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WOW! What a wealth of information! These three volumes tell you something about all aspects of the world's prehistory. The articles are generally short, but have extensive references which can be used for additional information. There are many photos, maps and illustrations, all of which easy to use thanks to the excellent pdf reproduction of all three volumes (complete bookmarks included). In sum, this is a great, high-quality reference..
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05 November 2019 (04:53)
The Cambridge World Prehistory The Cambridge World Prehistory provides a systematic and authoritative examination of the prehistory of every region around the world from the early days of human origins in Africa 2 million years ago to the beginnings of written history, which in some areas started only two centuries ago. Written by a team of leading international scholars, the volumes include both traditional topics and cutting-edge approaches, such as archaeolinguistics and molecular genetics, and examine the essential questions of human development around the world. The volumes are organized geographically, exploring the evolution of hominins and their expansion from Africa, as well as the formation of states and development in each region of different technologies such as seafaring, metallurgy and food production. The Cambridge World Prehistory reveals a rich and complex history of the world. It will be an invaluable resource for any student or scholar of archaeology and related disciplines looking to research a particular topic, tradition, region or period within prehistory. Colin Renfrew (Lord Renfrew of Kaimsthorn) is Emeritus Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge, where he is a Senior Fellow of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. He is author of many influential books on archaeology and prehistory, including, most recently, with Iain Morley, The Archaeology of Measurement, and with Paul G. Bahn, Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice, which is one of the standard textbooks on the subject. Paul Bahn is one of the world’s leading scholars and popularisers of archaeology. He is the author or coauthor of more than thirty books, including The Cambridge Illustrated History of Prehistoric Art and, most recently, Prehistoric Rock Art: Polemics and Progress. His articles have appeared in many newspapers and magazines, including Nature, and he is an editorial consultant to Archaeology Magazine, DIG and the Rapa Nui Journal. The Cambridge World Prehistory Volume; 1: Africa, South and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Volume 2: East Asia and the Americas Volume 3: West and Central Asia and Europe Edited by Colin Renfrew The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Paul Bahn Independent scholar 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521119931 © Cambridge University Press 2014 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2014 Printed in the United States of America A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data The Cambridge world prehistory / [edited by] Colin Renfrew, Paul G. Bahn. volumes cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-521-11993-1 (set) – ISBN 978-1-107-02377-2 (volume 1) – ISBN 978-1-107-02378-9 (volume 2) – ISBN 978-1-107-02379-6 (volume 3) 1. Prehistoric peoples – Encyclopedias. 2. Anthropology, Prehistoric – Encyclopedias. 3. Antiquities, Prehistoric – Encyclopedias. I. Renfrew, Colin, 1937– II. Bahn, Paul G. GN710.C36 2012 569.9–dc23 2012008268 ISBN 978-1-107-02377-2 Volume 1 Hardback ISBN 978-1-107-02378-9 Volume 2 Hardback ISBN 978-1-107-02379-6 Volume 3 Hardback ISBN 978-0-521-11993-1 Three-Volume Hardback Set Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Contents Summary for Volumes 1, 2 and 3 1.I INTRODUCTION 1 1.II AFRICA 45 1.III SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA 321 1.IV THE PACIFIC 559 2.V EAST ASIA 691 2.VI THE AMERICAS 897 3.VII WESTERN AND CENTRAL ASIA 1355 3.VIII EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN 1701 v Volume 1 Contents Maps xiii 1.15 Neolithic and Predynastic Egypt 240 STAN HENDRICKX AND DIRK HUYGE About the Contributors xix 1.16 The Emergence of the Egyptian State 259 STAN HENDRICKX 1.I. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Introduction 3 COLIN RENFREW AND PAUL G. BAHN 1.2 1.17 SALIMA IKRAM 1.18 Introduction: DNA 9 Introduction: Languages 19 1.19 1.II. AFRICA 45 1.III. 1.4 Early Hominins 47 1.20 1.21 The Human Revolution 80 1.22 The Genus Homo in Africa 85 1.23 JOHN G. FLEAGLE AND FREDERICK E. GRINE 1.8 Becoming Human: Archaeology of the Sub-Saharan Middle Stone Age 106 1.24 The Later Stone Age of Southern Africa 131 1.25 JOHN PARKINGTON 1.26 Prehistory in North Africa after the Middle Palaeolithic 151 Holocene Prehistory of West Africa 165 The Archaeology of the Central African Rainforest: Its Current State 183 1.27 The Later Prehistory of Southern Africa from the Early to the Late Iron Age 204 1.28 Historic India 447 Early Food Production in Southeast Asia 457 RASMI SHOOCONGDEJ 1.29 Complex Society in Prehistoric Mainland Southeast Asia 478 DOUGALD O’REILLY 1.30 Summary of Historic Mainland Southeast Asia 494 DOUGALD O’REILLY SHADRECK CHIRIKURE 1.14 India beyond the Indus Civilisation 433 DILIP K. CHAKRABARTI MANFRED K. H. EGGERT 1.13 The Indus Civilisation 407 DILIP K. CHAKRABARTI PETER BREUNIG 1.12 Post-Pleistocene South Asia: Food Production in India and Sri Lanka 389 JONATHAN MARK KENOYER JEAN-LOÏC LE QUELLEC 1.11 The Upper Palaeolithic of South and Southeast Asia 374 DORIAN Q. FULLER MARLIZE LOMBARD 1.10 South and Southeast Asia: DNA 369 RYAN J. RABETT AND TIMOTHY E. G. REYNOLDS CHRISTOPHER S. HENSHILWOOD AND 1.9 The Early Palaeolithic of Southeast Asia 346 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW 1.7 The Palaeolithic of South Asia 323 ROY LARICK AND RUSSELL L. CIOCHON DAVID R. BRAUN 1.6 SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA 321 KATRAGADDA S. PADDAYYA ZERESENAY ALEMSEGED Earliest Industries of Africa 65 Africa: Languages 307 PAUL HEGGARTY AND COLIN RENFREW PAUL HEGGARTY AND COLIN RENFREW 1.5 Summary of Classical and Post-Classical Africa 295 JACKE PHILLIPS PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW 1.3 Pharaonic History 279 FRANÇOIS BON AND FRANÇOIS-XAVIER Prehistory of the Indonesian Archipelago 504 FAUVELLE-AYMAR DAUD ARIS TANUDIRJO The Prehistory of East Africa 220 1.31 vii CONTENTS 1.32 The Philippines 521 1.37 VICTOR PAZ 1.33 South and Island Southeast Asia: Languages 534 PAUL HEGGARTY AND COLIN RENFREW The Later Prehistory of Australia 598 CAROLINE BIRD 1.38 Micronesia 614 GEOFFREY CLARK 1.39 Melanesia 622 STUART BEDFORD 1.IV. 1.34 THE PACIFIC 559 Sahul and Near Oceania in the Pleistocene 566 PETER WHITE 1.36 New Guinea during the Holocene 578 TIM DENHAM viii Polynesia 632 PATRICK V. KIRCH The Pacific: DNA 561 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW 1.35 1.40 1.41 New Zealand 651 PAMELA CHESTER 1.42 The Pacific: Languages 674 PAUL HEGGARTY AND COLIN RENFREW Volume 2 Contents Maps xv 2.14 Initial Peopling of the Americas: Context, Findings, and Issues 903 MICHAEL B. COLLINS 2.V. EAST ASIA 691 2.1 East Asia: DNA 693 2.15 DAVID G. ANDERSON PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW 2.2 Early Palaeolithic of Central and Northern Asia 695 2.16 The Upper Palaeolithic of Northeast Asia 707 2.17 2.5 Early Sedentism in East Asia: From Late Palaeolithic to Early Agricultural Societies in Insular East Asia 724 2.18 JUNKO HABU 2.19 The Neolithic of Northern and Central China 742 2.20 The Neolithic of Southern China 765 Early Complex Societies in Northern China 782 Early Complex Societies in Southern China 807 FRANCIS ALLARD 2.9 2.10 2.21 2.12 Oaxaca 1026 ANDREW K. BALKANSKY 2.22 The Origins and Development of Lowland Maya Civilisation 1043 DAVID FREIDEL 2.23 Early Coastal South America 1058 DANIEL H. SANDWEISS China from Zhou to Tang 824 The Development of Early Peruvian Civilisation (2600–300 BCE) 1075 MARGARETE PRÜCH RICHARD L. BURGER Complex Society in Korea and Japan 833 2.24 2.25 GINA L. BARNES 2.11 The Olmec, 1800–400 BCE 1005 ANN CYPHERS DAVID J. COHEN AND ROBERT E. MUROWCHICK 2.8 The Basin of Mexico 986 LINDA R. MANZANILLA DAVID J. COHEN 2.7 Agricultural Origins and Social Implications in South America 970 TOM D. DILLEHAY AND DOLORES PIPERNO MAYKE WAGNER AND PAVEL TARASOV 2.6 The Archaic and Formative Periods of Mesoamerica 955 MICHAEL LOVE LUDMILA LBOVA 2.4 The Paleoindian and Archaic of Central and South America 943 HUGO D. YACOBACCIO MICHAEL V. SHUNKOV 2.3 Paleoindian and Archaic Periods in North America 923 The Later Prehistory of the Russian Far East 852 Styles and Identities in the Central Andes: The Early Intermediate Period and Middle Horizon 1098 WILLIAM H. ISBELL ANDREI V. TABAREV The Late Intermediate Period and Late Horizon 1142 East Asia: Languages 870 TERENCE N. D’ALTROY 2.26 PAUL HEGGARTY AND COLIN RENFREW 2.27 THE AMERICAS 897 2.28 Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela 1160 ROBERTO LLERAS PÉREZ 2.VI. 2.13 The Americas: DNA 899 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW Prehistory of Amazonia 1175 ANNA C. ROOSEVELT 2.29 Argentina and Chile 1200 LIDIA CLARA GARCÍA ix CONTENTS 2.30 The Caribbean Islands 1217 2.33 ARIE BOOMERT The Southwestern Region of North America 1235 2.31 CHARLES R. RIGGS The Pacific Coast of North America 1256 2.32 TERRY L. JONES x The Great Plains and Mississippi Valley 1274 LINEA SUNDSTROM AND TIMOTHY R. PAUKETAT 2.34 Eastern Atlantic Coast 1293 ELIZABETH S. CHILTON AND MEREDITH D. HARDY 2.35 Northern North America 1309 RONALD F. WILLIAMSON 2.36 The Americas: Languages 1326 PAUL HEGGARTY AND COLIN RENFREW Volume 3 Contents Maps xvii 3.13 Central Asia before the Silk Road 1617 HERMANN PARZINGER 3.VII. 3.1 WESTERN AND CENTRAL ASIA 1355 The Early Prehistory of Western and Central Asia 1357 GONEN SHARON 3.2 3.4 POLOS’MAK 3.15 The Origins of Sedentism and Agriculture in Western Asia 1408 3.16 The Levant in the Pottery Neolithic and Chalcolithic Periods 1439 YOSEF GARFINKEL 3.6 Settlement and Emergent Complexity in Western Syria, C. 7000–2500 BCE 1462 3.VIII. 3.17 Prehistory and the Rise of Cities in Mesopotamia and Iran 1474 3.18 Mesopotamia: The Historical Periods 1498 3.19 Anatolia: From the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the End of the Early Bronze Age (10,500–2000 BCE) 1508 3.20 Anatolia from 2000 to 550 BCE 1545 3.21 The Prehistory of the Caucasus: Internal Developments and External Interactions 1571 PHILIP L. KOHL AND VIKTOR TRIFONOV 3.12 Arabia 1596 LLOYD WEEKS Upper Palaeolithic Imagery 1786 Early Food Production in Southeastern Europe 1803 JOHN CHAPMAN 3.22 Early Food Production in Southwestern Europe 1818 JOÃO ZILHÃO 3.23 Hunters, Fishers and Farmers of Northern Europe, 9000–3000 BCE 1835 PETER BOGUCKI 3.24 ASLI ÖZYAR 3.11 The Upper Palaeolithic of Europe 1753 PAUL G. BAHN MEHMET ÖZDOğAN 3.10 Europe and the Mediterranean: DNA 1747 JOÃO ZILHÃO JOAN OATES 3.9 Early Palaeolithic Europe 1703 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW JOAN OATES 3.8 EUROPE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN 1701 OLAF JÖRIS PETER M. M. G. AKKERMANS 3.7 Western and Central Asia: Languages 1678 PAUL HEGGARTY AND COLIN RENFREW OFER BAR-YOSEF 3.5 Western Asia after Alexander 1658 GEORGINA HERRMANN The Upper Palaeolithic and Earlier Epi-Palaeolithic of Western Asia 1381 ANNA BELFER-COHEN AND NIGEL GORING-MORRIS Southern Siberia during the Bronze and Early Iron Periods 1638 VYACHESLAV MOLODIN AND NATALYA Western and Central Asia: DNA 1379 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW 3.3 3.14 The Aegean 1860 OLIVER DICKINSON 3.25 Post-Neolithic Western Europe 1885 ALISON SHERIDAN 3.26 The Later Prehistory of Central and Northern Europe 1912 ANTHONY F. HARDING xi CONTENTS 3.27 The Post-Neolithic of Eastern Europe 1937 BRYAN K. HANKS 3.28 3.29 Europe and the Mediterranean: Languages 1977 PAUL HEGGARTY AND COLIN RENFREW The Classical World 1958 ANTHONY SNODGRASS xii Index 1995 Volume 1 Maps 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.4.1 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.8.1 1.9.1 1.9.2 1.10.1 1.10.2 1.11.1 1.12.1 1.12.2 1.12.3 1.13.1 1.13.2 1.14.1 1.14.2 1.15.1 1.16.1 1.17.1 1.18.1 1.18.2 Evolution, expansion and migration of human Y-chromosomal types across the world 11 Evolution, expansion and migration of human mtDNA types across the world 12 Early hominin sites and species mentioned in the text 48 Earliest archaeological sites in Africa 67 Acheulean sites in Africa 73 African sites with Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis and Homo erectus, discussed in the text 88 African sites with Homo rhodesiensis and Homo sapiens, discussed in the text 94 Political map of Africa to be used with Table 1.8.1 107 Map of South Africa showing important Later Stone Age sites 132 A map showing the 120 m offshore bathymetric contour, the likely position of the Cape shoreline at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum 144 Map of North Africa indicating the main places mentioned in the text 152 Chronological distribution of mean calibrated ages for Neolithic bovid bones in North Africa, illustrating the spread of cattle from northeast to southwest 158 Map of West Africa with geographic terms and sites mentioned in the text 166 Central African rainforest 184 Map of Cameroon indicating some sites mentioned in the text 188 Distribution of Central African rainforest and languages 195 Map of southern Africa showing some Early and Late Iron Age sites mentioned in the text 205 Map of southern Africa showing the migration streams 211 East Africa 221 Sudan 223 Archaeological sites of Neolithic and Predynastic Egypt 241 Archaeological sites from the emergence of the Egyptian state 260 Pharaonic Egypt, with main sites marked 280 Ancient Egyptian and Meroitic language and scripts, movement from Egypt south into Nubia 296 Movement of Phoenician, Punic (western Phoenician), ancient Libyco-Berber and modern Tifinagh languages and scripts 297 1.18.3 Movement of Saba‘an, Ge‘ez and Ethiopic languages and scripts, from southwestern Arabia into Ethiopia 299 1.18.4 Movement of Phoenican script to Greece, then Greek language and script to Egypt, Libya and the East African coast; and movement of Greek, Coptic and Old Nubian languages and scripts from Egypt south to Nubia 301 1.18.5 Latin language and script, movement along the North African coast and Egypt 303 1.18.6 Arabic language and script, movement from Arabia to Egypt, Ethiopia/Somalia, then westwards and southwards 304 1.20.1 Map of South Asia showing important Palaeolithic sites and site complexes 331 1.20.2 Map showing various chipping clusters on the 50 cm Acheulian level exposed in Trench 1 at Isampur, Hunsgi Valley 333 1.21.1 Southeast Asia: aerial view showing significant sedimentary basins and catastrophe origin points 347 1.21.2 Aerial view of eastern Java, Indonesia, showing Early Palaeolithic sites 351 1.21.3 Aerial view of central Flores, Indonesia, showing Early Palaeolithic sites 355 1.21.4 Aerial view of northern Luzon, Philippines, showing Early Palaeolithic sites 357 1.23.1 Map of Upper Palaeolithic South and Southeast Asia showing all major sites or valley systems mentioned in the text 376 1.24.1 Regions of India and Sri Lanka 390 1.24.2 Map of India and Sri Lanka showing major sites 391 1.24.3 Climatic patterns in South Asia, showing zonation of average annual rainfall and the direction of weather currents during the summer monsoon 393 1.24.4 Reconstructed vegetation zones of South Asia for the Last Glacial Maximum and Early to Middle Holocene 394 1.25.1 Major cultural traditions of South Asia 408 1.25.2 Indus Tradition: Regionalisation Era sites 410 1.25.3 Indus Tradition: Integration Era sites 413 1.25.4 Indus rock and mineral source areas 420 1.25.5 Indus Tradition: Localisation Era sites 428 1.26.1 Archaeological sites in Post-Harappan India 434 1.27.1 Archaeological sites in India and Sri Lanka 448 1.28.1 Map of Southeast Asia indicating the location of sites mentioned in the text 461 xiii MAPS 1.29.1 Map of mainland Southeast Asia showing the location of important Bronze Age sites 479 1.29.2 Map of mainland Southeast Asia showing the location of important Iron Age sites 486 1.31.1 Map showing the colonisation routes of Homo erectus in the Lower Pleistocene (c. 1.2 mya to 800 kya) and of Anatomically Modern Humans (c. 75–30 kya) 505 1.31.2 Locations of important Indonesian sites mentioned in the text, from the Terminal Pleistocene to the end of the prehistoric period in the Indonesian Archipelago 512 1.31.3 The distribution of Austronesian languages out of Taiwan 512 1.32.1 The Philippines 523 1.35.1 Map of Pleistocene Sahul, showing sites and areas referred to in the chapter 567 1.36.1 Multipanel maps of New Guinea showing the locations of sites and places mentioned in the text 579 xiv 1.36.2 Major stable crops across Papua New Guinea today 584 1.36.3 Distribution of mortars and pestles relative to the Mid-Holocene inland sea in the Sepik-Ramu Basin 587 1.37.1 Archaeological sites in Australia 599 1.37.2 The distribution of backed tools and points in Australia 603 1.37.3 Changing environment and rock art in western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory 607 1.38.1 Micronesia and geographic divisions 615 1.39.1 Map of the Southwest Pacific, indicating Melanesia, the biogeographic divisions of Near and Remote Oceania and the extent of the Lapita distribution 623 1.40.1 The islands of Polynesia 633 1.41.1 Map showing mainland New Zealand, North Island and South Island, and main outlying islands and localities mentioned in the chapter 652 Volume 2 Maps 2.2.1 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4.1 2.5.1 2.6.1 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 2.8.1 2.9.1 2.9.2 2.9.3 2.10.1 2.10.2 2.10.3 2.10.4 2.11.1 2.11.2 2.14.1 Location of the main Early Palaeolithic sites of central and northern Asia 696 The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Northeast Asia (45–30,000 BP) 708 The Classic stage of the Upper Palaeolithic, 28/25,000–19/18,000 BP 717 Final Upper Palaeolithic, 17,000–11,000 BP 720 East Asian archaeological sites discussed in the text 725 Map of northern and central China 743 Map of major sites in southern China mentioned in the text 767 Distribution areas of the archaeological cultures of the Later Neolithic Period of northern China mentioned in the text 784 Distribution of three-tier site clusters around major centres of the Wangwan III Culture in central Henan Province, including Wangchenggang in the northwest 791 Distribution of hierarchical site clusters around major centres of the Hougang II Culture in northern Henan Province, including Mengzhuang and Hougang 792 Early complex society archaeological sites in southern China 808 Zhanguo (Warring States) 824 Han Dynasty 828 Tang Dynasty 830 Modern cities and regions in Japan and Korea, with Korean Bronze Age sites 836 Lelang Commandery and contemporaneous sites in Japan and Korea 839 Protohistoric and early historic capitals in Japan and Korea 847 The Kyongju Basin in southeastern Korea, homeland of the Silla state: the original crescent-shaped hill fortress Panwŏlsŏng was succeeded by the 7th-century gridded city containing Anapchi pavilion pond and Hwangnyŏngsa Temple 849 Concentrations of sites of the Neolithic cultures in the southern part of the Russian Far East 853 Sites of the Palaeometal Period in the Maritime region 865 Extent of glaciation at about 20,000 and 12,000 BP in North and South America, exposed continental shelf at about 20,000 BP, distribution of technological Clovis 906 2.14.2 Major late Quaternary biomes in North and South America 907 2.14.3 Distribution of early sites and complexes in North America 909 2.14.4 Distribution of early sites and complexes in South America 909 2.15.1 North American Paleoindian and Archaic sites mentioned in the text 924 2.15.2 Fluted point sites in North America 927 2.15.3 The Poverty Points, Louisiana 934 2.15.4 Silver Glen Run Complex, Florida, c. 1923 935 2.16.1 Sites of Central America and northern South America 944 2.16.2 Sites of South America 946 2.17.1 Archaeological sites of the Archaic and Formative periods of Mesoamerica mentioned in the text 956 2.18.1 Location map of Formative Period sites in South America mentioned in the text 973 2.18.2 Postulated domestication areas for various crops in South America 974 2.19.1 The Basin of Mexico 987 2.19.2 The Late Formative settlement pattern (300 and 100 BCE) 990 2.19.3 The Classic settlement pattern (100–600 CE) 994 2.19.4 The Epiclassic settlement pattern (600–800/900 CE) 998 2.19.5 The Late Postclassic settlement pattern (1350–1520 CE) 1000 2.20.1 Map of southern Mesoamerica showing Early and Middle Preclassic archaeological sites in and beyond the Olmec heartland of Mexico’s southern Gulf coast 1006 2.20.2 Relief map of the western Olmec heartland illustrating the location of key sites in the coastal plains, uplands and mountains 1008 2.20.3 Topographic map of the central section of the San Lorenzo plateau 1014 2.21.1 Oaxaca showing places mentioned in the text 1027 2.21.2 Monte Albán’s “least cost” pathways to the Pacific Coast 1034 2.22.1 Archaeological sites of the lowland Maya civilisation 1044 2.23.1 Map of coastal South America showing the location of sites and places mentioned in the text 1059 xv MAPS 2.24.1 Map of the Late Preceramic Period 1078 2.24.2 Map of the Initial Period and Early Horizon 1085 2.25.1 Central and south-central Andes with geographic areas and major sites of the Early Intermediate Period discussed in text 1100 2.25.2 Central and south-central Andes with geographic areas and major sites of the Middle Horizon discussed in text 1112 2.25.3 Ayacucho Valley and Huari heartland during the Middle Horizon 1128 2.26.1 The northern half of the central Andean region, showing the location of the Moche Culture area and Chimú Empire 1143 2.26.2 Pärssinen’s (1992) reconstruction of the Inka expansion 1147 2.26.3 The Inka Empire (Tawantinsuyu), showing the four parts, the principal Inka installations and the road network 1149 2.26.4 A schematic map of Inka Cuzco, showing the two core areas of Upper and Lower Cuzco, the complex of Saqsaywaman, the four parts of the empire and key architectural compounds 1151 2.27.1 Location of major present-day cities and main archaeological sites in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela mentioned in the text 1161 2.28.1 Map of selected sites in the Amazon 1176 2.28.2 Map of greater Taperinha Shell Mound, Brazil 1182 2.28.3 Map of the Castanheira Site, a Formative residential earth mound of the Zoned Incised-Hachure style horizon, Marajo Island 1185 2.28.4 Topographic map of Guajara mound, Monte Carmelo group; Marajoara Culture of the Polychrome horizon 1189 xvi 2.28.5 Geophysical summary map of Guajara mound 1190 2.28.6 Map of house mounds and borrow pits at the Shell Oil locality, Santarem Port Site 1193 2.29.1 Northwestern Argentina and northern Chile archaeological region with some of the sites and cultures mentioned in the text for the Late periods (since 1000 BCE) 1201 2.29.2 Inca Cueva Gorge and all its sites 1212 2.30.1 Map of the Caribbean Islands 1218 2.30.2 Map of the Caribbean Islands showing the linguistic groupings about 1500 CE 1219 2.30.3 Overview of the late-prehistoric monumental earthworks of Chacuey, Dominican Republic 1230 2.31.1 The American Southwest 1236 2.32.1 Regions and subregions of the Pacific Coast of North America 1257 2.32.2 Selected archaeological sites of the Pacific Coast 1258 2.32.3 Terminal Pleistocene and Initial Holocene archaeological manifestations and approximate locations of the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets c. 11,300 BCE 1259 2.33.1 Mississippi Valley archaeological sites mentioned in the text 1275 2.33.2 Map of the Great Plains 1276 2.33.3 Middle Woodland Period geometric earthworks in the vicinity of Chillicothe, Ohio 1281 2.34.1 Map of the ecological regions of the Atlantic Coast 1294 2.34.2 Map illustrating the three shell rings at Fig Island, South Carolina 1297 2.35.1 Map of northern North America 1310 Volume 3 Maps Geographic map of the Levant 1358 Map of Lower Palaeolithic sites 1360 Location map of selected Late Acheulian sites 1365 3.1.4 Map of Acheulo-Yabrudian sites 1369 3.1.5 Map of Middle Palaeolithic sites 1372 3.3.1 Major Upper Palaeolithic and Epi-Palaeolithic sites in Western Asia 1384 3.4.1 Distribution of Natufian sites in the Levant 1414 3.4.2 Distribution of PPNA sites in the Levant 1418 3.4.3 Distribution of PPNB sites in the Levant 1422 3.4.4 A map with a suggested reconstruction of the spatial distribution of the Neolithic tribal territories in the Levant based on the subsistance systems 1430 3.5.1 Map of the Levant with the major sites mentioned in the text 1440 3.6.1 Map of Syria with the main sites and regions mentioned in the text 1463 3.7.1 Map of Greater Mesopotamia 1475 3.7.2 Map of Iran 1488 3.8.1 Map of Mesopotamia featuring sites mentioned in the text 1499 3.9.1 Map of Anatolia 1517 3.10.1 Map of Anatolia 1546 3.11.1 Topographic map of the Caucasus 1572 3.12.1 Map of Arabia 1597 3.13.1 Map of Central Asia 1618 3.14.1 Map showing the regions of culture distributions in the 6th to 3rd centuries BCE in western