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Great useful. I made a lot of progress.
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One of the excellent book to learn TASK 1 and TASK 2 writing.
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IELTS Academic Writing Task 1 The Ultimate Guide with Practice to Get a Target Band Score of 8.0+ In 10 Minutes a Day -- By Rachel Mitchell -- Text Copyright © by Rachel Mitchell All rights reserved. No part of this guide may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews. Legal & Disclaimer The information contained in this book and its contents is not designed to replace or take the place of any form of medical or professional advice; and is not meant to replace the need for independent medical, financial, legal or other professional advice or services, as may be required. The content and information in this book have been provided for educational and entertainment purposes only. The content and information contained in this book have been compiled from sources deemed reliable, and it is accurate to the best of the Author's knowledge, information, and belief. However, the Author cannot guarantee its accuracy and validity and cannot be held liable for any errors and/or omissions. Further, changes are periodically made to this book as and when needed. Where appropriate and/or necessary, you must consult a professional (including but not limited to your doctor, attorney, financial advisor or such other professional advisor) before using any of the suggested remedies, techniques, or information in this book. Upon using the contents and information contained in this book, you agree to hold harmless the Author from and against any damages, costs, and expenses, including any legal fees potentially resulting from the application of any of the information provided by this book. This disclaimer applies to any loss, damages or injury caused by the use and application, whether directly or indirectly, of any advice or information presented, whether for breach of contract, tort, negligence, personal injury, criminal intent, or under any other cause of action. You agree to accept all risks of using the info; rmation presented inside this book. You agree that by continuing to read this book, where appropriate and/or necessary, you shall consult a professional (including but not limited to your doctor, attorney, or financial advisor or such other advisor as needed) before using any of the suggested remedies, techniques, or information in this book. Table of Contents Introduction Ielts Writing Introduction Ielts Writing Task 1 Effective Sentence Structures To Get An 8.0+ Language Of Trends: Sentence Structure And Vocabulary Task 1 Writing Process To Maximize Score Structure: Task 1 Marking And Assessment Advice Useful Time Expressions Language Of Estimation Useful Language Useful Words For Paraphrasing A Summary Task 1 Writing Rules Most Common Mistakes Students Make In Task 1 Writing Future Tense (Language Of Estimation) Task 1 Writing Samples Line Chart Bar Chart Table Pie Chart Map Map Language Method For Writing Map Map Sample Process Man-Made Process Process Sample Natural Process Natural Process Language Natural Process Sample Conclusion Check Out Other Books INTRODUCTION Thank you and congratulate you for downloading the book “IELTS Academic Writing Task 1: The Ultimate Guide with Practice to Get a Target Band Score of 8.0+ In 10 Minutes a Day.” This book is well designed and written by an experienced native teacher from the USA who has been teaching IELTS for over 10 years. She really is the expert in training IELTS for students at each level. In this book, she will provide you all proven formulas, tips, strategies, explanations, structures, task 1 language, vocabulary and model essays to help you easily achieve an 8.0+ in the IELTS Writing section (Academic), even if your English is not excellent. This book will also walk you through step-by-step on how to develop your well-organised answers for the Task 1 Writing; clearly explains the different types of questions that are asked for Task 1; provide you step-by-step instructions on how to write each type of report excellently. As the author of this book, Rachel Mitchell believes that this book will be an indispensable reference and trusted guide for you who may want to maximize your band score in IELTS academic task 1 writing. Once you read this book, I guarantee you that you will have learned an extraordinarily wide range of useful, and practical IELTS WRITNG TASK 1 strategies and formulas that will help you become a successful IELTS taker as well as you will even become a successful English user in work and in life within a short period of time only. Take action today and start getting better scores tomorrow! Thank you again for purchasing this book, and I hope you enjoy it. IELTS WRITING INTRODUCTION The IELTS Academic Writing lasts for 60 minutes (an hour). In the 1 hour, you have to complete 2 tasks, task 1 is a report, and task 2 is an essay. It is suggested that you should spend about 20 minutes on task 1 and about 40 minutes on task 2. In the IELTS Academic Writing task 1, you are required to write at least 150 words (10 to 15 sentences) and 220 words maximum. On the other hand, in the IELTS Academic Writing task 2, you are required to write at least 250 words (20 to 25 sentences) and 300 words maximum. Writing task 1 accounts for 1/3 while writing task 2 accounts for 2/3 of your total writing score. In the IELTS Writing test, you need to use academic language. It’s not informal language (it’s not an email to your friend). We need to use academic language. IELTS WRITING TASK 1 What are they asking you to do in a report? They’re asking you to describe the main points of the diagram. When I say “describe”, I mean you will tell them what the diagram looks like? For example, I have a diagram that shows fast food consumption, I simply need to describe that fast food consumption has increased/ has grown/ has risen; I don’t need to say “fast food consumption has risen because fast food is delicious and affordable” No, you don’t need to explain, ok?. Explaining is what you are going to do essays in task 2 writing. Therefore, in task 1 writing, your job is to describe the main points of a diagram. What is a diagram? You might be asking. That’s a good question. These are all examples of diagrams. Diagrams are pictures that convey information, usually numbers. This is a type of a diagram called flow chart, and a flow chart shows us how to do something, a method to do something. Here, this is a type of a diagram called line chart or a line graph. It shows changes over time/ over a period of time. And here is a type of diagram called a table. You’re very familiar with tables. Every time you go to restaurants, every time you’re looking at a menu, you are looking at the table. Every time you go to the KFC, you’re looking at a table. Every time you go to the airport, and you see the arrival time, the departure time, you’re looking at a table. These are very common in our lives. Another type of a diagram is a pie chart. We use a pie chart to show a percentage out of 100. That’s why we use a pie chart. And right here is a column graph, or a bar graph. This one shows percentages but over a period of time. So, what we’re looking at in task 1 writing is all these types of diagrams including maps. These are all types of diagrams that you need to be familiar with so you can describe them in task 1 writing. All right, when it comes to task 1 writing, there are a few rules you need to pay your attention to. First of all, task 1 requires 150 words minimum. If you write fewer than 150 words, you’re going to face a penalty. Therefore, you should try to write at least 150 words. I will tell you that it will be difficult for you to get a high score if you’re only writing 150 words. You probably will need to write 200 or 210 words to get a high score (7.5 - 8.0). For task 2 writing, it’s larger. It needs 250 words minimum, and the essay is worth 2/3 of your score. It’s worth twice of task 1. Therefore, I would like to tell you that you should write task 2 first and spend 40 minutes on it. Now, we will focus on task 1 writing, we will be describing different kinds of diagrams. How are they marking you? How are they assessing you? How are they giving you a score in task 1 writing? Let’s look at the IELTS writing task 1 band score descriptors below: I want you to know that IELTS keeps their scoring very secretive. IELTS does not tell you how they score your writing. The information that we have about how they score our writing is we have got pieces of information from people over the years. They think that we all know about IELTS. Let’s talk something that you need to know about how they mark your test. First of all, the IELTS examiner will mark your test according to four categories: 1. 