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LANGE’S
HANDBOOK OF
CHEMISTRY
James G. Speight, Ph.D.
CD&W Inc., Laramie, Wyoming

Sixteenth Edition

MCGRAW-HILL
New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid
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Singapore Sydney Toronto

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 84-643191
ISSN 0748-4585

Copyright © 2005, 1999, 1992, 1985, 1979, 1973, 1967, 1961, 1956 by The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be
reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval
system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Copyright renewed 1972 by Norbert Adolph Lange.
Copyright 1952, 1949, 1946, 1944, 1941, 1939, 1937, 1934 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All rights
reserved.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

DOC/DOC 0 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4

ISBN 0-07-143220-5

The sponsoring editor for this book was Kenneth P. McCombs and the production supervisor
was Sherri Souffrance. It was set in Times Roman by International Typesetting and
Composition. The art director for the cover was Anthony Landi.
Printed and bound by RR Donnelley.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

McGraw-Hill books are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales
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the Director of Special Sales, McGraw-Hill Professional, Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY
10121-2298. Or contact your local bookstore.

Information contained in this work has been obtained by The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) from sources believed to be reliable.
However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither McGraw-Hill nor its
authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out
of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that
McGraw-Hill and its ; authors are supplying information but are not attempting
to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are
required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.

ABOUT THE EDITOR
James G. Speight, Ph.D., has more than 35 years’ experience in fields related to the properties and processing of
conventional and synthetic fuels. He has participated in, and led, significant research in defining the uses of
chemistry with heavy oil and coal. The author of well over 400 professional papers, reports, and presentations
detailing his research activities, he has taught more than 50 related courses. Dr. Speight is the author, editor, or
compiler of a total of 25 books and bibliographies related to fossil fuel processing and environmental issues. He
lives in Laramie, Wyoming.

PREFACE TO THE
SIXTEENTH EDITION

This Sixteenth Edition of Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry takes on a new format under a new editor.
Nevertheless, the Handbook remains the one-volume source of factual information for chemists and
chemical engineers, both professionals and students. The aim of the Handbook remains to provide
sufficient data to satisfy the general needs of the user without recourse to other reference sources.
The many tables of numerical data that have been compiled, as well as additional tables, will provide the user with a valuable time-saver.
The new format involves division of the Handbook into four major sections, instead of the
11 sections that were part of previous editions. Section 1, Inorganic Chemistry, contains a group of
tables relating to the physical properties of the elements (including recently discovered elements) and
several thousand compounds. Likewise, Section 2, Organic Chemistry, contains a group of tables
relating to the physical properties of the elements and several thousand compounds. Following these
two sections, Section 3, Spectroscopy, presents the user with the fundamentals of the various spectroscopic techniques. This section also contains tables that are relevant to the spectroscopic properties of elements, inorganic compounds, and organic compounds. Section 4, General Information and
Conversion Tables, contains all of the general information and conversion tables that were previously
found in different sections of the Handbook.
In Sections 1 and 2, the data for each compound include (where available) name, structural
formula, formula weight, density, refractive index, melting point, boiling point, flash point,
dielectric constant, dipole moment, solubility (if known) in water and relevant organic solvents,
thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. The presentation of alternative names, as well
as trivial names of long-standing use, has been retained. Section 2 also contains expanded information relating to the names and properties of condensed polynuclear aromatic compounds.
Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Heat Capacities of Organic and
Inorganic Compounds, and Heats of Melting, Vaporization, and Sublimation and Specific Heat at
Various Temperatures, are also presented in Sections 1 and 2 for organic and inorganic compounds,
as well as information on the critical properties (critical temperature, critical pressure, and critical
volume).
As in the previous edition, Section 3, Spectroscopy, retains subsections on infrared spectroscopy,
Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray spectrometry. The
section on Practical Laboratory Information (now Section 4), has been retained as it offers valuable
information and procedures for laboratory methods.
As stated in the prefaces of earlier editions, every effort has been made to select the most useful
and reliable information and to record it with accuracy. It is hoped that users of this Handbook will
continue to offer suggestions of material that might be included in, or even excluded from, future editions and call attention to errors. These communications should be directed to the editor through the
publisher, McGraw-Hill.
JAMES G. SPEIGHT, PH.D.
Laramie, Wyoming

vii

PREFACE TO THE
FIFTEENTH EDITION

This new edition, the fifth under the aegis of the present editor, remains the one-volume source of
factual information for chemists, both professionals and students––the first place in which to “look
it up” on the spot. The aim is to provide sufficient data to satisfy all one’s general needs without
recourse to other reference sources. A user will find this volume of value as a time-saver because of
the many tables of numerical data that have been especially compiled.
Descriptive properties for a basic group of approximately 4300 organic compounds are compiled
in Section 1, an increase of 300 entries. All entries are listed alphabetically according to the senior
prefix of the name. The data for each organic compound include (where available) name, structural
formula, formula weight, Beilstein reference (or if un- available, the entry to the Merck Index, 12th ed.),
density, refractive index, melting point, boiling point, flash point, and solubility (citing numerical
values if known) in water and various common organic solvents. Structural formulas either too complex or too ambiguous to be rendered as line formulas are grouped at the bottom of each facing double page on which the entries appear. Alternative names, as well as trivial names of long-standing
usage, are listed in their respective alphabetical order at the bottom of each double page in the
regular alphabetical sequence. Another feature that assists the user in locating a desired entry is
the empirical formula index.
Section 2 on General Information, Conversion Tables, and Mathematics has had the table on general conversion factors thoroughly reworked. Similarly the material on Statistics in Chemical
Analysis has had its contents more than doubled.
Descriptive properties for a basic group of inorganic compounds are compiled in Section 3, which
has undergone a small increase in the number of entries. Many entries under the column “Solubility”
supply the reader with precise quantities dissolved in a stated solvent and at a given temperature.
Several portions of Section 4, Properties of Atoms, Radicals, and Bonds, have been significantly
enlarged. For example, the entries under “Ionization Energy of Molecular and Radical Species” now
number 740 and have an additional column with the enthalpy of formation of the ions. Likewise, the
table on “Electron Affinities of the Elements, Molecules, and Radicals” now contains about 225
entries. The Table of Nuclides has material on additional radionuclides, their radiations, and the neutron capture cross sections.
Revised material for Section 5 includes the material on surface tension, viscosity, dielectric constant, and dipole moment for organic compounds. In order to include more data at several temperatures, the material has been divided into two separate tables. Material on surface tension and
viscosity constitute the first table with 715 entries; included is the temperature range of the liquid
phase. Material on dielectric constant and dipole moment constitute another table of 1220 entries.
The additional data at two or more temperatures permit interpolation for intermediate temperatures
and also permit limited extrapolation of the data. The Properties of Combustible Mixtures in Air has
been revised and expanded to include over 450 compounds. Flash points are to be found in Section 1.
Completely revised are the tables on Thermal Conductivity for gases, liquids, and solids. Van der
Waals’ constants for gases have been brought up to date and expanded to over 500 substances.
Section 6, which includes Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Heat
Capacities of Organic and Inorganic Compounds, and Heats of Melting, Vaporization, and Sublimation
and Specific Heat at Various Temperatures for organic and inorganic compounds, has expanded by