Siberia 1649 3.15.1 Map of western Asia 1659 3.17.1 The oldest sites in Europe ~1.77–0.875 million years ago 1707 3.17.2 European sites ~875–630 kyr ago 1708 3.17.3 European sites ~630–300 kyr ago 1712 3.17.4a Early Neanderthal remains in late Middle Pleistocene Europe 1717 3.17.4b Late Neanderthal remains in early Upper Pleistocene Europe 1717 3.17.5 Final Middle Palaeolithic Europe ~50–40 kyr ago 1722 3.19.1 Map of Europe, showing locations of sites mentioned in the text 1755 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.19.2 Regional distribution of personal ornaments in the Solutrean sites of the middle Dordogne Basin and adjacent regions 1761 3.19.3a Culture geography of the Greater Mediterranean during the Transitional and Early phases of the Upper Palaeolithic 1772 3.19.3b Culture geography of the Greater Mediterranean during the Transitional and Early phases of the Upper Palaeolithic 1773 3.20.1 Map showing locations of European Palaeolithic imagery sites mentioned in the text 1787 3.21.1 Map of key sites in Greece and the Balkans 1805 3.22.1 Early southern European food producers’ sites mentioned in the text 1820 3.22.2 Geographic distribution of Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic settlements in South-central Portugal between 6000 and 4750 cal BCE 1823 3.23.1 Map of northern Europe featuring Mesolithic sites mentioned in the text 1836 3.23.2 Map of northern Europe featuring Neolithic sites mentioned in the text 1840 3.24.1 Map of the Aegean 1862 3.24.2 Map of Crete 1869 3.25.1 Map of western Europe showing places mentioned in the text 1886 3.25.2 Map of the Early Bronze Age Channel maritory 1894 3.25.3 Map of Phoenician settlements in Spain 1902 3.26.1 Map showing central and northern Europe, featuring sites mentioned in the text 1913 3.27.1 Map of Eastern Europe indicating the approximate locations of sites mentioned in the text 1938 3.27.2 Map of southeastern Ural Mountains region indicating sites associated with Sintashta culture developments 1949 3.28.1 Regionalism in developed Iron Age Greece, 8th to 7th centuries BCE 1960 3.28.2 Regional divisions in early Italy, 8th to 4th centuries BCE 1961 3.28.3 Archaic Rome, c. 500 BCE 1962 3.28.4 The conquests of Alexander the Great, 334–323 BCE 1969 3.28.5 The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, 2nd century CE 1971 xvii About the Contributors Peter Akkermans Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University Zeresenay Alemseged Department of Anthropology, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco Arie Boomert Archaeology Faculty – Caribbean and Amazonia, Leiden University David R. Braun Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town Francis Allard Department of Anthropology, McElhaney Hall, Indiana University of Pennsylvania Peter Breunig J. W. Goethe–Universität Frankfurt am Main, Institut für Archäologische Wissenschaften Terence N. D’Altroy Department of Anthropology, Columbia University Richard L. Burger Department of Archaeology, Yale University David G. Anderson Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Dilip K. Chakrabarti McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge Paul G. Bahn Research Quality Group SERP (Seminari Prehistòriques), Universitat de Barcelona John Chapman Department of Archaeology, University of Durham Recerques Andrew K. Balkansky Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Gina L. Barnes Department of Art and Archaeology, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Ofer Bar-Yosef Peabody Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology, Harvard University Pamela Chester PIC Archaeology, Wellington Elizabeth S. Chilton Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts Shadreck Chirikure Materials Laboratory, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Science, University of Cape Town Russell L. Ciochon Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa Stuart Bedford Department of Archaeology and Natural History, Division of Society and Environment, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University Geoffrey Clark Department of Archaeology and Natural History, Division of Society and Environment, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University Anna Belfer-Cohen Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem David J. Cohen International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History, Boston University Caroline Bird Research Associate, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, Western Australian Museum, Perth Peter Bogucki School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton University François Bon Travaux et Recherches Archéologiques sur les Cultures, les Espaces et les Sociétés (TRACES) – UMR 5608, Université de Toulouse, and GAES, Witwatersrand University Michael B. Collins Texas Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin Ann Cyphers Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Tim Denham Archaeology Program, Historical and European Studies, La Trobe University, Melbourne xix ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS Oliver Dickinson Department of Classics and Ancient History, Durham University Paul Heggarty Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig Tom D. Dillehay Department of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University Stan Hendrickx Provinciale Hogeschool Limburg (PHL), Department of Arts and Architecture, Hasselt, Belgium Manfred K. H. Eggert Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte und Archäologie des Mittelalters, Universität Tübingen Christopher S. Henshilwood AHKR Institute, University of Bergen François-Xavier Fauvelle-Aymar Travaux et Recherches Archéologiques sur les Cultures, les Espaces et les Sociétés (TRACES) – UMR 5608, Université de Toulouse, and GAES, Witwatersrand University John G. Fleagle Department of Anatomical Sciences, Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook University Georgina Herrmann Institute of Archaeology, University College London Dirk Huyge Department of Egyptology, Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels Salima Ikram Department of Egyptology, The American University in Cairo Peter Forster Cambridge Society for the Application of Research, Churchill College, Cambridge William H. Isbell Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Binghamton David Freidel Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis Olaf Jöris Forschungbereich Altsteinzeit des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Schloss Monrepos, Neuwied Dorian Q. Fuller Institute of Archaeology, University College, London Terry L. Jones Department of Social Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Lidia Clara García Instituto de Arqueología, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires Jonathan Mark Kenoyer Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Yosef Garfinkel Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Nigel Goring-Morris Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Frederick E. Grine Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University Junko Habu Department of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley Patrick V. Kirch Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley Philip L. Kohl Department of Anthropology, Wellesley College Roy Larick Levin College of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University Ludmila Lbova Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk Jean-Loïc Le Quellec CNRS UMR 8171, CEMAf Paris Bryan K. Hanks Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh Roberto Lleras Pérez Professor of Archaeology, Universidad Externado de Colombia Anthony F. Harding Department of Archaeology, University of Exeter Marlize Lombard Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, University of Johannesburg Meredith D. Hardy NPS-Southeast Archaeological Center, Regionwide Archeological Survey Program, Tallahassee, Florida xx Michael Love Pre-Columbian Studies, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. About the Contributors Linda R. Manzanilla Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Colin Renfrew McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge Vyacheslav Molodin Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk Timothy E. G. Reynolds Department of History, Classics and Archaeology, Birkbeck, University of London Robert E. Murowchick International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History, Boston University Charles R. Riggs Department of Anthropology, Fort Lewis College, Durango Joan Oates McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge Dougald O’Reilly School of Archaeology and Anthropology, College of Arts and Social Sciences, Australian National University Mehmet Özdogan Department of Prehistory, Istanbul University Asli Özyar Department of History, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bogazici University, Istanbul Katragadda S. Paddayya Department of Archaeology, Deccan College, Pune John Parkington Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Science, University of Cape Town Hermann Parzinger Präsident der Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin Timothy R. Pauketat Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana Victor Paz Director, Archaeological Studies Program, University of the Philippines, Quezon City Jacke Phillips Art and Archaeology, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Dolores Piperno Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Natalya Polos’mak Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk Anna C. Roosevelt Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Chicago Daniel Sandweiss Professor of Anthropology and Quaternary and Climate Studies, University of Maine Goren Sharon Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Alison Sheridan Archaeology Department, National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh Rasmi Shoocongdej Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University Michael V. Shunkov Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk Anthony Snodgrass McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge Linea Sundstrom Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin– Milwaukee Andrei V. Tabarev Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk Daud Aris Tanudirjo Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta Pavel Tarasov Institute for Geological Sciences, Palaeontology, Free University of Berlin Margarete Prüch Institute of Asian Art History, University of Heidelberg Viktor Trifonov Department of Central Asia and the Caucasus, Institute for the Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg Ryan J. Rabett McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge Mayke Wagner Eurasien-Abteilung des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Berlin xxi ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS Lloyd Weeks Department of Archaeology, University of Nottingham Peter White School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry, University of Sydney Ronald F. Williamson Archaeological Services, Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada xxii Hugo D. Yacobaccio Instituto de Arqueología, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires João Zilhão Departament de Prehistòria, Història Antiga i Arqueologia, Facultat de Geografia i Història, University of Barcelona I. Introduction 1 .1 IN T RO D U CT I O N COLIN RENFREW AND PAUL G. BAHN The Concept of World Prehistory World prehistory is now recognised as a vast field of human experience. Indeed, it covers by far the greater part of the human story: hundreds of thousands or even millions of years. In comparison, the annals of written history do not extend back as far as six thousand years before the present day. Fifty years ago, when Grahame Clark in Cambridge first published his World Prehistory (Clark 1961), the subject of prehistory had been studied and researched in a systematic and coherent way for just a century. Over that century, from the publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (Darwin 1859) and the public recognition in that same year of “the antiquity of man” (Lyell 1863; Lubbock 1865), the fossil record for human origins and the worldwide evidence for the origins of civilisation had been impressively documented. Yet it was only with the development of radiocarbon dating in 1949 by Willard Libby (1955), a decade earlier than the publication of Clark’s book, that some unified view of the broad sweep of prehistory became possible. For only then could a dating system be established whereby those processes and events could be set in some coherent context across the