and
9 are shown in Fig. 1, which gives the time history of the applied magnetic field (Bz) and
the resulting neutron yield rate for each shot. The highest neutron yield (1.4x108)occurred
when all drive parameters were optimized. The maximum neutron yield rate per unit coil
Vlllth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEGAGAUSS MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATION
AND RELATED TOPICS

Tallahassee, FL, USA, October 18-23, 1998

~

length was comparable to or better than those for laboratory theta pinches worldwide [181.
In 1968, the Frascati group conducted five generator-driven8-pinch shots with at least one
neutron yield (