ix

x

PREFACE TO THE FIFTEENTH EDITION

11 pages, but the major additions have involved data in columns where it previously was absent.
More material has also been included for critical temperature, critical pressure, and critical volume.
The section on Spectroscopy has been retained but with some revisions and expansion. The
section includes ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopy,
and X-ray spectrometry. Detection limits are listed for the elements when using flame emission,
flame atomic absorption, electrothermal atomic absorption, argon induction coupled plasma, and
flame atomic fluorescence. Nuclear magnetic resonance embraces tables for the nuclear properties
of the elements, proton chemical shifts and coupling constants, and similar material for carbon-13,
boron-11, nitrogen-15, fluorine-19, silicon-29, and phosphorus-31.
In Section 8, the material on solubility constants has been doubled to 550 entries. Sections on
proton transfer reactions, including some at various temperatures, formation constants of metal complexes with organic and inorganic ligands, buffer solutions of all types, reference electrodes, indicators, and electrode potentials are retained with some revisions. The material on conductance has been
revised and expanded, particularly in the table on limiting equivalent ionic conductance.
Everything in Sections 9 and 10 on physiochemical relationships, and on polymers, rubbers, fats,
oils, and waxes, respectively, has been retained.
Section 11, Practical Laboratory Information, has undergone significant changes and expansion.
Entries in the table on “Molecular Elevation of the Boiling Point” have been increased. McReynolds’
constants for stationary phases in gas chromatography have been reorganized and expanded. The
guide to ion-exchange resins and discussion is new and embraces all types of column packing and
membrane materials. Gravimetric factors have been altered to reflect the changes in atomic weights
for several elements. Newly added are tables listing elements precipitated by general analytical
reagents, and giving equations for the redox determination of the elements with their equivalent
weights. Discussion on the topics of precipitation and complexometric titration include primary standards and indicators for each analytical technique. A new topic of masking and demasking agents
includes discussion and tables of masking agents for various elements, for anions and neutral molecules, and common demasking agents. A table has been added listing the common amino acids with
their pI and pKa values and their 3-letter and I-letter abbreviations. Lastly a 9-page table lists the
threshold limit value (TL V) for gases and vapors.
As stated in earlier prefaces, every effort has been made to select the most useful and reliable
information and to record it with accuracy. However, the editor’s 50 years of involvement with textbooks and handbooks bring a realization of the opportunities for gremlins to exert their inevitable
mischief. It is hoped that users of this handbook will continue to offer suggestions of material that
might be included in, or even excluded from, future editions and call attention to errors. These communications should be directed to the editor. The street address will change early in 1999, as will the
telephone number.
JOHN A. DEAN
Knoxville, Tennessee

PREFACE TO THE
FIRST EDITION

This book is the result of a number of years’ experience in the compiling and editing of data useful
to chemists. In it an effort has been made to select material to meet the needs of chemists who cannot command the unlimited time available to the research specialist, or who lack the facilities of a
large technical library which so often is not conveniently located at many manufacturing centers. If
the information contained herein serves this purpose, the compiler will feel that he has accomplished
a worthy task. Even the worker with the facilities of a comprehensive library may find this volume
of value as a time-saver because of the many tables of numerical data which have been especially
computed for this purpose.
Every effort has been made to select the most reliable information and to record it with accuracy.
Many years of occupation with this type of work bring a realization of the opportunities for the
occurrence of errors, and while every endeavor has been made to prevent them, yet it would be
remarkable if the attempts towards this end had always been successful. In this connection it is
desired to express appreciation to those who in the past have called attention to errors, and it will be
appreciated if this be done again with the present compilation for the publishers have given their
assurance that no expense will be spared in making the necessary changes in subsequent printings.
It has been aimed to produce a compilation complete within the limits set by the economy of
available space. One difficulty always at hand to the compiler of such a book is that he must decide
what data are to be excluded in order to keep the volume from becoming unwieldy because of its
size. He can hardly be expected to have an expert’s knowledge of all branches of the science nor
the intuition necessary to decide in all cases which particular value to record, especially when
many differing values are given in the literature for the same constant. If the expert in a particular
field will judge the usefulness of this book by the data which it supplies to him from fields other
than his specialty and not by the lack of highly specialized information in which only he and his
co-workers are interested (and with which he is familiar and for which he would never have occasion to consult this compilation), then an estimate of its value to him will be apparent. However,
if such specialists will call attention to missing data with which they are familiar and which they
believe others less specialized will also need, then works of this type can be improved in succeeding editions.
Many of the gaps in this volume are caused by the lack of such information in the literature. It is
hoped that to one of the most important classes of workers in chemistry, namely the teachers, the
book will be of value not only as an aid in answering the most varied questions with which they are
confronted by interested students, but also as an inspiration through what it suggests by the gaps and
inconsistencies, challenging as they do the incentive to engage in the creative and experimental work
necessary to supply the missing information.
While the principal value of the book is for the professional chemist or student of chemistry, it
should also be of value to many people not especially educated as chemists. Workers in the natural
sciences—physicists, mineralogists, biologists, pharmacists, engineers, patent attorneys, and librarians—are often called upon to solve problems dealing with the properties of chemical products or
materials of construction. For such needs this compilation supplies helpful information and will
serve not only as an economical substitute for the costly accumulation of a large library of monographs on specialized subjects, but also as a means of conserving the time required to search for

xi

xii

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

information so widely scattered throughout the literature. For this reason especial care has been
taken in compiling a comprehensive index and in furnishing cross references with many of the tables.
It is hoped that this book will be of the same usefulness to the worker in science as is the dictionary to the worker in literature, and that its resting place will be on the desk rather than on the
bookshelf.
N. A. LANGE
Cleveland, Ohio
May 2, 1934