world. Only then could the development of the human species be assigned to a specific homeland – Africa – and the early outlines of the human story be written. Only then could the sedentary revolution in different parts of the world be set in the context of the climatic changes that made it possible. For then it became possible to view the key social developments that followed, including the rise of state societies, in some coherent perspective on a unified timescale. It was following the emergence of those complex societies or “civilisations”, in Sumer and in Egypt, in China, in Mesoamerica, and then more widely, that the transformative technologies of writing developed. With the written records that then became possible, there emerged recorded history and the rich textual narratives today available from every part of the world. Where fifty years ago the obscure millennia of prehistoric times might seem merely a prelude to the well-illuminated records of the historic past, it is possible today to take a broader view. For the spotlight of history, until the colonial expansions beginning in the 16th century of the Common Era (CE), has shone only in limited areas – on the Classical World of Greece and Rome, in India, in China. Rarely, until the dissemination of printed texts, again in the 16th century CE, has the historical record offered a rich and circumstantial documentation of the human past. Until that timepoint is reached, the historian and the prehistorian both have to rely heavily upon the techniques of archaeology to provide the data necessary for the study and understanding of the human past. For many parts of the world, little more than two centuries have passed since the voyages of Captain Cook and his successors brought literacy and the sometimes doubtful merits of colonial administration to their shores. So, in surveying the broad sweep of human experience, the disciplines of prehistory and of history must work together. In recent years, it has occasionally been claimed that the term “prehistory” is somehow racist or at least colonialist, in that it implies that oral histories are inferior to written documents. We disagree completely with this view. The invention or adoption of writing systems in different parts of the world over the last few millennia has been largely a matter of chance and serendipity, and in no way ranks different cultures in a hierarchy of intelligence or importance. One could just as easily survey the world of the past using the invention or adoption of the wheel as a significant event around the globe. Nevertheless, the arrival of a writing system constitutes a useful marker when undertaking a broad survey of humankind’s past such as we have attempted here. Prehistory ends in the Near East millennia ago and in other parts of the world, such as Polynesia, only a couple of centuries ago, but in comparison with the timespan of human existence, this is a drop in the ocean. The crucial point is that, once writing appears, the study of the human past has documents to flesh out its story – it becomes history – whereas before the advent of writing, it is archaeology, the study of material culture, that is the primary source of information, with oral traditions in a supporting role for recent periods. However, as this Cambridge World Prehistory shows for the first time, the study of linguistics can also play a very important part, while the new field of genetics has rapidly established itself as a vital tool in reconstructing the past. We hope that these volumes, which place equal emphasis on 3 1.1 C O L I N R E N F R E W A N D PA U L G . B A H N archaeology, language and genetics, will constitute a significant milestone in the study of prehistory. Thanks to constant major advances in the technology of archaeological investigation, as well as in our ability to extract and analyse genetic material from ancient remains, it is a certainty that when another attempt is made – perhaps in a few decades – to assess our picture of human prehistory, that picture will in some ways have changed immeasurably. The study of prehistoric archaeology has proliferated so mightily in recent years that no one author can give even an outline account. So it has seemed worthwhile to emulate the classic Cambridge Ancient History of half a century ago and to bring together experts who can summarise the prehistoric annals of their own continents. The task is however a greater one than it was fifty years ago. For then the “Ancient World” implied the literate world from which written records were preserved. In reality, this implied mainly the Mediterranean World (with western Asia), since early India, China and Mesoamerica were not adequately included. It is, however, the very democratic feature of world prehistory that it can deal equitably with all the globe. Every part of the world, except perhaps Antarctica, has its place, since every continent has a rich archaeological record that is now undergoing intensive study. The development of prehistoric studies Without the disciplines of archaeology, there could be no study of prehistory. Archaeology, the study of the human past on the basis of its material remains, offers the only way of approaching those periods for which no written account is available or from which no written records remain. The development of prehistoric studies therefore lies within the ambit of the emergence of archaeology itself, which can be traced back to the early days of literate society (Schnapp 1996). It was only in the 19th century, however, that what Glyn Daniel (1962) termed The Idea of Prehistory developed with clarity. As he showed, it emerged in part from the stratigraphic researches of geologists such as Charles Lyell (1838, 1863). It was in that context that the “antiquity of man” was conclusively demonstrated, and the creationist narrative based upon a literal reading of the Book of Genesis called into question. In 1833, Paul Tournal, a French pharmacist, divided the last geological period – that of humans – into the historic (going back seven thousand years) and the “antehistoric”, of unknown duration. This was the first use of such a term, and the first real linkage of geology and history. The earliest known use of the term “préhistorique” came in a paper by another Frenchman, Gustave d’Eichthal, which was presented to the Paris Ethnological Society in 1843 (d’Eichthal 1845). Soon after, Darwin’s evolutionary approach set the evolution of the human species in its wider place in the living world (Darwin 1871). It was the Danish antiquaries of the early 19th century who first established the Three Age System, allowing chronological divisions to be introduced into the narrative of the early past 4 on the basis of the constituent materials of the artifacts recovered (Daniel 1950). The word “prehistory” itself soon came into common use with the publication of Daniel Wilson’s The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland (1851) and of John Lubbock’s Prehistoric Times (1865). Lubbock also divided the Stone Age into the “Palaeolithic” (Old Stone Age), now generally regarded as ending with the onset of the Neothermal Period around 10,000 BCE, and the “Neolithic” (New Stone Age). This term too has continued in use in many areas of the world, being understood today as implying food production and the domestication of plants and animals. The Australian scholar Gordon Childe gave further authoritative expression to that usage with his term the “Neolithic Revolution” (Childe 1936), although in the archaeology of the Americas the term “Archaic” is often preferred to “Palaeolithic” and “Formative” to “Neolithic”. The various research techniques that are now subsumed under the term “archaeological science” have greatly enriched the study of prehistory (see Renfrew & Bahn 2012). As noted later, radiocarbon dating has been the most revolutionary of these techniques in its effects, although it is only one of the chronometric methods that the sciences have made available. In view of their central role, they are briefly reviewed in the next section. Also, the influence of climatic factors upon human affairs has increasingly come to be better understood. Again, this progress is based largely upon scientific methods of dating, and palaeoclimatology is one of the disciplines that sustain prehistoric studies today. It is further considered in the section “The Role of Climate and Climatic Change,” following the discussion of chronology. New approaches If the major archaeological advance of the mid-20th century was the application of radiometric dating methods, including radiocarbon dating, to the prehistoric past, the great clarification at the turn of the new millennium was offered by the developments of molecular genetics. Its application to the human past in the new discipline of archaeogenetics has already established beyond reasonable doubt the African organs of our species, Homo sapiens, and the timing of the out-of-Africa dispersals around sixty thousand years ago (Forster 2004). The subsequent population history is today under intensive study, with abundant new data becoming available. The information derived from the DNA of living human populations is now increasingly being supplemented by ancient DNA derived from human remains uncovered in archaeological excavations. Although the results in many areas are not yet clear and some interpretations are still obscure, the editors agreed that the archaeogenetic evidence is now becoming indispensable to the study of world prehistory. It was therefore decided to commission a chapter for each section of the present work devoted to a specific continent or region where the archaeogenetic evidence for its population history could be discussed. The other field of research increasingly becoming relevant to the study of world prehistory is archaeolinguistics, Introduction the study of the history and prehistory of the world’s languages. At first sight, of course, to speak of the “prehistory” of languages may seem a contradiction in terms, since without writing (on which written history depends) there can be no direct documentation of language. Yet the recognition of the existence of language families carries the implication that there can be relationships between languages that go back to a time before those languages are documented in writing. In the modern world, many communities are in practice defined (and named) on the basis of the language that they speak. Language is often the best indicator of the communal self-recognition that anthropologists term “ethnicity”. So this is another strand of evidence that it seems appropriate to emphasise in the Cambridge World Prehistory. Here, however, a note of caution is needed. Statistical methods inspired by phylogenetics and comparative biology are increasingly being used to study languages (Pagel 2009; Forster & Renfrew 2006), but they have not yet found widespread acceptance among some historical linguists. Nor have they yet been very widely applied. The editors have felt that a “new synthesis” may be emerging (Renfrew 1991: 3; 2000: 7) among the fields of prehistoric archaeology, molecular genetics (archaeogenetics) and historical linguistics (archaeolinguistics). They have therefore commissioned chapters on the prehistory of languages, insofar as they can be documented or reconstructed, for the various continents. They recognise, however, that the reconstruction of linguistic prehistory is at an early stage and that historical linguists are far from reaching consensus on questions of time depth (McMahon & McMahon 2006). As in the case of archaeogenetics, the chapters written here on archaeolinguistics must be of a tentative nature. For this reason, this work deliberately avoids seeking to produce some version of a unified synthesis among the three fields, which might well be a premature undertaking. It has seemed more prudent to take together the prehistory with the molecular genetics, and then separately to compare the linguistic with the archaeological evidence. Perhaps by the time of a second edition of this work, some unified synthesis among the three disciplines will have become possible. It still seems a difficult task today. Various other directions and modes of interpretation have been developed in recent years and the history and theory of prehistoric archaeology are now well-developed fields (Trigger 1989; Hodder 1986; Renfrew 2007). The processual archaeology of the 1960s (or “New Archaeology” as it was then termed) has been followed by the “postprocessual” archaeology of succeeding decades. This in turn has been superseded by the multivocality of the postmodern world. Meanwhile, underlying these philosophical