2. 3. 4. Task Achievement (25%) Coherence and Cohesion (25%) Lexical Resource (25%) Grammatical Range and Accuracy (25%) Now, what do these things means? 1. Task achievement: this is how well you fulfil your job, how well you describe something; how much information you have included; how you have selected information that you put in your writing, and write at least 150 words. 2. Coherence and cohesion: this is how well you chose your paragraphs; how well you organize your information, and how well it flows from beginning to end. 3. Lexical resource: this means vocabulary. This is how much vocabulary you use, and how varied, accurate and appropriate you are with your vocabulary. Spelling errors will hurt your score, misusing word forms will hurt your score. If you say “sales increasing”, it’s wrong. Instead, you must say “sales increased” 4. Grammatical range and accuracy: obviously this means “are you making grammar mistakes?”, and “are you using complex sentence structures?” if you’re just doing the same structure over and over, “sales increased” , then “sales fluctuated” and then “sales plummeted”. Ok, your grammar is accurate, but all you’re giving me is just past tense, past tense, and past tense. So you will get a good score for being accurate, but you will get a low score for using the same structure over and over. What you should be doing in task 1 is you should practice regularly. 7.0 – 8.0 for task 1 writing is very achievable because the language you use for task 1 writing is very narrow, and very limited. You don’t need to use a huge range of language. IELTS is a game after all. It is a test does exactly a game. It is a system for gaining points and losing points, and there are some rules to test. Therefore, we need to be sure we understand the rules so that we can avoid the penalty. In order for us to describe diagrams, I would say grammar helps. Yes, of course it does. I need you to pay attention to grammar, sentence structures. You could get an incredibly high score just by knowing these following structures. EFFECTIVE SENTENCE STRUCTURES TO GET AN 8.0+ 1. Position statement: · · The price of gas stood at $2.75 per gallon. In 2005, the sugar export accounted for about 10% of total exports. 2. Movement statements · · · · · · There was a decrease in the price of gas/ gas prices. There was an increase in the sugar export/ export of sugar/ exported sugar. Gas prices/ the price of gas decreased. The export of sugar/ the sugar export/ the exported sugar increased. Gas prices/ the price of gas experienced a decrease. The export of sugar/ the sugar export/ the exported sugar witnessed an increase. 3. Time phrases · · · · · · · · From 1990 to 1995 Between 1990 and 1995 During/throughout the period from 1995 to 2005 During a period of 10 years Over the (three-month) period (between April and June) In 1990 By 1995 For 5 years 4. Grammar variations Connecting sentences together makes your writing more interesting and can help to improve your band score - but you should aim to vary the way you link sentences. Here are a couple options to try instead of just using “then”: · CD sales increased steadily from 2005 until 2010, then fell slightly in the following year. · CD sales increased steadily from 2005 until 2010, before falling slightly in the following year. · After increasing steadily from 2005 until 2010, CD sales fell slightly in the following year. 5. Vocabulary variations Again, these variations increase the range of language you use, which can make your writing more interesting and benefit your band score. · There was a slight fall in CD sales in 2010. · (The year) 2010 saw a slight fall in CD sales. · CD sales experienced a slight fall in 2010. 6. Giving evidence (data) When you describe the key information in a diagram, it's extremely important to include evidence to support your idea. This means you add data: specific numbers, percentages, etc. For example: · · · · · · · · · CD sales increased slightly from 52 (million) to 70 million units between 2009 and 2010. CD sales increased slightly from 52 million units in 2010 to 70 million the following year. CD sales increased by eight million units from 2009 to 2010. During the period from 1990 to 1995, there was a decrease in gas prices from $2.70 to $2.75 per gallon. There was an increase in the sugar export between May and August from about 10% to over 20%. Between 1990 and 1995, the price of gas decreased from $2.75 to $2.70 per gallon. The sugar export increased from approximately 10% to more than 20% between May and August. From 1990 to 1995, the price of gas experienced a decrease from $2.75 to $2.70 per gallon. The sugar export witnessed an increase between May and August from around 10% to over 20%. Vocabulary note Note the way we use prepositions with numbers and dates: 1998 2000 45% 20% · · · · In 2000 the number fell to 20%. In 2000 the number fell by 25%. The number fell/dropped from 45% in 1998 to 20% in 2010. The number fell/dropped from 45% to 20% between 1995 and 1997. You can use a combination of verb + adverb, or adjective + noun, to avoid repeating the same phrases and to add extra meaning: · There was a significant increase/rise in the number of X. · The number of X increased/rose significantly. Notice that you need a preposition when you use the noun form: · There was an increase in house prices; · There was a drop of 10% in the number of male students who studied abroad. Those above are all about the unique things when it comes to your task 1 description. This is a suitable range. So, when it comes to the sentence structures, pay attention to these, and pay attention to the parts of these structures because that is what you will be doing when it comes to describing. Understand that the grammar never changes, the verbs never change. They stay the same. You are dealing with a limited number of words, a limited number of structures. The only thing that changes is what you are talking about. We might be talking about the purchase of Honda, or we might talk about the number of members at a club or we might talk about the dollars earned or the kilometers travelled or the number of books sold. It doesn’t matter. That is the only thing that changes. It is very mathematical When it comes to task 1, you need to use certain kinds of language: 1. COMPARISON AND SUPERLATIVE LANGUAGE: The language we should use in task 1 writing is the language of comparison and superlative. We can compare X and Y by using superlatives. For example: Honda was the most popular motorbike. (Superlative language) Or: Honda produced the most sold motorbikes. · Honda was more popular than any other motorbike. (Comparison language) · More males than females chose Honda. · Fewer females than males chose Honda. · Honda was more popular among males than females. · Honda was less popular among females than males. · The most popular means of transport was Honda. · Honda was more popular than any other means of transport. · Honda was the most popular means of transport. · Honda was chosen by more males than females. · A higher percentage of males chose Honda than males. · Compared to/with the number of females, the number of males were considerably higher. · The number of males were considerably higher compared to/with the number of females. 