CONTENTS

Preface to the Sixteenth Edition
Preface to the Fifteenth Edition
Preface to the First Edition xi

vii
ix

Section 1. Inorganic Chemistry

1.1

Section 2. Organic Chemistry

2.1

Section 3. Spectroscopy

3.1

Section 4. General Information and Conversion Tables

4.1

Index

I.1

v

SECTION 1

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

SECTION 1

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
1.1 NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1.1.1 Writing Formulas
1.1.2 Naming Compounds
1.1.3 Cations
1.1.4 Anions
1.1.5 Acids
Table 1.1 Trivial Names for Acids
1.1.6 Salts and Functional Derivatives of Acids
1.1.7 Coordination Compounds
1.1.8 Addition Compounds
1.1.9 Synonyms and Trade Names
Table 1.2 Synonyms and Mineral Names
1.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1.2.1 Density
1.2.2 Melting Point (Freezing Temperature)
1.2.3 Boiling Point
1.2.4 Refractive Index
Table 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds
Table 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds
Table 1.5 Refractive Index of Minerals
Table 1.6 Properties of Molten Salts
Table 1.7 Triple Points of Various Materials
Table 1.8 Density of Mercury and Water
Table 1.9 Specific Gravity of Air at Various Temperatures
Table 1.10 Boiling Points of Water
Table 1.11 Boiling Points of Water
Table 1.12 Refractive Index, Viscosity, Dielectric Constant, and Surface Tension
of Water at Various Temperatures
Table 1.13 Compressibility of Water
Table 1.14 Flammability Limits of Inorganic Compounds in Air
1.3 THE ELEMENTS
Table 1.15 Subdivision of Main Energy Levels
Table 1.16 Chemical Symbols, Atomic Numbers, and Electron Arrangements
of the Elements
Table 1.17 Atomic Numbers, Periods, and Groups of the
Elements (The Periodic Table)
Table 1.18 Atomic Weights of the Elements
Table 1.19 Physical Properties of the Elements
Table 1.20 Conductivity and Resistivity of the Elements
Table 1.21 Work Functions of the Elements
Table 1.22 Relative Abundances of Naturally Occurring Isotopes
Table 1.23 Radioactivity of the Elements (Neptunium Series)
Table 1.24 Radioactivity of the Elements (Thorium Series)
Table 1.25 Radioactivity of the Elements (Actinium Series)
Table 1.26 Radioactivity of the Elements (Uranium Series)
1.4 IONIZATION ENERGY
Table 1.27 lonization Energy of the Elements
Table 1.28 lonization Energy of Molecular and Radical Species

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.11
1.13
1.13
1.13
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.64
1.86
1.88
1.90
1.91
1.92
1.93
1.94
1.95
1.95
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.97
1.121
1.122
1.124
1.128
1.132
1.132
1.135
1.136
1.137
1.137
1.138
1.138
1.141

1.1

1.2

SECTION ONE

1.5 ELECTRONEGATIVITY
Table 1.29 Electronegativity Values of the Elements
1.6 ELECTRON AFFINITY
Table 1.30 Electron Affinities of Elements, Molecules, and Radicals
1.7 BOND LENGTHS AND STRENGTHS
1.7.1 Atom Radius
1.7.2 Ionic Radii
1.7.3 Covalent Radii
Table 1.31 Atom Radii and Effective Ionic Radii of Elements
Table 1.32 Approximate Effective Ionic Radii in Aqueous Solutions at 25°C
Table 1.33 Covalent Radii for Atoms
Table 1.34 Octahedral Covalent Radii for CN = 6
Table 1.35 Bond Lengths between Elements
Table 1.36 Bond Dissociation Energies
1.8 DIPOLE MOMENTS
Table 1.37 Bond Dipole Moments
Table 1.38 Group Dipole Moments
1.8.1 Dielectric Constant
Table 1.39 Dipole Moments and Dielectric Constants
1.9 MOLECULAR GEOMETRY
Table 1.40 Spatial Orientation of Common Hybrid Bonds
Table 1.41 Crystal Lattice Types
Table 1.42 Crystal Structure
1.10 NUCLIDES
Table 1.43 Table of Nuclides
1.11 VAPOR PRESSURE
1.11.1 Vapor Pressure Equations
Table 1.44 Vapor Pressures of Selected Elements at Different Temperatures
Table 1.45 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds up to 1 Atmosphere
Table 1.46 Vapor Pressures of Various Inorganic Compounds
Table 1.47 Vapor Pressure of Mercury
Table 1.48 Vapor Pressure of Ice in Millimeters of Mercury
Table 1.49 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Ammonia, NH3
Table 1.50 Vapor Pressure of Water
Table 1.51 Vapor Pressure of Deuterium Oxide
1.12 VISCOSITY AND SURFACE TENSION
Table 1.52 Viscosity and Surface Tension of Inorganic Substances
1.13 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
Table 1.53 Thermal Conductivity of the Elements
Table 1.54 Thermal Conductivity of Various Solids
1.14 CRITICAL PROPERTIES
1.14.1 Critical Temperature
1.14.2 Critical Pressure
1.14.3 Critical Volume
1.14.4 Critical Compressibility Factor
Table 1.55 Critical Properties
1.15 THERMODYNAMIC FUNCTIONS (CHANGE OF STATE)
Table 1.56 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies,
and Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds
Table 1.57 Heats of Fusion, Vaporization, and Sublimation and Specific Heat
at Various Temperatures of the Elements
and Inorganic Compounds
1.16 ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS
Table 1.58 Individual Activity Coefficients of Ions in Water at 25°C
Table 1.59 Constants of the Debye-Hückel Equation from 0 to 100°C
Table 1.60 Individual Ionic Activity Coefficients at Higher Ionic Strengths at 25°C

1.145
1.145
1.146
1.146
1.150
1.151
1.151
1.151
1.151
1.157
1.158
1.158
1.159
1.160
1.171
1.171
1.172
1.172
1.173
1.174
1.175
1.176
1.177
1.177
1.177
1.199
1.199
1.201
1.203
1.212
1.220
1.222
1.223
1.224
1.225
1.226
1.226
1.230
1.231
1.232
1.233
1.233
1.233
1.234
1.234
1.234
1.237
1.237