disputes about method has been the emergence of the new political considerations of the postcolonial era and the reevaluation of Marxist archaeology. Aspects of these debates have inevitably influenced the chapters that follow. We view these chapters as a major resource, together offering an impression of the development of prehistoric sciences across the world. The synthesis must lie in the mind of the reader. The Structure of the Work It is an inevitable feature of a world survey, such as the Cambridge World Prehistory, that it aspires to global coverage. Certainly it has been the intention of the editors that there should be a wide coverage. So, while the key areas for the emergence of state societies or “civilisations” are frequently privileged in synoptic works, it is our hope to be more even-handed in geographical coverage. One problem, certainly, is the appropriate criterion for inclusion in the work as “prehistory”, rather than for exclusion on the grounds that historical sources are fully operating in a particular region at the time under consideration. Clearly literacy did not come to Australia until the time of Captain Cook in the 18th century of the Common Era. Yet literate records began in Mesopotamia and Egypt already in the 4th millennium BCE. So there are inevitable disparities. There are problems also when a territory that could formerly be regarded as “literate” can be seen to have undergone a “dark age” in the succeeding period, during which written records are no longer available. The approach that we have followed here has been to offer a very concise account for those periods where literate records are available, but when they do not yet offer the wealth of information available for more modern times. So, for Africa, in Chapter 1.17, Salima Ikram offers a summary of Dynastic Egypt, followed by Jacke Phillips with her summary of Classical and Post-Classical Africa. These chapters, like Margarete Pruech’s summary of ancient China (Chapter 2.9) and Joan Oates’ summary of Akkad (Chapter 3.8), have the purpose of providing some outline narrative for periods that in other areas can still properly be regarded as prehistoric. They avoid the gaps that total exclusion on the grounds of literacy would create. So the inclusion of Georgina Herrmann’s chapter on the Post-Classical and Islamic periods in western and central Asia (Chapter 3.15) and Anthony Snodgrass’s summary of the Classical World (Chapter 3.27) avoid the formation of seriously damaging lacunae. We have here regarded the Pre-Columbian periods in Central and South America as effectively prehistoric, in view of the paucity of written records in Mexico until the Colonial Period and of the absence of readable texts in Peru, whatever secrets the quipu may hold. In effect, this allows the work to create an outline narrative for the world, stopping in the Classical Period in Europe and the equivalent in western Asia. For some other areas, prehistory can be deemed to end with the experience of European colonisation. After some discussion, it has seemed inevitable that a broadly geographical approach be adopted, which following current understanding of the origins of humankind should begin in Africa. The out-of-Africa expansion of our species then suggests that South and Southeast Asia could come next. Western and central Asia and then Europe and the Mediterranean come last in a deliberate effort to disrupt the precedence that the early development of writing is sometimes thought to confer. For each region, as noted earlier, the evidence from DNA and 5 1.1 C O L I N R E N F R E W A N D PA U L G . B A H N from historical linguistics are reviewed. They do not yet often offer a coherent and unified view when brought into contact with the archaeological evidence. But such a synthesis is to be anticipated when the foundations for chronology in the fields of molecular genetics and historical linguistics are more thoroughly explored and understood. In some areas, for instance, South America, where the archaeological record is rich and the chronology well defined, it is possible to offer quite a tight regional coverage with a number of chronological subdivisions. In others – for instance, in Africa – the periodisation is not so well defined. In each region, a summary of what is known is offered, even for those areas that have been little explored archaeologically. The study of world prehistory is still in its infancy. Chronology The crucial significance for prehistory of a reliable timescale, as noted previously, emphasises the importance that the development of radiocarbon dating held for the development of archaeology from the mid-20th century onwards. Its application, however, especially in the early years, was not without its problems. The tree-ring calibration of the radiocarbon timescale held a number of implications, not least the realisation that the accuracy of radiocarbon determinations, over parts of the timescale, is significantly restricted by the presence of “kinks” in the calibration curve that make the resulting calibrated dates less precise than one might have wished. The measurement of radiocarbon is not, however, the only reliable method available to the prehistoric archaeologist for the determination of the age of samples. Indeed, for time periods before about fifty thousand years ago the concentration of the radiocarbon remaining in ancient samples is too small to be measured effectively, and other chronometric techniques need to be used. The range of dating techniques made available to archaeology by the natural sciences is now very wide in its scope. Without reviewing them in detail, it may be helpful to indicate some of the principal approaches to the problem of absolute dating. The basic techniques of stratigraphic excavation are fundamental to the establishment of a relative chronology, where sequence can be established with confidence, but cannot lead to any sort of date measured in calendar years. For this, in relation to the prehistoric period, it is necessary to rely upon the techniques of archaeological science. For the Palaeolithic Period (i.e., before the onset of neothermal conditions some ten thousand years ago), radiocarbon dates can be used back to about 50,000 BP (years before present). Before that time, the quantity of radiocarbon remaining is too small to be measured accurately; but for earlier periods, several other techniques, likewise relying on radiometric clocks, are available. These, like radiocarbon, depend upon the principle of the regularity of the radioactive decay process, but utilise radioactive isotopes with a longer half-life than that of 14C. One of the most widely used is potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating, which is used by geologists to date rocks that are hundreds of 6 millions of years old. It has proved one of the most appropriate techniques to date early human (hominin) sites in Africa, which can be up to 5 million years old. It is restricted to volcanic rock no more recent than around one hundred thousand years old. It is, however, radiocarbon dating that made possible a truly global view of prehistory. Although its accuracy should not be exaggerated, for no single date can offer a precision of more than fifty years or so, its applicability to any organic material contemporary with the events of the period under consideration gives it a very general relevance. The Role of Climate and Climatic Change As we write, Pakistan is suffering the worst flooding in its history, with millions of people rendered homeless. It is a stark reminder that humankind has always been at the mercy of the elements, with extreme weather – drought, floods, storms – affecting populations throughout prehistory as well as history, up to and including the present day. Many examples are to be found throughout these volumes, most notably the sequence of glacial and interglacial episodes during the Pleistocene. In the Sahara Desert (as discussed by Jean-Loïc Le Quellec in Chapter 1.10), even small fluctuations in rainfall had dramatic consequences over time. Dune fields expanded and contracted, and at times no human being could survive in much of North Africa, while at other times the Sahara was home to elephants, rhinos, hippos, crocodiles, ostriches and giraffes, which abound in the region’s prehistoric rock art. Lakes came and went, the vegetation and the fauna were modified and the subsistence practices of prehistoric peoples constantly had to adapt to these changing environmental conditions. Many examples can also be found within these volumes of the effects of cyclical climatic phenomena such as monsoons or the El Niño-Southern Oscollation (ENSO). As has recently been pointed out (Cook et al. 2010), the Asian monsoon system affects more than half of humanity worldwide; and a reconstruction of droughts and pluvials over the past millennium, derived from tree-ring chronologies, has revealed the occurrence and severity of the monsoon failures and megadroughts that have repeatedly affected the farming peoples of Asia during that period. In turn, there can be knock-on effects on society. For instance, in the late 1630s and early 1640s CE, the most serious drought in five centuries afflicted China and seems to have triggered peasant rebellions that led to the fall of the Ming Dynasty in 1644 (ibid.: 487). The Late Victorian Great Drought of 1876 to 1878 occurred during one of the most severe El Niño events of the past 150 years, and among its devastating consequences across much of the tropics was a revolt against the French in Vietnam. More than 30 million people are thought to have died from famine worldwide at that time (ibid.: 488). It is hardly surprising, therefore, that any major events of this kind in prehistory will have had a major impact on human societies. Introduction Key Themes The regional coverage that the Cambridge World Prehistory sets out to give is undertaken on a geographical basis. This approach, while offering some benefits in potential uniformity of treatment, may at first sight make it difficult to discern any overarching grand narrative. What is the basic story? The reader may find it difficult to formulate a clear answer to that question. Yet it is one of the strengths of the study of prehistory that there is, in fact, no single authoritative story: there are many stories, some yet to be written. The basic evidence is archaeological in character: the data first make their appearance as material objects. They are artifacts, traces of human activity found in a context rich in possibilities for interpretation. But, as the development of prehistoric archaeology clearly shows, such interpretation is generally based upon the interests of the current age, and on the prejudices and preoccupations of the researcher. The interpretation is, moreover, restricted by the analytical and inferential techniques available. Some outlines for a narrative of world prehistory can already be discerned. But they may differ somewhat from those glimpsed by earlier generations of researchers. In the mid-19th century, students of society sought to find some parallel for the Darwinian evolution of species in a version of social evolution in which notions of “progress” could play a significant role. Even so great a prehistorian as Gordon Childe, inspired by a benign view of Marxist theory, wrote a masterly and optimistic overview, Man Makes Himself, in 1936. Disillusioned, he ended his own life twenty years later. In reality, it is for each generation, and perhaps even for each observer, to draw the lessons or history or of prehistory. It is now possible to outline a series of problems to which the present survey, as set out in these volumes, begins to offer some solutions – or, if that is too bold a claim, at least to contribute data that are relevant. They are presented here as topics under review. Some of these can be concisely expressed as follows: What was the long-term significance of the expansion out-of-Africa, of Homo erectus? The very early dates for hominin occupation in the Caucasus area and the range of fossil finds from Iberia to China offer a rich field of study. What were the key features in the speciation process of Homo sapiens? How do we explain those changes, apparently primarily in Africa, which led in some co-evolutionary process, in which cultural and genetic factors both played their part, to the eventual emergence of our species? What kinds of cognitively developed behaviour did the Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) develop themselves, and what behavioural innovations resulted from their interactions with Homo sapiens? It seems clear that aspects of Neanderthal behaviour anticipated