2. TREND LANGUAGE: If we have 2 time points (that could be days/weeks/months/years/decades), we need to use trend language. We need to talk about “increase”, “decrease”. We could talk about 1990 and 2000, or we could talk about January and June, or we could talk about Monday and Friday. It doesn’t matter. Note: if they give you a diagram with just one year, all we can do is just to compare, we cannot use trend language “increase”, “decrease”, “fluctuated”. In other words, we cannot talk about movement. On the other hand, if they give you two years, three years, or four years, they still want comparison, but now they also want trend language. They also want you to talk about movement. These are really two basic groups of language that you need to use to describe diagrams: comparison and trend language. Let’s build some vocabulary. Here is a list of verbs, adverbs, adjectives and nouns that you need to use in task 1 writing. LANGUAGE OF TRENDS: SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND VOCABULARY Examples: The overall sale of the company slightly increased by 10% in 2005. Note that “plunge” and “plummet” do not take adverbs because what they mean is a big decrease. We can say “decreased considerably/sharply/dramatically/significantly/substantially” or “plunged”, or “plummeted”. But, we must not say, “plummeted considerably/sharply/dramatically/significantly/substantially” or “plunged considerably/sharply/dramatically/significantly/substantially” No need to use those two verbs “plunge” and “plummet” with an adverb. Decreased sharply equals plummeted. They mean the same thing. Likewise, “rocket” does not take adverbs. So to say increased significantly, rose sharply, they mean the same thing as rocketed. A big/sharp increase, so no adverbs for rocketed. There are some things I need you to be aware of here. I want you to know that steadily and gradually mean the same thing. Slightly is something means different. Steadily and gradually mean over a period of time. Slightly means how much deals with amount. Steadily and gradually mean a gradual change like a child growth; he or she grows gradually/ he or she grows over time. Levelled off & stabilized These are flat changes or no changes really, but I want you to be aware that levelled off and stabilized always happen after another trend. You can say, for example, “the figure remained the same before increasing/ the figure remained stable before increasing/ the figure remained unchanged before increasing/ the figure remained constant before increasing”. However, we cannot use “stabilized or levelled off” in this case. Stabilized and levelled off always happen after another trend. For example, sales fluctuated before they levelled off/ sales fluctuated before they stabilized. Don’t ever use stabilized and levelled off to start your description. Fluctuation You can say fluctuated significantly/ fluctuated wildly (big changes) or fluctuated slightly (small changes). The birthday fluctuated significantly/wildly between 2000 and 2005. Reached a low “Reach” always happen after a movement. “A high” is always behind a point of the diagram. We shouldn’t say reached a high, instead we say started at a high/ began at a high. We can say reached a low/started at a low/ began at a low Car sales reached a low of 15.000 in 2000. Reached a peak “A peak” is always up and down. A peak can be a high but it doesn’t have to be. For example, reached two peaks before reaching a high. The number of people who were unemployed reached a peak of 2000 people in 2015. The number of tourists reached a peak of 15 million in 1995. Stood at You can use “stood at” at anywhere on the graph you want (at the beginning it stood at, afterward it stood at, then it stood at”, then it stood at, then it stood at something else). “Stood at” works for anything on the graph. The number of sales stood at 4 million in 2010. The number of people travelling to London stood at 26 million in 2005. Started at/ began at You can use “started at/ began at” at the beginning. In 2000, the figure for Internet users started at approximately 50 million. The amount of meat consumed weekly began at about 150 grams. Ended at/ finished at You can use “ended at/ finished at” at the end. The figure finished at over 50%. Dipped/decreased slightly Expenditure on furniture dipped slightly from 9% to 7% between 2002 and 2005. Coffee sales decreased slightly between June and August. Examples: Coffee sales began at 50 thousand dollars, then decreased slightly to 48 thousand dollars. Subsequently, sales plunged and reached a low of 40 thousand dollars between June and August. Afterwards, coffee sales rocketed to a high of 70 thousand dollars. Sales remained stable before decreasing and stabilizing at… Started at a high…then it fell slightly/declined slightly/ dropped slightly/ fell steadily/declined gradually…then it levelled off/ stabilized/ remained unchanged/ remained stable/ remained the same/ maintained the same figure. Sales soared/rocketed/rose dramatically/grew sharply/increased substantially. “Soared” really is the same as “rocketed”. Increased slightly/increased gradually. The number of people using the Internet increased slightly between 1995 and 2005. From 2002 to 2004, CD sales in the UK increased gradually from 3 to 4 million - a rise of 30%. Experienced/witnessed/saw a decrease/a decline/a rise/an increase Laptop prices experienced a decrease/a decline. Laptop prices underwent a decrease/a decline. The price of laptop saw a fall/decrease/a decline. The price of laptop witnessed a fall/decrease/a decline. As far as I know, this method allows you to have a variety while maintaining accuracy and limiting what you need to learn. I don’t need you to learn everything. I just need to learn these things. These are simple structures, because there are no time, and no figure. There are no adjectives or adverbs here. These are very simple. Let’s look at these again: The purchase of Honda increased slightly from…..to…. Honda sales grew slightly from nearly…to….. Honda sales decreased substantially, falling from…to… Sales of Yamaha rocketed. Sales of Yamaha soared. Sales of Yamaha increased substantially. You don’t need to get creative, this is not poetry. This is a boring technical writing. You need to recognize the verbs, and then you need to recognize the nouns, adverbs and adjectives. Just use what I gave you, learn the simple words here, learn the simple grammar and you will find that you have an incredible range of words and structures just by using the combination of the basics I’ve mentioned above. Other basic language: A doubling means twice (10% à 20%) A tripling means three times (10% à 30%) Rocketed = soared = increased substantially/significantly/dramatically = plunged = plummeted Decrease = decline = fall = experience a decrease So all that you need to know is just some basic things, and you are able to change the words around a little bit and that’s the key. You don’t need to learn a ton of grammar. You just need to learn this grammar and how to use these words. That’s it, and then you will become a master of IELTS task 1 writing. Now, I would like to warn you that the biggest problem my students have when it comes to task 1 writing is that they don’t believe it’s simple. When it comes to give you dates and times, and to give you figures, you don’t need to use prepositions. What prepositions do we need? From, in, to or maybe at. So, even the prepositions that you need are very limited, you just need to pay attention and notice what is going to be used in the same structure over and over again. The only thing that will change will be basic things here are: · · · · What happens or happened? The figure? What’s being measures? (The unit of measurement) The dates? (Time) It’s totally mathematical. It’s a formula. Got it? Now, how do we put these things together to make a report? Here is the method. I don’t want you to be nervous or confused in the exam, I want you to be more confident like “all right, the first thing is this...next thing is that...and the next thing is this…..and the next thing is you know how to write a report excellently”. TASK 1 WRITING PROCESS TO MAXIMIZE SCORE 1. Read Summary: What they will be giving you in task 1 writing is they will give you a diagram with a description. This description is called a summary. The summary is used to tell you what you are looking at, and it will tell you exactly that, so you must read the summary carefully before writing. Example: “The table below shows how many tourists from five countries visiting Australia in different years from 1991 and 1999.” When you look at the diagram, the first step should be asking yourself · · What’s the verb tense? Or what are the verb tenses? (Past tense) Look at the summary, look at the diagram and ask yourself - What is measured? (the number of tourists) - Unit of Measurement? (thousand) We need to be accurate about what is being measured and the unit of measurement. 2. Analyze Trends: · Look at the general trend. It’s quite easy. You simply look from the beginning to the end. You don’t need to worry about the middle. You only should look at the beginning and the end (did it increase?, did it remain the same?, or did it decrease?) · After looking at the general trend, you should look at a couple of the other things. First of all you see if any peaks, any dips, any fluctuations, anything is going in the middle between the beginning and the end. · Superlatives (highest, least, most, fewest). For example, which country accounted for the most or and which country accounted for the fewest visitors? 