1.280
1.299
1.300
1.300
1.301

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.3

1.17 BUFFER SOLUTIONS
1.17.1 Standards of pH Measurement of Blood and Biological Media
Table 1.61 National Bureau of Standards (U.S.) Reference pH Buffer Solutions
Table 1.62 Compositions of Standard pH Buffer Solutions
[National Bureau of Standards (U.S.)]
Table 1.63 Composition and pH Values of Buffer Solutions 8.107
Table 1.64 Standard Reference Values pH* for the Measurement of Acidity
in 50 Weight Percent Methanol-Water
Table 1.65 pH Values for Buffer Solutions in Alcohol-Water Solvents at 25°C
1.17.2 Buffer Solutions Other than Standards
Table 1.66 pH Values of Biological and Other Buffers for Control Purposes
1.18 SOLUBILITY AND EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS
Table 1.67 Solubility of Gases in Water
Table 1.68 Solubility of Inorganic Compounds and Metal Salts of Organic Acids
in Water at Various Temperatures
Table 1.69 Dissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids
Table 1.70 Ionic Product Constant of Water
Table 1.71 Solubility Product Constants
Table 1.72 Stability Constants of Complex Ions
Table 1.73 Saturated Solutions
1.19 PROTON-TRANSFER REACTIONS
1.19.1 Calculation of the Approximate Value of Solutions
1.19.2 Calculation of the Concentrations of Species Present at a Given pH
Table 1.74 Proton Transfer Reactions of Inorganic Materials in Water at 25°C
1.20 FORMATION CONSTANTS OF METAL COMPLEXES
Table 1.75 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes with
Inorganic Ligands
Table 1.76 Cumulative Formation Constants for Metal Complexes
with Organic Ligands
1.21 ELECTRODE POTENTIALS
Table 1.77 Potentials of the Elements and Their Compounds at 25°C
Table 1.78 Potentials of Selected Half-Reactions at 25°C
Table 1.79 Overpotentials for Common Electrode Reactions at 25°C
Table 1.80 Half-Wave Potentials of Inorganic Materials
Table 1.81 Standard Electrode Potentials for Aqueous Solutions
Table 1.82 Potentials of Reference Electrodes in Volts as a Function
of Temperature
Table 1.83 Potentials of Reference Electrodes (in Volts) at 25°C for Water-Organic
Solvent Mixtures
1.22 CONDUCTANCE
Table 1.84 Properties of Liquid Semi-Conductors
Table 1.85 Limiting Equivalent Ionic Conductances in Aqueous Solutions
Table 1.86 Standard Solutions for Calibrating Conductivity Vessels
Table 1.87 Equivalent Conductivities of Electrolytes in Aqueous Solutions at 18°C
Table 1.88 Conductivity of Very Pure Water at Various Temperatures and the
Equivalent Conductance’s of Hydrogen and Hydroxyl Ions
1.23 THERMAL PROPERTIES
Table 1.89 Eutectic Mixtures
Table 1.90 Transition Temperatures

1.301
1.301
1.303
1.304
1.304
1.306
1.307
1.307
1.308
1.310
1.311
1.316
1.330
1.331
1.331
1.343
1.343
1.350
1.350
1.351
1.352
1.357
1.358
1.363
1.380
1.380
1.393
1.396
1.397
1.401
1.404
1.405
1.405
1.407
1.408
1.411
1.412
1.417
1.418
1.418
1.418

1.1 NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
The following synopsis of rules for naming inorganic compounds and the examples given in explanation are not intended to cover all the possible cases.

1.4

SECTION ONE

1.1.1 Writing Formulas
1.1.1.1 Mass Number, Atomic Number, Number of Atoms, and Ionic Charge. The mass
number, atomic number, number of atoms, and ionic charge of an element are indicated by means of
four indices placed around the symbol:
mass number
atomic number

ionic charge
SYMBOL number of atoms

15 3−
7N2

Ionic charge should be indicated by an Arabic superscript numeral preceding the plus or minus
sign: Mg2+, PO3−
4
1.1.1.2 Placement of Atoms in a Formula. The electropositive constituent (cation) is placed first
in a formula. If the compound contains more than one electropositive or more than one electronegative constituent, the sequence within each class should be in alphabetical order of their symbols. The
alphabetical order may be different in formulas and names; for example, NaNH4HPO4, ammonium
sodium hydrogen phosphate.
Acids are treated as hydrogen salts. Hydrogen is cited last among the cations.
When there are several types of ligands, anionic ligands are cited before the neutral ligands.
1.1.1.3 Binary Compounds between Nonmetals. For binary compounds between nonmetals, that
constituent should be placed first which appears earlier in the sequence:
Rn, Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, He, B, Si, C, Sb, As, P, N, H, Te, Se, S, At, I, Br, Cl, O, F
Examples: AsCl3, SbH3, H3Te, BrF3, OF2, and N4S4.
1.1.1.4 Chain Compounds. For chain compounds containing three or more elements, the
sequence should be in accordance with the order in which the atoms are actually bound in the molecule or ion.
Examples: SCN– (thiocyanate), HSCN (hydrogen thiocyanate or thiocyanic acid), HNCO (hydrogen
isocyanate), HONC (hydrogen fulminate), and HPH2O2 (hydrogen phosphinate).
1.1.1.5 Use of Centered Period. A centered period is used to denote water of hydration, other
solvates, and addition compounds; for example, CuSO4 · 5H2O, copper(II) sulfate 5-water (or
pentahydrate).
1.1.1.6 Free Radicals. In the formula of a polyatomic radical an unpaired electron(s) is (are)
indicated by a dot placed as a right superscript to the parentheses (or square bracket for coordination
compounds). In radical ions the dot precedes the charge. In structural formulas, the dot may be
placed to indicate the location of the unpaired electron(s).
Examples:

(HO)·

(O2)2·

·

(NH+3)

1.1.1.7 Enclosing Marks. Where it is necessary in an inorganic formula, enclosing marks (parentheses, braces, and brackets) are nested within square brackets as follows:
[ ( ) ],

[ { ( ) } ],

[ { [ ( ) ] } ],

[{{[()]}}]

1.1.1.8 Molecular Formula. For compounds consisting of discrete molecules, a formula in
accordance with the correct molecular weight of the compound should be used.
Examples: S2Cl2, S8, N2O4, and H4P2O6; not SCl, S, NO2, and H2PO3.
1.1.1.9 Structural Formula and Prefixes. In the structural formula the sequence and spatial
arrangement of the atoms in a molecule are indicated.
Examples: NaO(O˙ C)H (sodium formate), Cl´S´ S´Cl (disulfur dichloride).