some of the innovations of sapient humans. The similarities and the interactions between them remain to be more fully explained. Seafaring was apparently involved in the human colonisation of Australia. Was this the earliest development of maritime skills, and what other instances can be documented in the Pleistocene Period? Given that very early maritime achievement, have we underestimated the achievements of the early seafarers? Why was the “creative explosion” of Upper Palaeolithic Franco-Cantabria centred upon Europe, with limited manifestations of such activity during the Pleistocene Period seen in other continents? If the genetic constitution of our species was established in Africa, before the out-of-Africa dispersal, why were these quintessentially human achievements for so long restricted in their geographical scope? What factors governed the emergence of sedentary societies in the different continents and the origins of food production? This has long been a primary research focus for prehistoric archaeologists. Climatic factors were obviously important. Yet what prompted the wide range of new behaviours that soon followed early sedentism and the first agriculture? What social formations accompanied the early rise of monumentality and investment in ritual behaviour in the different regions? The early ritual plazas of coastal Peru, the megalithic monuments of northwestern Europe and the early ritual centres of western Asia are far removed from each other spatially. Yet they show new forms of behaviour, including the development of ritual practices, which are remarkably analogous in various ways. Why should that be? How many independent areas of early metallurgical innovation were there? And what factors favoured their development? It has seemed to some scholars unlikely that the technical practices involved in copper and bronze metallurgy could have occurred more than once in human history. Yet there are suggestions of spontaneous developments in western Asia, in Europe, in the Americas and perhaps in China. How does one best address this problem? How many early state societies can be regarded as cases of “pristine” state formation? This is, of course, an old debate going back to the early speculations of Lewis Henry Morgan. As so often is the case, much of the argument depends upon the formulations to conceptualise social structure that are used. But even when perhaps simplistic terms such as “civilisation” are abandoned, the question remains. And on present evidence, there were several such developments that occurred in places that may not have been in contact after the first dispersal of our species. Towards New Problems The theses and questions briefly considered in the preceding section are very much the product of the preoccupations of the archaeology of the early 21st century. They reflect, perhaps inevitably, a concern with “origins” and with the nature of innovation. They can be investigated at a global level by interrogating the chapters of the present work as systematically set out in the pages that follow. Inevitably, while radiocarbon chronologies are still being established for local and regional culture-sequences, the emphasis has indeed been upon the 7 1.1 C O L I N R E N F R E W A N D PA U L G . B A H N culture-sequence. The chapters are of course informed by the concerns of contemporary processual archaeology and the interpretative archaeologies that have grown up beside it. It is worth considering, however, how the work may be enriched in the future by future discoveries. These will come not only from the investigation of newly discovered archaeological sites, but also through the development of new approaches. Some of the new approaches that will develop will be based upon the development of new techniques within the archaeological sciences. But here some limitations may be emerging. As noted previously, the fluctuations in the concentration of atmospheric radiocarbon, which give rise to the wiggles in the calibration curve, set some limits upon the precision of the method, even when Bayesian statistics are employed. Nonetheless, there is the hope that some greater understanding of the interaction between culture and climate will emerge. At present, however, the development of social theory in archaeology seems to have reached something of an impasse. The initial optimism of processual archaeology, in this respect, wilted somewhat under the critique of postprocessual archaeology. But the variety of approaches in interpretation that this in turn encouraged has not led in many areas to any new consensus. In particular, the reconstruction of past social formations has not progressed very far in recent decades. Scholars are increasingly sceptical of using insights derived from contemporary communities in the modern world to illuminate our understanding of past societies. Social anthropology is not at present as rich a source of inspiration for prehistoric archaeology as it used to be. What is clear, however, is that the pace of discovery is being maintained. New sites are discovered and investigated every year. In addition, sadly, newly discovered sites continue to be looted by illicit excavations, whose purpose is to provide artifacts for the art market rather than new information. In that way, the record of the past is impoverished and our hope of reconstructing it diminished. Nonetheless, the level of information available in every part of the world is rapidly increasing. Some of the chapters in the present volume will have much more material to consider when they come up for review in a decade or so. By then, perhaps, new themes will have emerged that we do not envisage today. Acknowledgements We are extremely grateful to Dora Kemp for taking on the arduous task of standardising the maps, and to Anne Chippindale who tackled that of compiling the index; and to Amanda J. Smith and Beatrice Rehl of Cambridge University Press for their wise counsel throughout this project. Naturally, above all we want to thank all the contributors to these volumes, and especially Charles Riggs, Lloyd Weeks and Robert Murowchick for stepping in on extremely short notice to help. We are also grateful to the following friends for advice in choosing contributors: 8 Peter Bellwood, Dimitri Cheremisin, Don Johanson, Alice Kehoe, Dan Potts, Andrea Stone, Martin Street and Francis Thackeray. References Clark, J. G. D. 1961. World Prehistory, an Outline. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Childe, V. G. 1936. Man Makes Himself. Watts: London. Cook, E. R., Anchukaitis, K. J., Buckley, B. M., D’Arrigo, R. D., Jacoby, G. C. & Wright, W. E. 2010. Asian monsoon failure and megadrought during the last millennium. Science 328: 486–9. Daniel, G. E. 1950. A Hundred Years of Archaeology. Duckworth: London. 1962. The Idea of Prehistory. Watts: London. Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. John Murray: London. 1871. The Descent of Man. John Murray: London. D’Eichthal, G. 1845. Etude sur l’histoire primitive des races océaniennes et américaines. Mémoires de la Société Ethnologique II, 1re partie, pp. 151–320. Librairie Orientale de Mme Vve Dondey-Dupre: Paris. Forster, P. 2004. Ice ages and the mitochondrial DNA chronology of human dispersals: a review. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 359: 255–64. Forster, P. & Renfrew, C. (eds.) 2006. Phylogenetic Methods and the Prehistory of Languages. McDonald Institute: Cambridge. Hodder, I. 1986. Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Libby, W. 1955. Radiocarbon Dating. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Lubbock, J. 1865. Prehistoric Times. Williams & Norgate: London. Lyell, C. 1838. Principles of Geology. John Murray: London. 1863. Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man. John Murray: London. McMahon, A. & McMahon, R. 2006. Why archaeologists don’t do dates, pp. 153–60 in (P. Forster & C. Renfrew, eds.) Phylogenetic Methods and the Prehistory of Languages. McDonald Institute: Cambridge. Pagel, M. 2009. Human language as a culturally transmitted replicator. Nature Reviews Genetics 10: 405–15. Renfrew, C. 1991. Before Babel: speculations on the origins of linguistic diversity. Cambridge Archaeological Journal l: 3–23. 2000. 10,000 or 5,000 years ago? Questions of time depth, pp. 413–39 in (C. Renfrew, A. McMahon & L. Trask, eds.) Time Depth in Historical Linguistics. McDonald Institute: Cambridge. 2007. Prehistory, the Making of the Human Mind. Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London. Renfrew, C. & Bahn, P. 2012. Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. 6th ed. Thames & Hudson: London. Schnapp, A. 1996. The Discovery of the Past: The Origins of Archaeology. British Museum Press: London. Tournal, P. 1833. Considérations générales sur le phénomène des cavernes à ossemens. Annales de Chimie et de Physique 52: 161–81. 1989. A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Wilson, D. 1851. The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland. Macmillan: London. 1 .2 IN T ROD U C T I O N: D N A PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW The study of human molecular genetics, made possible through the elucidation of the structure of DNA (Watson & Crick 1953), has in recent years contributed increasingly to the understanding of prehistory. Archaeogenetics, the study of the human past using the techniques of molecular genetics, now provides a framework for investigating the out-of-Africa expansion of our species, Homo sapiens, and the means of elucidating its later population history. It is also informative about the earlier hominin species Homo neanderthalensis. DNA is the genetic material in all life forms that contains the information determining the form and function of the organism. All organisms, whether humans, fungi or bacteria, consist of cells. These cells are largely constructed of four macromolecular building blocks: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and the nucleic acids (RNA and DNA). DNA works as the blueprint within each cell for the synthesis of the proteins. The structure of DNA is a double-stranded linear molecule, the so-called double helix. This contains linear sequences of the four chemical bases – adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine – attached to the DNA backbone. DNA is passed on from one generation to another. In humans, speciﬁc cells, egg cells and sperm cells, are the vehicles of transmission. In animals generally, nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are distinct entities within each cell, and their mode of inheritance differs. mtDNA is passed down only through the mother to her children. The greater part of the cell’s DNA is packaged into chromosomes that are located in the cell’s nucleus. Here it is necessary to distinguish between the Y chromosome and the other nuclear DNA from the point of view of inheritance. While the Y chromosome is passed down exclusively from father to son, the other nuclear DNA is passed down to the children from both parents. In 1967, two Berkeley researchers, V. M. Sarich and A. C. Wilson, surprised the world by publishing a paper in Science in which they concluded that humans and chimpanzees had diverged not 20 million years ago, as was generally thought at the time, but only about 5 million years ago (Sarich & Wilson 1967). Their conclusions were based on a new approach equating observed divergences in proteins between any pair of species to the time since their evolutionary separation, an approach similar to C14-dating. Applying this technique to mtDNA in 1987, they further concluded that humans could trace their maternal lineages to an ancestor in Africa approximately two hundred thousand years ago (Cann, Stoneking & Wilson 1987). Not long after Allan Wilson’s death in 1992, his approach had led, by the late 1990s, to the deciphering of the prehistoric settlement history of the world, continent by continent, by Anatomically Modern Humans over the last two hundred thousand years. Technically, therefore, Sarich and Wilson’s approach is of primary interest to the genetic sections in this book and is worth explaining here in a little detail. At the heart of the approach is the “molecular clock”, which allows the geneticist to use modern DNA to obtain prehistoric dates for divergences of DNA molecules and hence of the prehistoric ancestors carrying these DNA molecules. In general, the age of the ancestor (the “most recent common ancestor” or “coalescent”) of a random pair of modern DNA molecules is fairly meaningless, but in special circumstances it can be tremendously informative for reconstructing prehistory. Such applications arise when the researcher