3. What are the main points? The main points are the most important features (the most important trends, some general comparisons and some general superlatives). I should have an idea about what the whole diagram looks like – they’re on your main points, and when it comes to the main points, I would say “overall, the number of visitors from all five countries increased, meanwhile the US and the UK accounted for the most tourists throughout the period” 2 sentences. Now, what I just gave you is going to give you a 7.0+ on the task achievement. You need to give me general trends and some superlatives. You need to have a general idea of trends and comparisons in your main points. 4. The next thing you should be doing here is you need to organize your paragraphs I’ll tell you to do 3 paragraphs here: your introduction, your overview, and 2 body paragraphs. Your introduction should be a paraphrased summary. Your overview should be the main points that have trends and some comparisons. You can use some expressions for your overview as below: - The graph shows (information about) /indicates /illustrates /highlight (the data about)… - As the graph shows - It is clear from the graph (that) - As is shown by the graph - It can be seen from the graph (that) - As can be clearly seen from the graph, - From the graph, it is clear (that) - As is illustrated by the graph, You will get marks on your main points. If you don’t include any main points in your overview paragraph even though your grammar and vocabulary are perfect, you are not going to get higher than a 5.0 in task achievement because there is no clear overview. If you want to get a 7.0+ in task achievement, you need to add the main points that have trends and some comparisons. Your body paragraphs need to be organized logically. For example, if we have 5 countries to look at. We may organize the body paragraphs by their figures (3 countries have the highest figures, we will describe them in one paragraph, and with the smallest figures, we will describe them in the other paragraph) STRUCTURE: Paraphrase Summary...Main Point...Describe Once you figure out the verb tense, what is measured? Unit of measurement. Once you analyzed and looked at the general trends, and you figured out the main points. Now you can describe these things in 15 minutes. It will be good. So, the tough part in IETLS writing task 1 will be practicing, looking at enough diagrams that you can look at things quickly and go to take notes and figure out what’s happening, and practicing the grammar and vocabulary enough, you will become automatic. If you do that, task 1 will be easier for you to deal with your IELTS test. I promise. Because it’s a boring stuff, there is no creativity at all. It’s just looking at what they are giving you, making a few corrections, a few grammar changes. And the grammar changes you are making is that you just change verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. These are simple stuff. TASK 1 MARKING AND ASSESSMENT · · · · Organize, present, and compare data...do you describe the most important points? Use English grammar and vocabulary Use appropriate style and content Write in a way that the reader can follow ADVICE · Of course, grammar helps, but you should also focus on using various sentence structures! Don’t use the same sentence structures over and over. · Read as much as possible, you will understand how to be a more effective writer by observing other writers. · Write as much as you can. · You have to choose your information carefully (which figures do you want to get without talking about every little change?) · Practicing going from verbs, adverbs to nouns, adjectives as well as practice changing your noun forms. For example, I want to talk about the production of films, and coffee from Viet Nam. We want to get rid of the preposition so that the noun will become the adjective. So we have the production of films will become film production (film in this case is an adjective so it is a singular form), and likewise, coffee from Viet Nam will become Vietnamese coffee; or fell gradually will become there was a gradual fall. You need to switch between nouns and adjectives, verbs and adverbs, and you need to say “the development of the new products” will become “new product development”, “number of theme park visitors” will become “theme park visitor numbers”; “sugar import” will become “imported sugar”; “quality of food in super market” will become “super market food quality”; “investment in research” will become “research investment”; “the level of unemployment” will become “the unemployment level” · One more thing is that you need to do some simple comparison words. You’ll need to be able to have flexibility to use comparison structures. Note: Even a graph that shows you something going from the past, through the present, in the future, I would still say that you don’t need to use present perfect in your writing. I would say you’d better just need to focus on using past tense and future tense. If you want to get a higher vocabulary and grammar score when you are dealing with the future tense, you can start talking about future perfect. It’s a lot easier to use and a lot more natural sounding. Don’t talk about many trends, just two trends for three points. USEFUL TIME EXPRESSIONS - (In) the period from…..to……/ between……and ((in) the period from January to April... between January and April...) - During (during the first two years...) - In the first/ last three months of the year - Over the period from…….to…….. - Over the next...for the following... (for the following five years... Over the next five years...) - Over a ten-year period - After that/ then - Until - Throughout the year/ throughout the period/ each month of the year - Subsequently - For the rest of the year - In January/ it began the year/ at the beginning of the year/ at the beginning of the period - In December/ the end of the year You should pay attention to how you are using them. Keep your sentences short but clear by using those kinds of phrases. Notice that your sentences should be relatively short. You don’t need to write long sentences to impress people. Long sentences tend to get grammar problems. What easier to read is a three line sentence or two line sentence. What is easier to remember, a 100 page book or 10 page book? Of course, a 10 page book. So, keep things short and use the proper linking phrases to allow your overall sentences to connect. That’s the key. LANGUAGE OF ESTIMATION · · · · · · · · · · · Just over Nearly About Around Almost Approximately Just about Very nearly Just over More than Less than USEFUL LANGUAGE As the graph shows, in January, the figure stood at more than 1500. Regarding novel sales, in January, the figure stood at just over 1500 before declining steadily to a low of nearly 90,000. USEFUL WORDS FOR PARAPHRASING A SUMMARY Original sentence: The chart below shows… Paraphrased sentence: the line graph/ the line chart indicates/depicts/reveals/illustrates… · Sales = income = revenue = turnover = how much money was made. · The income rate = the income level = the level of income = the rate of income = the level of revenue = the revenue rate = the revenue level · New York City bookstore = bookstore in New York City · Proportion = percentage = rate · The proportion of = the percentage of = the figure for. · From 2000 to 2005 = between 2000 and 2005 = Over a period of (5) years. · The elderly = elderly people = senior citizens. · Spending = expenditure. · Information = data · Levels of unemployment = Unemployment rate. · Poverty rate = Level of poverty. · Production = manufacture = be produced = be made = be manufactured Note: The examiner doesn’t care about what you say, they care about how well you use English The figure for X What is X? Whatever you are talking about. For example: the figure for novel sales, the figure for action films, the figure for whatever it said on the diagram. This works all the time. If you find in the exam that you have 10 minutes, you don’t have time to be killed with your vocabulary. “The figure for” works. Or you can use “X’s figure”. For example, romance film’s figure The contribution of X “Contribution” means how much do you give to something, how much do you give to the whole/ the total. “Contribution” works when we talk about percentages because “percentage” is looking at the whole (100%). So, here I can say: The contribution of romance films stood at more than 50% in 1990. Romance film’s contribution stood at more than 50% in 1990. Romance film contributed more than 50% in 1990. What another word for “film types”? Film kinds = film types = film genres A genre is a type of something. For example, action/horror is a genre of film, romance is a genre of film, etc. Examples: three kinds of films = three genres of films = three types of films (NOT three film types or three film kinds) TASK 1 WRITING RULES 1. You must write 150 words minimum, 220 words maximum. If you write more than 220 words, you will face a penalty. You won’t have enough time to complete your task 2 writing. 