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.5

Structural prefixes should be italicized and connected with the chemical formula by a hyphen: cis-,
trans-, anti-, syn-, cyclo-, catena-, o- or ortho-, m- or meta-, p- or para-, sec- (secondary), tert(tertiary), v- (vicinal), meso-, as- for asymmetrical, and s- for symmetrical.
The sign of optical rotation is placed in parentheses, (+) for dextrorotary, (–) for levorotary, and
(±) for racemic, and placed before the formula. The wavelength (in nanometers is indicated by a right
subscript; unless indicated otherwise, it refers to the sodium D-line.
The italicized symbols d- (for deuterium) and t- (for tritium) are placed after the formula and connected to it by a hyphen. The number of deuterium or tritium atoms is indicated by a subscript to the
symbol.
Examples:

cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2]
di-tert-butyl sulfate
methan-ol-d

methan-d3-ol
(+)589 [Co(en)3]Cl2

1.1.2 Naming Compounds
1.1.2.1 Names and Symbols for Elements. Names and symbols for the elements are given in
Table 1.3. Wolfram is preferred to tungsten but the latter is used in the United States. In forming a
complete name of a compound, the name of the electropositive constituent is left unmodified except
when it is necessary to indicate the valency (see oxidation number and charge number, (formerly the
Stock and Ewens-Bassett systems). The order of citation follows the alphabetic listing of the names
of the cations followed by the alphabetical listing of the anions and ligands. The alphabetical citation
is maintained regardless of the number of each ligand.
Example: K[AuS(S2)] is potassium (disulfido)thioaurate (1–).
1.1.2.2 Electronegative Constituents. The name of a monatomic electronegative constituent is
obtained from the element name with its ending (-en, -ese, -ic, -ine, -ium, -ogen, -on, -orus, -um, -ur,
-y, or -ygen) replaced by -ide. The elements bismuth, cobalt, nickel, zinc, and the noble gases are
used unchanged with the ending -ide. Homopolyatomic ligands will carry the appropriate prefix. A
few Latin names are used with affixes: cupr- (copper), aur- (gold), ferr- (iron), plumb- (lead), argent(silver), and stann- (tin).
For binary compounds the name of the element standing later in the sequence in Sec. 1.1.1.3 is
modified to end in -ide. Elements other than those in the sequence of Sec. 1.1.1.3 are taken in the
reverse order of the following sequence, and the name of the element occurring last is modified to
end in -ide; e.g., calcium stannide.
ELEMENT SEQUENCE
He

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Se

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ca

Ge

As

Se

B

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Te

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xr

Cr

Ba

La

Lu

Hr

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pr

Au

Hg

Tl

Ph

Bi

Po

Ai

Rr

Fr

Ra

Ac

Lr

1.1.2.3 Stoichiometric Proportions. The stoichiometric proportions of the constituents in a formula
may be denoted by Greek numerical prefixes: mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona(Latin), deca-, undeca- (Latin), dodeca-, …, icosa- (20), henicosa- (21), …, triconta- (30), tetraconta(40), …, hecta- (100), and so on, preceding without a hyphen the names of the elements to which they
refer. The prefix mono can usually be omitted; occasionally hemi- (1/2) and sesqui- (3/2) are used. No
elisions are made when using numerical prefixes except in the case of icosa- when the letter “i” is
elided in docosa- and tricosa-. Beyond 10, prefixes may be replaced by Arabic numerals.

1.6

SECTION ONE

When it is required to indicate the number of entire groups of atoms, the multiplicative numerals
bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis-, and so on, are used (i.e., -kis is added starting from tetra-). The entity
to which they refer is placed in parentheses.
Examples: Ca[PF6]2, calcium bis(hexafluorophosphate); and (C10H21)3PO4, tris(decyl) phosphate
instead of tridecyl which is (C13H27–).
Composite numeral prefixes are built up by citing units first, then tens, then hundreds, and so on.
For example, 43 is written tritetraconta- (or tritetracontakis-).
In indexing it may be convenient to italicize a numerical prefix at the beginning of the name and
connect it to the rest of the name with a hyphen; e.g., di-nitrogen pentaoxide (indexed under the letter
“n”).
1.1.2.4 Oxidation and Charge Numbers. The oxidation number (Stock system) of an element is
indicated by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the element. For zero, the cipher 0 is used. When used in conjunction with symbols, the Roman numeral
may be placed above and to the right. The charge number of an ion (Ewens-Bassett system) rather
than the oxidation state is indicated by an Arabic numeral followed by the sign of the charge cited
and is placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the ion.
Examples: P2O5, diphosphorus pentaoxide or phosphorus(V) oxide; Hg2+
2 . mercury(I) ion or dimercury (2+) ion; K2[Fe(CN)6], potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) or potassium hexacyanoferrate(4–);
PbII2PbIVO4, dilead(II) lead(IV) oxide or trilead tetraoxide.
Where it is not feasible to define an oxidation state for each individual member of a group, the
overall oxidation level of the group is defined by a formal ionic charge to avoid the use of fractional
oxidation states; for example, O2−.
1.1.2.5 Collective Names. Collective names include:
Halogens (F, Cl, Br, I, At)
Chalcogens (O, S, Se, Te, Po)
Alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr)
Alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)
Lanthanoids or lanthanides (La to Lu)
Rare-earth metals (Sc, Y, and La to Lu inclusive)
Actinoids or actinides (Ac to Lr, those whose 5f shell is being filled)
Noble gases (He to Rn)
A transition element is an element whose atom has an incomplete d subshell, or which gives rise
to a cation or cations with an incomplete d subshell.
1.1.2.6 Isotopically Labeled Compounds. The hydrogen isotopes are given special names: 1H
(protium), 2H or D (deuterium), and 3H or T (tritium). The superscript designation is preferred
because D and T disturb the alphabetical ordering in formulas.
Other isotopes are designated by mass numbers: 10B (boron-10).
Isotopically labeled compounds may be described by inserting the italic symbol of the isotope in
brackets into the name of the compound; for example, H36Cl is hydrogen chloride[36Cl] or hydrogen
chloride-36, and 2H38Cl is hydrogen [2H] chloride[38Cl] or hydrogen-2 chloride-38.
1.1.2.7 Allotropes. Systematic names for gaseous and liquid modifications of elements are sometimes needed. Allotropic modifications of an element bear the name of the atom together with the
descriptor to specify the modification. The following are a few common examples:

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Symbol
H
O2
O3
P4
S8
Sn

Trivial name

Systematic name

Atomic hydrogen
(Common oxygen)
Ozone
White phosphorus
a-Sulfur, b-Sulfur
m-Sulfur (plastic sulfur)

Monohydrogen
Dioxygen
Trioxygen
Tetraphosphorus
Octasulfur
Polysulfur

1.7

Trivial (customary) names are used for the amorphous modification of an element.
1.1.2.8 Heteroatomic and Other Anions.
These are
´OH, hydroxide ion (not hydroxyl)
´ CN, cyanide ion
´ NH−2 hydrogen difluoride ion
´ NH2, amide ion

A few heteroatomic anions have names ending in -ide.
´ NH´ , imide ion
´NH´ NH2, hydrazide ion
´NHOH, hydroxylamide ion
´ HS−, hydrogen sulfide ion

Added to these anions are
´ triiodide ion
´ N3, axide ion
´ O3, ozonide ion

´O´O´, peroxide ion
´ S´S´, disulfide ion

1.1.2.9 Binary Compounds of Hydrogen. Binary compounds of hydrogen with the more electropositive elements are designated hydrides (NaH, sodium hydride).
Volatile hydrides, except those of Periodic Group VII and of oxygen and nitrogen, are named by
citing the root name of the element (penultimate consonant and Latin affixes, Sec. 1.1.2.2) followed
by the suffix -ane. Exceptions are water, ammonia, hydrazine, phosphine, arsine, stibine, and bismuthine.
Examples: B2H6, diborane; B10H14, decaborane (14); B10H16, decaborane (16); P2H4, diphosphane;
Sn2H6, distannane; H2Se2, diselane; H2Te2, ditellane; H2S5, pentasulfane; and pbH4, plumbane.
1.1.2.10 Neutral Radicals. Certain neutral radicals have special names ending in -yl:
HO
CO
ClO
ClO2
ClO3
CrO2
NO
NO2

hydroxyl
carbonyl
chlorosyl*
chloryl*
perchloryl*
chromyl
nitrosyl
nitryl (nitroyl)

PO
SO
SO2
S2O5
SeO
SeO2
UO2
NpO2

phosphoryl
sulfinyl (thionyl)
sulfonyl (sulfuryl)
disulfuryl
seleninyl
selenoyl
uranyl
neptunyl†

Radicals analogous to the above containing other chalcogens in place of oxygen are named by
adding the prefixes thio-, seleno-, and so on; for example, PS, thiophosphoryl; CS, thiocarbonyl.
*Similarly for the other halogens.
†Similarly for the other actinide elements.

1.8

SECTION ONE

1.1.3 Cations
1.1.3.1 Monatomic Cations. Monatomic cations are named as the corresponding element; for
example, Fe2+, iron(II) ion; Fe3+, iron(III) ion.
This principle also applies to polyatomic cations corresponding to radicals with special names
ending in -yl (Sec. 1.1.2.10); for example, PO+, phosphoryl cation; NO+, nitrosyl cation; NO2+
2 , nitryl
cation; O2+
2 oxygenyl cation.
Use of the oxidation number and charge number extends the range for radicals; for example,
+
UO2+
2 uranyl(VI) or uranyl(2+) cation; UO2 , uranyl(V) or uranyl(1+) cation.
1.1.3.2 Polyatomic Cations. Polyatomic cations derived by addition of more protons than
required to give a neutral unit to polyatomic anions are named by adding the ending -onium to the
root of the name of the anion element; for example, PH+4phosphonium ion; H2I+, iodonium ion; H3O+,
oxonium ion; CH3OH+2methyl oxonium ion.
Exception: The name ammonium is retained for the NH+4 ion; similarly for substituted ammonium
ions; for example, NF +4, tetrafluoroammonium ion.
Substituted ammonium ions derived from nitrogen bases with names ending in -amine receive
names formed by changing -amine into -ammonium. When known by a name not ending in -amine,
the cation name is formed by adding the ending -ium to the name of the base (eliding the final
vowel); e.g., anilinium, hydrazinium, imidazolium, acetonium, dioxanium.
Exceptions are the names uronium and thiouronium derived from urea and thiourea, respectively.
1.1.3.3 Multiple Ions from One Base. Where more than one ion is derived from one base, the
ionic charges are indicated in their names: N2H+5 , hydrazinium(1+) ion; N2H62+, hydrazinium(2+) ion.
1.1.4 Anions
See Secs. 1.1.2.2 and 1.1.2.8 for naming monatomic and certain polyatomic anions. When an organic
group occurs in an inorganic compound, organic nomenclature (q.v.) is followed to name the organic
part.
1.1.4.1 Protonated Anions. Ions such as HSO4− are recommended to be named hydrogensulfate
with the two words written as one following the usual practice for polyatomic anions.
1.1.4.2 Other Polyatomic Anions. Names for other polyatomic anions consist of the root name of
the central atom with the ending -ate and followed by the valence of the central atom expressed by its
oxidation number. Atoms and groups attached to the central atom are treated as ligands in a complex.
Examples: [Sb(OH) 6− ], hexahydroxoantimonate(V); [Fe(CN 6 ] 3– , hexacyanoferrate(III);
[Co(NO2)6]3–, hexanitritocobaltate(III); [TiO(C2O4)2(H2O)2]2–, oxobisoxalatodiaquatitanate(IV);
[PCl6]–, hexachlorophosphate(V).
Exceptions to the use of the root name of the central atom are antimonate, bismuthate, carbonate,
cobaltate, nickelate (or niccolate), nitrate, phosphate, tungstate (or wolframate), and zincate.
1.1.4.3 Anions of Oxygen. Oxygen is treated in the same manner as other ligands with the
number of -oxo groups indicated by a suffix; for example, SO2−
3 , trioxosulfate.
The ending -ite, formerly used to denote a lower state of oxidation, may be retained in trivial
names in these cases (note Sec. 1.1.5.3 also):
†

Similarly for the other actinoid elements.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