can plausibly identify an ancestral DNA type with, for example, a founder for the ﬁrst settlement of a continent (giving the geneticist a date for the settlement of that continent with regard to its present inhabitants), or with the ﬁrst carrier of a lactase persistence genotype (allowing this prehistoric person and his or her descendants to drink milk in adulthood and therefore beneﬁt from the invention of dairy farming) (Ingram et al. 2009), or with the ﬁrst louse to inhabit clothes rather than body hair (giving a minimal date for the ﬁrst man-made clothes) (Kittler, Kayser & Stoneking 2003). The molecular clock is based on naturally occurring DNA mutations and assumes that the DNA stretch of interest acquires mutations, while it is passed down over the generations, at a constant mutation rate. For the avoidance of confusion, the molecular clock is not assumed to be a hypothetical “molecular metronome”, where the mutations are spaced out in time at a ﬁxed interval; rather, the average mutation rate of a DNA section in a recent millennium is assumed to be the same as the average mutation rate in a prehistoric millennium, akin to uncalibrated radiocarbon dating. The assumption of the molecular clock would not hold true if, for example, the DNA mutation rate depended on generation times or cosmic radiation and if such parameters were quite different in the past. In practice, generation times among current human cultures from 9 1.2 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW the equator to the Arctic circle are very similar (Matsumura & Forster 2008b) and therefore may reasonably be assumed to have been so also in prehistory. Discrepancies among “fast” mutation rates directly measured in modern paternity casework (Brinkmann et al. 1998) and “slow” mutation rates measured using archaeological or fossil benchmarks (Macaulay et al. 1997) are not yet fully resolved, although research on the problem has begun (Forster et al. 2002). Different types of DNA are inherited in different ways, and this feature is useful to exploit when applying the molecular clock. In their landmark experiment on protein variation, Sarich and Wilson indirectly analysed complete genomes of humans and primates, years before the invention of DNA sequencing in 1975. This approach of analysing whole genomes is reasonable when species separations are under consideration. But within a species, it is arguably more effective to analyse mtDNA and the Y chromosome utilising the molecular clock, as these loci can be traced back to distinct human ancestors and additionally can yield sex-speciﬁc information. For example, a military expedition might leave Y chromosomes of males in the resident population, while a true colonisation would involve both males and females, the latter leaving its footprint in the mtDNA lineages. The vast majority of DNA in eukaryotes (organisms with nucleated cells) is “autosomal DNA” (i.e., DNA other than that contained in the X and Y chromosomes), and this type of DNA is less suitable for molecular clock applications, as it recombines from generation to generation, and the researcher has to focus on small sections that have not recombined within the time depth of interest. These small sections thus have limited genetic resolution. It follows that most molecular genetic dating of prehistoric human demographic events relies heavily on mtDNA and the Y chromosome (Jobling, Hurles & Tyler-Smith 2004). The tree concept is crucial to the molecular clock approach. In this context, the construction of the tree starts with sampling representative living individuals. Then the researcher sequences the DNA locus of interest (such as the Y chromosome or mtDNA) in each individual and compiles a table of the observed DNA sequences. These DNA sequences typically differ from individual to individual and therefore represent different types. The task of reconstructing a tree is to link these types via mathematically inferred ancestral types, so that ancestral nodes and descendant branches are formed. Some branching points may be of particular interest to the researcher, who may then decide to refer to the branch as a “haplogroup”. For convenience, mtDNA branches have been alphabetically labelled. The deepest (i.e., the earliest) human mtDNA branching points have descendant branches that have been labelled L0, L1, L2, L3 and so on, and are found mainly in Africa. Branches or haplogroups A, B, C and D, for example, are typical for East Asians and Native Americans. There is no alphabetical logic to the mtDNA branch nomenclature, as branches were labelled (Chen et al. 1995) prior to the acceptance of the precise African root for human mtDNA. For the Y chromosome, a comparable tree has been reconstructed (Underhill et al. 1997), and a more systematic nomenclature, codeveloped by Hans-Jürgen Bandelt and published by the Y Chromosome Consortium 10 (YCC) (2002), applies. The deepest Y chromosome branches are again found in Africa and labelled A and B. The circumstance that speciﬁc branches predominate in certain geographical regions is a signiﬁcant part of the story. With the structure of the tree established, researchers then must date the nodes of interest. Put simply, the length of the branches indicates the time depths of the nodes. Like most dating methods, the genetic clock requires calibration using external benchmarks. Parentage-testing casework within families has already been mentioned. In such studies, the typically analysed Y loci are seen to mutate in 0.3% of father-son pairs (Kayser et al. 1997), yielding a rate of one mutation per 11,700 years, if the current average patrilineal generation time of thirty-ﬁve years holds true for the past (Matsumura & Forster 2008b). A second, complementary calibration approach is to investigate areas of the world where the colonisation history is fairly clear and population continuity until the present can reasonably be assumed, such as in the recently colonised Cook Islands (Macaulay et al. 1997). Using such archaeological benchmarks, it turns out, unfortunately, that the parentage (“pedigree”) rates tend to provide genetic dates that are too recent. Part of the problem may lie in mutational saturation, where a highly variable DNA locus has, over long time periods and undetected, mutated back and forth between ancestral and derived states. Another reason for the young pedigree dates, speciﬁc to mtDNA, may be the undetected persistence of mixed mtDNA populations (heteroplasmy) within the oocytes (egg cells) in the maternal lineages of analysed pedigrees (Bendall et al. 1996; Forster et al. 2002). Fortunately, the third calibration approach is compatible with the archaeological dates, and the benchmarks in this approach are species splits, as advocated by Allan Wilson (Hasegawa et al. 1993). If we assume a human–chimpanzee separation approximately 6.5 million years ago, as suggested by the fossil record, the genetic distance today between a human and a chimpanzee represents 13 million years and equates to an mtDNA mutation rate of one mutation every 3624 years (Soares et al. 2009). The calibration of the Y chromosome clock has also begun, initially with paternity case studies, and has yielded dates in the same order of magnitude as mtDNA dates. But good equivalence between the Y-chromosomal and mtDNA timescales has not yet been achieved (Zhivotsky et al. 2004). Applying these variously calibrated molecular clocks to humans and species associated with human prehistory then gives us the timeline of archaeogenetics (Maps 1.2.1 and 1.2.2). Estimating prehistoric population sizes is another option that the DNA data can offer (reviewed by Matsumura & Forster 2008a). Such an estimation procedure might involve random multiple attempts to reproduce the genealogical tree of DNA molecules (typically Y chromosome or mtDNA variants) linking the living individuals carrying these DNA variants today. These multiple reproduction attempts are carried out by computer and assume various plausible settings for the current population size, prehistoric generation time, prehistoric family size, DNA mutation rate, time depth for the population in question, form of growth curve including periods of increase or decrease and other parameters. Then the best prehistoric Introduction: DNA a A1 A A2 B A3 c. 150,000 years ago b C D F C D F C DE F A C D B F c. 50,000 years ago c Q C RQ R1a F E Q A C O R1b H L D F O O C F B <50,000 years ago MAP 1.2.1. Evolution, expansion and migration of human Y-chromosomal types across the world. The Y-chromosomal tree and the proposed geographical spread are simpliﬁed. The timescale is an estimate based on the mtDNA dates. The displayed Y-branch F encompasses numerous important sub-branches such as J (Middle East) and macro-branch K (encompassing M through R), which are not detailed in the maps for reasons of clarity. Type O occurs at around 1% frequency in the Americas. 11 1.2 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW a Neand erthals ns ova tus nis erec e D mo Ho Skhul/Qafzeh Israel L1 L1 Omo valley, Ethiopia L0 L1 Klasies River Mouth, South Africa b Neand L2 erthals N L3 L1 L2 s van s? iso rectu n De mo e Ho M L3 L1 L0 L2 L3 L1 c ls rtha nde a U e N H I N L2 N L3 L1 L2 L1 L2 L3 L1 L3 L0 B A M D My JT R U F N M N M M x Mx Mx Q M Niah Cave, Borneo N P S Lake Mungo, Australia MAP 1.2.2. Evolution, expansion and migration of human mtDNA types across the world. (Modiﬁed from Forster 2004. The mtDNA tree and the proposed geographical spread are simpliﬁed.) 12 Introduction: DNA d Masterov Kliuch, Siberia X A B C X Gravettian, Europe D H U I N N L2 L3 L2 L1 B A JT L1 L2 L3 L1 R U F C D My Zhoukoudian, China M M Mx Mx Mx L3 Q M L0 N P S e D A X B A D L2 B H R I N H V Meadowcroft, Pennsylvania L2 L1 L1 C A F R L3 L2 L3 L1 D C A U JT C Ny U Mx D B My L3 Q P L0 S f Mesa site, Alaska D A A H V A X A B Magdalenian, Europe H V C D Clovis, New Mexico L2 B Monte Verde, Chile MAP 1.2.2. C A Monte Alegre, Brazil D A U JT H R I N R M1 L3 L2 L1 L1 L2 L3 L1 Y C U I R M1 L3 L0 R U Mx C Ny D My F B Studenoe, Siberia Z Q P S (continued) 13 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW 1.2 g A A A H V D A A J X A B C L2 B B B B MAP 1.2.2. H R I N L1 D J U R M1 L3 L2 L1 C A Z T H V D L2 L3 L1 A Y C U I R M1 L3 L0 B A T R U Mx C Ny D My F B F B B Q P S B B (continued) population size estimate or estimates are considered to be those that allow the known, real genealogical tree to be reproduced most often within the computer simulations. Admixture studies are another developing ﬁeld of human genetics that can yield insights into the prehistoric behaviour of humans at the level of human groups. The possible prehistoric existence of genetically distinguishable human groups per se (Rosenberg et al. 2002) can be disentangled by the popular STRUCTURE software (Pritchard, Stephens & Donnelly 2000; Falush, Stephens & Pritchard 2003). The next logical step is estimating prehistoric admixture between groups – for example, between Neanderthals and modern humans – or between incoming farmers and resident hunter-gatherers, by spatial (geographic) computer simulation. This geographically explicit modelling approach is a recent development (Currat, Escofﬁer & Ray 2008; Ray, Currat & Escofﬁer 2008; François et al. 2010) and has already yielded useful inferences from modern DNA, which can then be compared to the results obtained directly from ancient DNA, as discussed in various sections of this book. Out of Africa The fossil hominin discoveries in eastern and southern Africa during the early 20th century, not least of Australopithecus, soon led to the general view that the key to early human origins lay in Africa. The rich discoveries of fossil remains later in the century left little doubt that it was in Africa that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo erectus had taken place (see Chapters 1.4 and 1.7). Already by the end of the 19th century, the discovery of fossil hominin remains in Southeast Asia, now classiﬁed as representing the species Homo erectus, and later of fossil remains of “Peking Man” in China, posed questions about the origins of our own species. Had the transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens taken place in Europe, where the fossil 14 remains of “Neanderthal Man” had been recognised since the 19th century? Or did that crucial transition take place in Africa (Bräuer 1989) or possibly in Southeast Asia? A compromise answer, suggested in the late 20th century, at ﬁrst seemed to offer a possible solution. This was the “multiregional hypothesis”, whereby ancestral lineages from East Asia as well as from Africa and Europe would together have contributed to the emergence of Homo sapiens. The