2. You must skip lines between paragraphs. This allows you to do a couple of important things here. Skipping lines is going to make your writing neater. That is important. Remember that the writing test, we are dealing with the human being. Who is the human being? The examiner, and we need to make this guy happy. Right away, I want the examiner when they have a pile of writings in front of them, and they might not feel well, they might be hungry, they might have had an argument with their boyfriend or girlfriend; they might just be sick of a pile of writings. When they turn to look at your writing, and I want the first thing they think about when they see your writing is that you are a neat organized student. I want you to give them the first positive impression. They often have to choose between a 5.5 or 6.0; 6.5 or 7.0; I want them to have all reasons to give you a 7.0, not 5.5 or 6.0, so you should make your examiner happy and be neat. 3. Keep it simple: you should use exactly the list of task 1 vocabulary, sentence structures that I have given you in this book. Do not get creativity. Trust me, you are probably wrong if you are creative. My experience of over four years of teaching IELTS for many different levels of students. They do not do well with creativity when it comes to IELTS writing task 1. Please do what I tell you to do. It’s simple, but it will give you a high score. 4. Corrections: it’s great that some of you do your writing, and then you look at it, you think about it and you fix things/mistakes in your writing. That’s awesome! If you catch your mistakes before your teacher catch them, you are doing a learning. Who need to do a learning? You or your teacher? You. I very highly encourage you to write these kinds of reports using your knowledge, taking your time, being careful and then walking away from the reports. Go and take a nap, watch TV, have some coffee, whatever, just forget about your homework, and then come back with your fresh eyes and fresh mind, then read your writing out loud. I promise to you that your ears will catch grammar mistakes because you hear a lot more English than you ever read. Don’t you? Yes, same thing with the native speakers. MOST COMMON MISTAKES STUDENTS MAKE IN TASK 1 WRITING 1. Adverb vs adjective A slight increase/decrease. (NOT a slightly increase/decrease). 2. Copy the summary This just means you do not paraphrase the summary enough. That’s a big problem. Be sure you paraphrase the summary as much as you can. 3. Misusing words or phrases. You might say: Sales levelled off and then decreased (it’s wrong, because we always use “levelled off” after another trend.) So, levelled off is misused in this case. Or, you might say: sales reduced. (We don’t use “reduced” this way) Instead we say sales decreased/declined 4. Question mark No question mark in task 1 writing. This means either a confusing word, a phrase, may be a sentence or may be a whole paragraph. The examiner will not know what you are talking about. The grammar is so stuffed that they cannot understand what you are trying to say, and they cannot easily fix your grammar. So what are you going to do with this kind of sentence? First, don’t try to fix the mistakes that you have. Don’t look at back your grammar over and over again. Instead, look at what you are saying and ask yourself what you were trying to say. You wrote it, so you know what you are trying to describe, then look at back the task 1 language, words, and phrases I gave you above, and start writing that sentence, or whole paragraph over. Don’t try to fix what you have, take what you have and throw away and put something new in there. 5. Wrong verb tense use. Pay your attention to the verb tense. 6. Don’t use figures in your introduction and overview (no need to give numbers in your main point) 7. Capital letters and lowercase letter. 8. Redundant or needlessly repeat word phrases or information. It creates extra words but it doesn’t give new information. Therefore, you don’t need to keep saying a word or a phrase over and over again. Instead, you can use “it”, “this”, “this figure” to replace that word or phrase. 9. Collocation issues You don’t put words together properly. 10. Your main point lacks either comparison or trend language, and you cannot get a 7.0+ in task achievement without it. TIPS: Go home and rewrite the task 1 reports that they are already fixed by your teacher. Just take 15 -20 minutes to rewrite it. Try to change every sentence structure that you wrote in your report with a new structure. Practice using different structures because in the exam that will help you a lot. You will have a variety, you will have accuracy and make your report well organized. And of course you will get a high score. FUTURE TENSE (LANGUAGE OF ESTIMATION) STRUCTURE 1: The prediction/expectation/projection/forecast/anticipations/likelihood + shows/reveals/indicates/is that there will be a dramatic increase in the number of car users. The anticipation shows/reveals/indicates/is that there will be an increase in the price of food from 20 dollars in 2005 to 25 dollars in 2025. The forecast shows/reveals/indicates/is that the price of food will undergo/witness/experience an increase from 20 dollars in 2005 to 25 dollars in 2025. STRUCTURE 2: It is predicted/expected/projected/estimated/ anticipated/forecast/likely that the number of car users will increase dramatically. It is predicted/expected/anticipated/forecast/estimated that the price of food will increase from 20 dollars in 2005 to 25 dollars in 2025. It is predicted/expected/anticipated/forecast/estimated that the price of food will undergo/witness/experience an increase from 20 dollars in 2005 to 25 dollars in 2025. STRUCTURE 3: The number of car users are predicted/expected/projected/estimated/ anticipated/forecast to increase dramatically. The price of food is predicted/expected/anticipated/forecast/estimated to decline from 20 dollars in 2000 to 10 dollars in 2025. The price of food is predicted/expected/anticipated/forecast/estimated to experience a decline from 20 dollars in 2000 to 10 dollars in 2025. FUTURE PERFECT: WILL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Let’s talk about future perfect. I will not talk about future continuous, I will only talk about future perfect because usually my students find it hard to give me a range of structures as well as another verb form. What is future perfect? Future perfect is a verb form that we use to indicate a completed action at some time in the future. So if I say “tonight I will eat dinner”. This means some time in the evening, I’ll be eating. It’s not clear. But if I say “by 9 o’clock I will have eaten dinner”. That means at night o’clock, I have finished my dinner. I’m done. The action is completed. Note: with future perfect, we always need a time. Instead of saying “the price of food is expected to decline to 20 dollars in 2020” We can say “the price of food is expected to have declined to 20 dollars by 2020” Or “the price of food is expected to have experienced a decline to 20 dollars by 2020” Or “it is expected that the price of food will have declined to 20 dollars by 2020” Try to give a variety of structures, be accurate, use a variety of verbs, use the future perfect, you will get a higher score. Understand that we can use a combination of past and future tenses. In 2010, the figure stood at… (Past tense)…, but it’s expected to increase slightly to… (Future tense). “Respectively” & “in turn” Jack and Jill are tall and fat respectively. Who is tall? Answer: Jack Who is fat? Answer: Jill My first and second pair of shoes are red and white respectively. What is the color of the second pair of shoes? Answer: white What is the color of the first pair of shoes? Answer: red So, we always use “respectively” and “in turn” to talk about two things that we talk about in a sentence. CORRELATION We use “as” and “while” to show two things happening at the same time. As I watched TV, I ate dinner. While I drove my motorbike, I listened to music. While I swam in the ocean, my family sat on the beach. MAJORITY What is the majority? “The majority” means more than 50%. How about 51% & 49%? The difference between 51% & 49% is so slight. 