AsO33−
BrO−
ClO−
ClO2−
IO−
NO2−
N2O22−

arsenite
hypobromite
hypochlorite
chlorite
hypoiodite
nitrite
hyponitrite

NOO2−
PO3−
3
SO2−
3
S2O2−
5
S2O2−
4
S2O2−
2
SeO2−
3

1.9

peroxonitrite
phosphite*
sulfite
disulfite
dithionite
thiosulfite
selenite

However, compounds known to be double oxides in the solid state are named as such; for example, Cr2CuO4 (actually Cr2O3 ⋅ CuO) is chromium(III) copper(II) oxide (and not copper chromite).
1.1.4.4 Isopolyanions. Isopolyanions are named by indicating with numerical prefixes the
number of atoms of the characteristic element. It is not necessary to give the number of oxygen
atoms when the charge of the anion or the number of cations is indicated.
Examples: Ca3Mo7O24, tricalcium 24-oxoheptamolybdate, may be shortened to tricalcium hepta2−
4−
molybdate; the anion, Mo7O6−
24, is heptamolybdate(6–); S2O7 , disulfate(2–); P2O7 , diphosphate(V)(4-).
When the characteristic element is partially or wholly present in a lower oxidation state than corresponds to its Periodic Group number, oxidation numbers are used; for example, [O2HP ´
O´ PO3H]2–, dihydrogendiphosphate(III, V)(2–).
A bridging group should be indicated by adding the Greek letter m immediately before its name
and separating this from the rest of the complex by a hyphen. The atom or atoms of the characteristic
element to which the bridging atom is bonded, is indicated by numbers.
Examples:

[O3P ´ S´ PO2 ´O´PO3]5–, 1, 2-m-thiotriphosphate(5–)
[S3P´ O ´ PS2 ´O´PS3]5–, di-m-oxo-octathiotriphosphate(5–)

1.1.5 Acids
1.1.5.1 Acids and -ide Anions. Acids giving rise to the -ide anions (Sec. 1.1.2.2) should be
named as hydrogen … -ide; for example, HCl, hydrogen chloride; HN3, hydrogen azide.
Names such as hydrobromic acid refer to an aqueous solution, and percentages such as 48% HBr
denote the weight/volume of hydrogen bromide in the solution.
1.1.5.2 Acids and -ate Anions. Acids giving rise to anions bearing names ending in -ate are
treated as in Sec. 1.1.5.1; for example, H2GeO4, hydrogen germanate; H4[Fe(CN)6], hydrogen hexacyanoferrate(II).
1.1.5.3 Trivial Names. Acids given in Table 1.1 retain their trivial names due to long-established
usage. Anions may be formed from these trivial names by changing -ous acid to -ite, and -ic acid to
-ate. The prefix hypo- is used to denote a lower oxidation state and the prefix per- designates a higher
oxidation state. The prefixes ortho- and meta- distinguish acids of differing water content; for example, H4SiO4 is orthosilicic acid and H2SiO3 is metasilicic acid. The anions would be named silicate
(4–) and silicate(2–), respectively.
1.1.5.4 Peroxo- Group. When used in conjunction with the trivial names of acids, the prefix
peroxo- indicates substitution of ´O´by ´O´O´.

*Named for esters formed from the hypothetical acid P(OH)3.

1.10

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.1 Trivial Names for Acids

1.1.5.5 Replacement of Oxygen by Other Chalcogens. Acids derived from oxoacids by replacement of oxygen by sulfur are called thioacids, and the number of replacements are given by prefixes
di-, tri-, and so on. The affixes seleno- and telluro- are used analogously.
Examples: HOO´ C ˙ S, thiocarbonic acid; HSS´ C ˙ S, trithiocarbonic acid.
1.1.5.6 Ligands Other than Oxygen and Sulfur. See Sec. 1.1.7, Coordination Compounds, for
acids containing ligands other than oxygen and sulfur (selenium and tellurium).
1.1.5.7 Differences between Organic and Inorganic Nomenclature. Organic nomenclature is
largely built upon the scheme of substitution, that is, the replacement of hydrogen atoms by other atoms
or groups. Although rare in inorganic nomenclature: NH2Cl is called chloramine and NHCl2
dichloroamine. Other substitutive names are fluorosulfonic acid and chlorosulfonic acid derived from
HSO3H. These and the names aminosulfonic acid (sulfamic acid), iminodisulfonic acid, and nitrilotrisulfonic acid should be replaced by the following based on the concept that these names are formed by
adding hydroxyl, amide, imide, and so on, groups together with oxygen atoms to a sulfur atom:
HSO3F
HSO3Cl
NH2SO3H

fluorosulfuric acid
chlorosulfuric acid
amidosulfuric acid

NH(SO3H)2
N(SO3H)3

imidobis(sulfuric) acid
nitridotris(sulfuric) acid

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.11

1.1.6 Salts and Functional Derivatives of Acids
1.1.6.1 Acid Halogenides. For acid halogenides the name is formed from the corresponding acid
radical if this has a special name (Sec. 1.1.2.10); for example, NOCl, nitrosyl chloride. In other cases
these compounds are named as halogenide oxides with the ligands listed alphabetically; for example,
BiClO, bismuth chloride oxide; VCl2O, vanadium(IV) dichloride oxide.
1.1.6.2 Anhydrides. Anhydrides of inorganic acids are named as oxides; for example, N2O5, dinitrogen pentaoxide.
1.1.6.3 Esters. Esters of inorganic acids are named as the salts; for example, (CH3)2SO4,
dimethyl sulfate. However, if it is desired to specify the constitution of the compound, the nomenclature for coordination compounds should be used.
1.1.6.4 Amides. Names for amides are derived from the names of the acid radicals (or from the
names of acids by replacing acid by amide); for example, SO2(NH2)2, sulfonyl diamide (or sulfuric
diamide); NH2SO3H, sulfamidic acid (or amidosulfuric acid).
1.1.6.5 Salts. Salts containing acid hydrogen are named by adding the word hydrogen before the
name of the anion (however, see Sec. 1.1.4.1), for example, KH2PO4, potassium dihydrogen phosphate; NaHCO3, sodium hydrogen carbonate (not bicarbonate); NaHPHO3, sodium hydrogen phosphonate (only one acid hydrogen remaining).
Salts containing O2− and HO− anions are named oxide and hydroxide, respectively. Anions are
cited in alphabetical order which may be different in formulas and names.
Examples: FeO(OH), iron(III) hydroxide oxide; VO(SO4), vanadium(IV) oxide sulfate.
1.1.6.6 Multiplicative Prefixes. The multiplicative prefixes bis, tris, etc., are used with certain
anions for indicating stoichiometric proportions when di, tri, etc., have been preempted to designate
condensed anions; for example, AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O, aluminum potassium bis(sulfate) 12-water
(recall that disulfate refers to the anion S2O72−).
1.1.6.7 Crystal Structure. The structure type of crystals may be added in parentheses and in italics after the name; the latter should be in accordance with the structure. When the typename is also
the mineral name of the substance itself, italics are not used.
Examples: MgTiO3, magnesium titanium trioxide (ilmenite type); FeTiO3, iron(II) titanium trioxide
(ilmenite).