new species would have emerged at some centrally placed location, possibly in western Asia. This view has now, however, been comprehensively challenged by the archaeogenetic data. It should be clearly understood that the out-of-Africa scenario for the origins of Homo sapiens is based ﬁrmly on the study of DNA samples taken from living human populations around the world. Ancient DNA, recovered from skeletal remains, some of them fossilised, does indeed represent another important source of data (see the following section), but has not so far been recovered from Homo sapiens remains older than ﬁfty thousand years ago. This is largely because the risk of contamination by material containing DNA of recent origin (for instance, deriving from museum curators, laboratory technicians or previously analysed samples) has proved difﬁcult to overcome. Ancient DNA is, however, proving increasingly relevant to the study of human demographic history in more recent, neothermal times (i.e., after 9500 BCE). And it has made particularly important contributions to the study of human evolution through the analysis of much earlier samples derived from the fossil remains of Neanderthal hominins, that is, of Homo neanderthalensis (see the next section). For Neanderthal DNA is sufﬁciently different from modern human DNA that the risk of confusion can be avoided. The exact details of how, when and where humans evolved and spread across the planet is contentious among geneticists, but the pioneering work by Allan Wilson and colleagues (Cann, Stoneking & Wilson 1987) has brought about the broad consensus that humans evolved in Africa fairly recently, possibly Introduction: DNA two hundred thousand years ago, and left from there to colonise the world, with little if any admixture with resident hominin groups or species such as Neanderthals or Homo erectus. The long-term effective population size of the human lineage since the human–chimpanzee split roughly 6 million years ago has been calculated to be of the order of ten thousand persons. This value is based on uncertain demographic assumptions such as generation times and may in itself not be meaningful, but it is signiﬁcantly smaller than the estimated population size at other points in the primate evolutionary tree (Takahata & Satta 1997). Signiﬁcantly smaller again, the group leaving Africa possibly sixty thousand years ago (Watson et al. 1997; Forster et al. 2001) may have numbered less than a few hundred (Macaulay et al. 2005; Forster 2009). This initial small founding population size outside Africa explains why non-Africans are fairly similar to each other genetically, whereas the diversity among Africans tends to be greater. In the fossil record, the exodus of this small group of humans from Africa around sixty thousand years ago has not (yet) been identiﬁed. Instead, older human remains in the sites of Skhul and Qafzeh (Israel/Palestine) dated to around 90,000 to 130,000 years (Stringer 2007) demonstrate that an earlier exodus from Africa happened but was ultimately unsuccessful in settling the world. These hominins are assigned to an archaic form of the species Homo sapiens and it is believed they have no successors. DNA has not been recovered from them. The robustness of these fossils (e.g., prominent brow ridges) is outside the morphological range of modern humans, supporting the genetic evidence that the Skhul/Qafzeh remains were probably an evolutionary dead-end. Their ﬁndspot may have been at the limit of an internal African expansion that populated Africa more than eighty thousand years ago (Watson et al. 1997). Also, there is a theoretical possibility that these robust modern humans contributed DNA to the modern Eurasian population to a very limited extent, if certain autosomal DNA variants typical for Eurasia are considered to be ancient there (Templeton 2002; Green et al. 2010). Following this line of thought, it is relevant that the earliest known modern European cranium, dated to forty thousand years ago and from Peştera cu Oase, Romania (Trinkauset al. 2003), is thought by some to have archaic features (Roberts 2009). Alternatively, it can be argued that all Eurasian-speciﬁc autosomal variants are descended from the African exodus of sixty thousand years ago, with the African counterparts dying out since then, whereby any robust or archaic morphological features in modern Eurasians, Australians and Americans have redeveloped by chance. Ancient DNA Archaeogeneticists are typically interested in tracing the prehistoric ancestry of living individuals; they seek, for example, to ﬁnd out about the ancestors’ arrival times in various parts of the world, or to ﬁnd out when they developed speciﬁc features such as depigmented skin, milk digestion in adulthood or malaria resistance. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyse the DNA of living individuals rather than of prehistoric fossils, as there is no guarantee that any particular prehistoric fossil contributed genes to the present population. However, analysing the DNA of fossil remains, along with ancillary organisms such as human parasites and domesticated plant and animal species, is important to reconstruct the context in which our ancestors lived. Speciﬁcally, a fossil hominin DNA proﬁle can tell the researcher when that fossil’s lineage split from our lineage and allows speculation as to how different genetically that hominin would have been from our human ancestors. Even datasets derived from modern DNA generally contain numerous errors (reviewed in Dennis 2003; Forster 2003), and it is therefore no surprise that errors are also a signiﬁcant feature of ancient DNA datasets. Similarly, ﬁrst attempts to obtain whole-genome data from ancient Neanderthal DNA have had to be retracted due to contamination problems, identiﬁed by J. D. Wall and S. K. Kim (2007). Ideally, ancient DNA data should be validated, and this can be achieved in a number of ways. For example, archaeogeneticists can type the DNA of known descendants of the ancient DNA sample (as in the case of the descendants of Marie Antoinette; see Jehaes et al. 2001). Another approach is the typing of accompanying animal bones to prove that the environmental conditions permitted ancient DNA survival. Another is the typing of several prehistoric human individuals from the same context, in the expectation that they would systematically differ in their DNA from any modern DNA. Initial ancient DNA studies in the 1980s and 1990s were met with scepticism, coming to a head when successful retrieval of 80 million–year-old dinosaur DNA had been claimed and then shown to be modern DNA contamination (Zischler et al. 1995). The ﬁrst mtDNA sequence obtained from a Neanderthal was the ﬁrst convincing and signiﬁcant breakthrough in ancient DNA analysis (Krings et al. 1997) and incidentally did not require any of these controls, as the resulting sequence was on the one hand clearly nonhuman, but on the other hand retained some ancient mtDNA variants predicted in some of the deepest African mtDNA branches of modern humans (Watson et al. 1997). The Neanderthal sequence by Krings and his colleagues, obtained from the Feldhofer type fossil in the Neander Valley in western Germany, was soon validated by independent analyses of other Neanderthals (Ovchinnikov et al. 2000), and showed that humans and Neanderthals had split approximately half a million years ago. This new timescale led to the popularisation of the proposal that Homo neanderthalensis was related through an ancestral African Homo heidelbergensis to modern humans (Lahr & Foley 1998). Another important advance that came about through ancient DNA studies of Neanderthals is a better appreciation of their geographic range. Fossil bones in central Asia that hitherto were too fragmentary for species assignment were shown, by ancient DNA analysis, to be Neanderthal, thus expanding the known range of Neanderthals eastwards by at least 2000 km (Krause et al. 2007). The picture might appear more complicated, however, with the ancient DNA analysis of another fossil fragment from the Caucasus Mountains, which reveals that the hominin in question is neither human 15 1.2 PETER FORSTER AND COLIN RENFREW nor Neanderthal, but split from the human and Neanderthal lineage some 1 million years ago, which might indicate an independent migration out of Africa (Krause et al. 2010b). Subsequently, these researchers published whole-genome sequencing of the Denisova tooth and phalanx, concluding that the Denisovans have evolutionary histories distinct from western Eurasian Neanderthals and from modern humans (Reich et al. 2010), implying that Homo heidelbergensis gave rise to Neanderthals and Denisovans in the past 1 million years, both going extinct with the arrival of modern humans in the past ﬁfty thousand years (Stringer 2010). An interesting claim made by Reich and his colleagues is that 4 to 6% of modern Melanesian DNA derives from the Denisovans. The breakthrough with Neanderthal DNA set the stage for accepting ancient DNA results from conscientiously performed ancient DNA retrieval from Anatomically Modern Humans. Although available modern human remains are generally younger than Neanderthal remains, it is much more challenging in such cases to prove that the retrieved DNA is genuinely from the ancient fossil rather than from a modern human contaminant. Nevertheless, by analysing groups of prehistoric individuals, archaeogeneticists have obtained internally consistent results, starting with the analysis of the pre-Columbian Oneota cemetery in North America by A. C. Stone and M. Stoneking (1998). Another breakthrough for ancient DNA from Anatomically Modern Humans came with the typing of mtDNA in central Europe’s ﬁrst farmers by Joachim Burger and colleagues (Haak et al. 2005). The bones were from the Linearbandkeramik Period and therefore between 7000 and 7500 years old, and the identiﬁed DNA types were convincingly ancient because it so happens that many of these ﬁrst farmers had DNA types that today are exceedingly rare in Europe or indeed in the wider world. This study was followed by another by the same team to characterise the DNA of European hunter-gatherers (Bramanti et al. 2009). The analysed samples ranged from Germany over the time range from the Late Glacial Palaeolithic Period up to ﬁfteen thousand years old at the one extreme, to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer samples from the Baltic states and Russia, some of which were only forty-ﬁve hundred years old. Again, the uniform DNA types found across this wide area and range of millennia validated the retrieval of genuine ancient DNA. Not long afterwards, the results were conﬁrmed by independent teams in Sweden and Leipzig studying hunter-gatherers in Scandinavia and southern Russia, respectively (Malmström et al. 2009; Krause et al. 2010a). Details on these largely unexpected research results are given in Chapter 3.18 on Europe and the Mediterranean. For more recent times, ancient central Asian DNA has been retrieved from permafrost burials dating from a few a centuries to over twenty-ﬁve thousand years old, where the collaborative team of Bertrand Ludes has been working (Keyser-Tracqui, Crubézy & Ludes 2003). Here validation is possible because the DNA preservation is so good that not only mtDNA but also nuclear DNA was successfully retrieved, demonstrating that some neighbouring skeletons have familial relationships and that the identiﬁed genetic sex corresponds to the morphological sex of the skeletons. The 16 development of ancient DNA techniques offers an important avenue for shedding light on the descent of ancient populations since it should be possible to study different periods in the descent process. One avenue of research emerging from the genetic sections in the present book is the possible inference that early language change may have been inﬂuenced more signiﬁcantly by the male component of an incoming population (Forster & Renfrew 2011), as represented in the Y chromosome, than by the female component, seen in the mitochondrial DNA. For example, in India, evidence from the molecular genetic data for an incoming population within the past ten thousand years has been difﬁcult to document. Possible candidates would be Y-chromosomal subtypes of J2 and R1a, found in upper castes today at a frequency of 10 to 20%, which could correlate with components of an incoming earlier population from the northwest and therefore possibly with a proto-Indo-European-speaking population. It should be noted that no corresponding mtDNA effect is seen. A similar case may be seen with the Austronesian languages, where the molecular genetic input by Austronesians into coastal