51%: a small majority of (NOT huge majority). >75%: a vast majority of We use the definite article “the” + majority when we have only one majority. 49%: a minority/ just under half 11%: a small/tiny minority of We use the indefinite article “a” + minority when we don’t have the only one minority. Besides 49%, we also have 40%, 25%, etc. Examples: 32% of all tourists = nearly a third of all tourists. 47% of cars = just under half of cars. 63% of all funding = nearly two-thirds of all funding. TASK 1 WRITING SAMPLES LINE CHART The graph below shows the differences in wheat exports over three different areas. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. Write at least 150 words. ANSWER: The line graph compares three regions in terms of exports of wheat between 1985 and 1990. Overall, the three regions experienced different trends in the time period. While the wheat export in Canada and European countries rose with some fluctuations, the export in Australia fell over time. As the graph shows, Australia's wheat export figure started at 15 million tons in 1985 followed by a small increase to around 16 million tons in 1986. Then, it declined steadily until it fell to just over 10 million tons in 1990. Regarding Canada's exports, in 1985 they shipped approximately 19 million tons of wheat. This figure fell to about 17 million in 1986, but then their exports experienced considerable growth to 25 million tons in 1988. Afterward, the figure plunged to below 15 million in 1989, but then subsequently rose to just under 20 million in 1990. By contrast, the wheat exports from the European Community experienced an increase in the six year period. In 1985, nearly 16 million tons were exported, but this number fell to about 14 million in 1986. Then, the exports increased to exactly 15 million tons in 1987 and 1988 before witnessing steady growth to 19 million and 21 million tons in 1989 and 1990, respectively. (209 words) BAR CHART SAMPLE 1: The chart below shows the amount of leisure time enjoyed by men and women of different employment status. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. You should write at least 150 words in 20 minutes for this task. ANSWER: The bar chart compares the amount of free time per week that males and females of five categories of employment status had between 1998 and 1999. It is clear that men enjoyed more hours of leisure time per week than women in three out of five categories. However, only figures for women are shown in two categories, namely employed part-time and housewives. Regarding the full-time employed, obviously men had slightly more leisure time than women, with approximately 45 hours of free time per week, compared to around 38 hours for women. Obviously, unemployed and retired people of both genders enjoyed the most hours of leisure time. Moreover, the figures for retired males and females were exactly the same as those for the unemployed, at around 85 and 78 hours of free time per week, respectively. Housewives enjoyed 50 hours of spare time, a little more than part-time working women who had just over 40 leisure hours each week. No data is given for men in either of these categories. 169 words. SAMPLE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The following bar chart shows the different modes of transport used to travel to and from work in one European city in 1960, 1980 and 2000. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words. ANSWER: The bar chart illustrates the information about the proportion of travelers who used different types of vehicles to commute to work in a European city during a period from 1960 to 2000. Overall, the percentage of commuters who used cars rose steadily over the period, while the proportion of people who travelled by other means of transport fell. In 1960, approximately 35% of people commuted to work on foot, compared to only about 5% of people travelled by car. The percentage of those who used bikes and buses were around 25% and 18% respectively. However, in 1980 travelling by bus was by far the most popular transport mode, accounting for over 25% of total travelers, whereas only 17% of people travelling on foot. The figures for bike and car were around 20% and 22% respectively. At the end of the period, more than 35% of commuters used cars to commute to work in this city in 2000, which was much higher than the figure for bus users, at around 16%. The percentage of those who travelled to work on foot and by bike fell to 9% and 6% respectively. 189 words TABLE The table below gives information about the average annual spending of university students in three different countries. The given table compares the percentage of expenditure which college students from 3 countries spend on different living expenses each year. Overall, the total spending of students in country A was higher than the expenditure of students in countries B and C. In all the countries, students spent the highest proportion of their budget on accommodation and food. In country A, the total spending of students is highest, at 5000$ per year, compared with $4500 and $1500 for students in countries B and C respectively. Accommodation accounts for 45% of the total expenditure of students in country A, while the proportions were lower for students in country B at 35%, and country C, at only 30%. However, in term of food, students in country C spend the largest percentage of their money on it, accounting for 36%. The figures for country A and B are only 22% and 28% respectively. Students in country C also spent a high percentage of their budget on books, at 21%, compared with 9% for students in country B and just 3% for students in country A. By contrast, students in countries A and B spent 22% and 23% respectively of their budget on leisure, while students in country C spent only 12% of their total money on this category. 196 words. PIE CHART The pie charts below show the average household expenditures in Japan and Malaysia in the year 2010. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. ANSWER The pie charts compare the average household spending in Japan and Malaysia in terms of five important categories in 2010. Overall, it is clear that Japanese and Malaysian people spent the largest proportion of their budget on just three categories, namely housing, food and other goods and services. Moreover, the expenditures on healthcare and transport in Japan were double the figures for Malaysia. In Malaysian households, the greatest proportion of spending was on housing, which represented 34% of the total expenditure, while in Japan, the figure for this category was just 21%. Japanese householders spent the largest amount of their income on other goods and services, at 29%. Meanwhile, the rate of spending on this category in Malaysia was slightly lower, at 26%. In terms of food, the percentages of expenses for both nations were relatively similar, at 27% for Malaysia and 24% for Japan. In both countries, the smallest proportion of spending was on health care. In Malaysia, this accounted for 3% of the total household expenses, while the figure for transport represented 10%. These figures were exactly doubled in Japan which were 6% and 20% respectively. 188 words. MAP MAPS are becoming a lot more common. The language that we use to describe graphs like bar charts, tables, line graphs, would not be used to describe maps. We should need to use new language to describe maps. MAP LANGUAGE LANGUAGE OF DIRECTION: In the north: within an area. (California is in the west of the United States/ Phu My Hung is in the south of HCM city.) To the north: to be used for comparison/ outside an area (China is to the north of Vietnam/ Cambodia is to the west of Vietnam.) In the southwest: Florida is in the southeast of the United States. To the southwest: The entrance was moved to the southwest of the building. LANGUAGE OF LOCATION: Be located/situated in: The shopping mall was located/situated in the center of the city was knocked down to make way for a new university. Opposite: A restaurant has been built on the opposite side of the road where the shop used to be. Next to: A new car park has been constructed next to the hotel. Along: there was a new sidewalk along the river. Across from: The park is across from the school. GRAMMAR: The grammar for Map is quite simple that you should use passive voice in paste tense. VERBS TO DESCRIBE MAP: Buildings: Demolished, knocked down, constructed, built, erected The apartment was demolished. The school located in the south of the city was knocked down/ demolished to make way for a car park. The building was erected on the bank of the river. Areas: A new residential area was built in place of the park. A golf course was constructed to the west of the airport. The park disappeared. An airport appeared. Trees: cut down/chopped down, removed, uprooted In the north of the river all trees were cut down/chopped down. All the trees were removed/uprooted and replaced by a factory. Factories/facilities: established, installed, placed, put in An airport was established/installed. Don’t say: a house was installed/ established. Areas and zones: An urban area = a city A rural area = a countryside An industrial area = factory, manufacturing, processing Residential area = houses Recreational area & Entertainment area We use recreational areas to usually talk about things like parks or other green areas that people do activities. Entertainment area is actually part of a commercial area. When you go to sing karaoke, or when you go and watch a film at the theater, you are in the area that the focus is money. General main points: More urban, less rural, more developed, more modern. METHOD FOR WRITING MAP Pick a side of the town. Divide the town into two parts, the north and the south or the east and the west. Find the way to divide the town. On the west side of the river, in the north, trees were cut down/chopped down and replaced by a stadium by 2010. In the south, an apartment building/complex was constructed between some private homes and the river. Looking at/To the east, a hotel was built/erected in the north, along the river. (To the) east of this, an industrial area/zone was demolished and replaced by / made way for / made way for the development of / transformed into / converted into a golf course. In the center/central area, an airport was established. Just to the west of the lake, by 2010, a residential area was developed after trees were removed. “To the north of this/next to the railway station, the residential area was transformed into an industrial area.” Noted: transformed into and converted into: this means to change something. We cannot say “the apartment was transformed into the factory” We cannot say “the trees were transformed into the airport”, we cannot change a tree into an airport. Instead, we can say “the trees were chopped down and replaced with the airport.” We only can use transformed into and converted into when we are talking about an area. Ex: the park was transformed into the airport (because a park is an area of land) We can transform a rural area into an urban area. The neighborhood was transformed completely. The old houses were rebuilt. Very few trees remained. Trees were chopped down/ uprooted/ cleared/ cleared away. The area was removed, but remained vacant/ remained undeveloped. ARTICLE: We use “a” for new, and “the” for old Ex: in the south, the residential area was replaced by a warehouse (it’s new). In the north, the residential area was removed to make way for the development of a stadium (it’s new). Don’t say “the left/right side of town”. But it’s ok for you to say “on the left/right side of the map” Apartment building = apartment complex MAP SAMPLE The maps show changes that took place in Youngsville in New Zealand over a 25 year period from 1980 to 2005. ANSWER: The maps illustrate the developments which took place in the coastal town of Youngsville between 1980 and 2005. Overall, a comparison of the two maps reveals a complete transformation from a largely rural to a mainly urban area. In the year 1980, the town was a much greener residential area with a large number of trees and individual houses, but during the next 25 years, the town saw a number of significant changes. The most noticeable is that all of the trees in the south of the River Alanah were chopped down, with all the houses along the railway line being demolished to make way for skyscrapers. Moreover, a new industrial zone with warehouses and factories sprang up around the school and airport. In contrast, only a few trees in the north of the river remained. The woodland was cleared and converted into a golf course, a park, and car parting facilities. Further developments were the construction of a stadium next to the north-east corner of the lake and the extension of the railway line from the river running directly to the north. A Marina was also constructed at the mouth of the river. 194 words. PROCESS Type 1: Man-made process: how things are made, how things are produced, how things are manufactured, how things are done. Type 2: Natural process: it’s the most difficult to learn and to teach because there is no clear and exact way to teach you about the language. I could spend a week talking about the natural process and still not feel prepared for the exam. One of the really nice things about man-made process report is the fact that the grammar is very simple, what you need to do with your sentence structure is very simple, however, there is a big challenge with these kinds of report. The big challenge is you don’t know anything about how to make a chocolate candy/brick…, and the vocabulary can be a little bit difficult. Let’s learn about easy things about process reports. With process reports we will be asked to analyze and illustrate a diagram and describe a man-made process…how to do something, how to make something. For example, they may show you how to bring water from the city to the countryside… MAN-MADE PROCESS 1. You will be using passive present tense (is/are + V3). This is different from what we have with MAPS. Maps we use with passive tense. Remember we use passive tense because we don’t want to focus on the actor or the subject of the sentence, we want to focus on the action or verb of the sentence. We don’t care that the investors built the house, we only care about how the house was built. Likewise. For man-made process, you may use passive tense, but present tense (is/are, NOT was/were) because we don’t care about who made the chocolate, we only care about how the chocolate is made. You will be using passive present tense for your verbs to talk about what happens. 2. You will be using sequencers. Sequencers are words telling us about “when” or “how long” or “how often”. For example, these kinds of words are sequencers: First, you do something; then, you do something else; next, you do something; before you do something else, you do something (before I boil the water, I open the tea bag/ I boil the water until the chicken is ready…) What about the words like “repeatedly”, or “twice”, or “several time”? These words tell us that we are doing something more than once. So you might have sequencers that tell you “when” like first, next, then, finally…or sequencers tell you about “how long” such as “until/before” or words that tell you “how often” like repeatedly, several times, twice. This is used to tell you several things about time. 3. Finish the purpose by using non-defining relative clauses. These are used to add extra information about whatever you want to tell. In this case, the extra information will be the purpose, tell us about “why” for example, why are we melting the chocolate?, why are we crushing the rocks?. …which kills the bacteria, or….which prepares the tea. Try to use more academic words to talk about a reason for something like “in order to kill the bacteria”, or “so as to kill the bacteria”, or “to make sure/ to ensure the bacteria is killed”. We can use non-defining relative clauses to show where something is. For example “next, the milk is sent to the factory, where it will be turned into the cheese and ice cream” These are very useful, I want you to know that the process report contains something similar to the main point. Give the summary of what other steps are. That only can work if you give a brief list of steps. Don’t give a big list of steps. The grammar is easy: your sentences in man-made process should contain sequencers, passive present tense, non-defining relative clauses and indefinite purpose, so that’s easy. The tough part is the verb, you don’t know how to do these things. IELTS knows that you don’t know how to make chocolate...so they are going to give you all the information you need in the form of these diagrams, they are going to give you the illustration and the verbs and the words, nouns and all that information. You need to look carefully at each step and think exactly what is happening. Take the verb that they give you and put it into your own word. Think about exactly what they are showing you. Think about some logic, use logic “why do we heat things? – to melt, to cook, to warm” Look at all these steps, make sure that you take notes on each step and give your own ideas about what is happening, the verbs and why it is happening. PARAPHRASING: Paraphrase the main things in the process: Ice cream = frozen yogurt Fruit is picked by hand = fruit is manually collected Manually collected = collected by hand Fruit quality checking = the fruit is checked for quality = the fruit is checked to ensure it’s free of bruises and not rotten. PROCESS SAMPLE The diagram illustrates the process that is used to manufacture bricks for the building industry. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. The flow chart shows the way in which bricks are made for the building industry. Overall, there are 7 stages in the whole brick producing process, beginning with the digging up of clay and ending with the delivery of the bricks to the customers. To begin, the clay used to make the bricks is dug up from the ground by a large digger. This clay is then placed onto a metal grid, which is used to break up the clay into smaller pieces. A roller assists in this process. Following this, sand and water are added to the clay, and this mixture is turned into bricks by either placing it into a mould or using a wire cut. Next, these bricks are placed in a drying oven to dry for 24 – 48 hours. In the subsequent stage, the bricks go through a heating and cooling process. They are heated in a kiln at a moderate and then a high temperature (ranging from 200c to 1300c), followed by a cooling process in a cooling chamber for 48 – 72 hours. Finally, the bricks are packed and delivered to their destinations. (188 words). NATURAL PROCESS This type of process relates to nature. This may come up in the exam, life cycle, water cycle, an animal, a plant. You might have to describe something related to the climate, weather pattern… Natural process: one of the things about natural process that makes it challenging is they do expect you to have some basic science knowledge about these natural processes, they do expect that a natural process that you understand. In the man-made process you can talk about the beginning and the end (the 1st step, the 2nd step, the final step). However, most natural processes are typically a cycle. So, if you are describing a natural process, you will not say the 1st step…2nd step… you should figure out which place to start. Natural processes usually use active voice, not passive voice because people are not usually involved in the natural process, so actions are not being done by somebody. It could be used passive tense sometimes for example “clouds are flown by the winds”, but most of the time we use active tense for natural processes. We use the non-defining relative clauses, sequencers (instead of using the first step, the second step, next and then,…we might use structures like gradually, overtime, eventually, other things related to process time such as, overtime, the plants grow… eventually, it produces…) In terms of the purpose, we might use indefinite purpose “in order to, so as to…” but not often because in nature, it’s difficult to say why something happens. An introduction contains two pieces of information: a paraphrase of the summary and the main point. The summary is what they give you in the diagram. The summary tells you what you are looking at. You paraphrase the question and you are changing the words. What is the purpose of the main point? It tells you something specific about the diagram, but it does not tell you about something so specific like “snow moves down the mountain sides..” If you don’t know anything about the water cycle, it’s quite difficult for you to do the reports natural process. What is the purpose of the introduction? It tells the readers this is what we are talking about, and this is something we can expect to give details in the coming paragraphs. Task 1 writing whether that is a map, a pie chart, a man-made process, a natural process, it doesn’t matter. In task 1 writing, you need to write “the main points”. If you don’t give the main points in your report, you will not get a band score higher than 5.0 even your vocabulary and grammar are perfect in task achievement; and really, it’s quite easy for you to get a 6.0 or even 7.0 if you give the main points in your report. Two body paragraphs Writing 2 separate body paragraphs detailing each stage of the natural process. NATURAL PROCESS LANGUAGE SEQUENCERS · · · · · · · · Gradually, In order to, As a result of this, Having completed all of these steps, The step after this, The final stage of the cycle is when, At this point in the cycle, Overtime, ORDERING · · · The first stage is when + noun + verb To begin with The process commences with MIDDLE STAGES · · · · · · · · · Eventually, This step involves verb-ing After this stage is complete, The next step is when + noun + verb By this stage, The step after this + verb At the same time, While/as Once A has finished, B is able to start LAST STAGE · Once the final stage has been completed, EXPRESSING PURPOSE · · A is done (so as) to produce B A is done so that/in order that B can be produced EXPRESSING CAUSE AND RESULT · · As a result, This results in + noun · · · · · A results from B/in B A happens, which results in B A happens, which leads to B A happens, which causes B A happens, with the result that B happens NATURAL PROCESS SAMPLE Life Cycle of a Frog The flow chart illustrates the development of a frog from egg during its life cycle. Overall, it is clear that there are six distinct stages illustrated in the process, commencing with producing eggs in the water and ending with the development of a mature frog. The first stage is when the eggs, shown as frogspawn, float on the surface of the lake. The next step after this is the emergence of the small tadpole after the frogspawn hatches. At this point in the cycle, the small tadpole has a small body with a long tail. Over time, the tadpole grows and its body becomes bigger while the tail becomes longer. At the same time, the legs begin to form so as to prepare the tadpole’s future life on land. Eventually, the tadpole starts to grow into a young frog with a wider mouth, a shorter tail and larger legs although it continues to live in the water. Gradually, the frog becomes mature, ready to leave the water and moves onto the land. When being on land, it starts to breathe air and loses the tail. The final stage of the cycle is when the adult frog finds a mate in order to lay eggs. Having completed all these steps, the lifecycle will then begin again. (215 words) CONCLUSION Thank you again for downloading this book on “IELTS Academic Writing Task 1: The Ultimate Guide with Practice to Get a Target Band Score of 8.0+ in 10 Minutes a Day” and reading all the way to the end. I’m extremely grateful. If you know of anyone else who may benefit from the useful strategies, structures, tips, task 1 language in this book, please help me inform them of this book. I would greatly appreciate it. Finally, if you enjoyed this book and feel that it has added value to your work and study in any way, please take a couple of minutes to share your thoughts and post a REVIEW on Amazon. Your feedback will help me to continue to write other books of IELTS topic that helps you get the best results. Furthermore, if you write a simple REVIEW with positive words for this book on Amazon, you can help hundreds or perhaps thousands of other readers who may want to improve their English writing skills sounding like a native speaker. Like you, they worked hard for every penny they spend on books. With the information and recommendation you provide, they would be more likely to take action right away. We really look forward to reading your review. Thanks again for your support and good luck! 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