1.1.7 Coordination Compounds
1.1.7.1 Naming a Coordination Compound. To name a coordination compound, the names of
the ligands are attached directly in front of the name of the central atom. The ligands are listed in
alphabetical order regardless of the number of each and with the name of a ligand treated as a unit.
Thus “diammine” is listed under “a” and “dimethylamine” under “d.” The oxidation number of the
central atom is stated last by either the oxidation number or charge number.
1.1.7.2 Anionic Ligands. Whether inorganic or organic, the names for anionic ligands end in -o
(eliding the final -e, if present, in the anion name). Enclosing marks are required for inorganic
anionic ligands containing numerical prefixes, and for thio, seleno, and telluro analogs of oxo anions
containing more than one atom.
If the coordination entity is negatively charged, the cations paired with the complex anion (with
-ate ending) are listed first. If the entity is positively charged, the anions paired with the complex
cation are listed immediately afterward.

1.12

SECTION ONE

The following anions do not follow the nomenclature rules:
F−
Cl−
Br−
I−
O2−
H−
OH−
O22−

fluoro
chloro
bromo
iodo
oxo
hydrido (or hydro)
hydroxo
peroxo

HO2−
S2−
S22−
HS−
CN−
CH3O−
CH3S−

hydrogen peroxo
thio (only for single sulfur)
disulfido
mercapto
cyano
methoxo or methanolato
methylthio or methanethiolato

I.1.7.3 Neutral and Cationic Ligands. Neutral and cationic ligands are used without change in
name and are set off with enclosing marks. Water and ammonia, as neutral ligands, are called “aqua”
and “ammine,” respectively. The groups NO and CO, when linked directly to a metal atom, are called
nitrosyl and carbonyl, respectively.
I.1.7.4 Attachment Points of Ligands. The different points of attachment of a ligand are denoted by
adding italicized symbol(s) for the atom or atoms through which the attachment occurs at the end of the
name of the ligand; e.g., glycine-N or glycinato-O, N. If the same element is involved in different possible coordination sites, the position in the chain or ring to which the element is attached is indicated by
numerical superscripts: e.g., tartrato(3–)-O1, O2, or tartrato(4–)-O2, O3 or tartrato(2–) O1, O4
1.1.7.5 Abbreviations for Ligand Names. Except for certain hydrocarbon radicals, for ligand (L)
and metal (M), and a few with H, all abbreviations are in lowercase letters and do not involve hyphens.
In formulas, the ligand abbreviation is set off with parentheses. Some common abbreviations are
Ac
acac
Hacac
Hba
Bzl
Hbg
bpy
Bu
Cy
D2dea
dien
dmf
H2dmg
dmg
Hdmg
dmso
Et
H4edta
Hedta, edta

acetyl
acetylacetonato
acetylacetone
benzoylacetone
benzyl
biguanide
2, 2′-bipyridine
Butyl
cyclohexyl
diethanolamine
diethylenetriamine
dimethylformamide
dimethylglyoxime
dimethylglyoximato(2–)
dimethylglyoximato(1–)
dimethylsulfoxide
ethyl
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
coordinated ions derived
from H4edta

Hea

ethanolamine

en
Him
H2ida
Me
H3nta
nbd
ox
phen
Ph
pip
Pr
pn
Hpz
py
thf
tu
H3tea
tren
trien
tn
ur

ethylenediamine
imidazole
iminodiacetic acid
methyl
nitrilotriacetic acid
norbornadiene
oxalato(2–) from parent H2ox
1, 10-phenanthroline
phenyl
piperidine
propyl
propylenediamine
pyrazole
pyridine
tetrahydrofuran
thiourea
triethanolamine
2, 2′, 2″-triaminotriethylamine
triethylenetetraamine
trimethylenediamine
urea

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.13

Examples: Li[B(NH2)4], lithium tetraamidoborate(1–) or lithium tetraamidoborate(III);
[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl3, pentaamminechlorocobalt(III) chloride or pentaamminechlorocobalt(2+) chloride;
K3[Fe(CN)5CO], potassium carbonylpentacyanoferrate(II) or potassium carbonylpentacyanoferrate(3–);
[Mn{C6H4(O)(COO)}2(H2O)4]–, tetraaquabis[salicylato(2–)]manganate(III) ion; [Ni(C4H7N2O2)2] or
[Ni(dmg)] which can be named bis-(2, 3-butanedione dioximate)nickel(II) or bis[dimethylglyoximato(2–)]nickel(II).

1.1.8 Addition Compounds
The names of addition compounds are formed by connecting the names of individual compounds by
a dash (—) and indicating the numbers of molecules in the name by Arabic numerals separated by
the solidus (diagonal slash). All molecules are cited in order of increasing number; those having the
same number are cited in alphabetic order. However, boron compounds and water are always cited
last and in that order.
Examples: 3CdSO4 ⋅ 8H2O, cadmium sulfate—water (3/8); Al2(SO4)3 ⋅ K2SO4 ⋅ 24H2O, aluminum
sulfate—potassium sulfate—water (1/1/24); AlCl3 · 4C2H5OH, aluminum chloride—ethanol (1/4).
1.1.9 Synonyms and Mineral Names
TABLE 1.2 Synonyms and Mineral Names

(Continued)

1.14

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.2 Synonyms and Mineral Names (Continued)

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

TABLE 1.2 Synonyms and Mineral Names (Continued)

1.15

1.16

SECTION ONE

1.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Names follow the IUPAC Nomenclature. Solvates are listed under the entry for the anhydrous salt.
Acids are entered under hydrogen and acid salts are entered as a subentry under hydrogen.
Formula weights are based upon the International Atomic Weights and are computed to the nearest
hundredth when justified. The actual significant figures are given in the atomic weights of the individual elements. Each element that has neither a stable isotope nor a characteristic natural isotopic
composition is represented in this table by one of that element’s commonly known radioisotopes
identified by mass number and relative atomic mass.
1.2.1 Density
Density is the mass of a substance contained in a unit volume. In the SI system of units, the ratio of
the density of a substance to the density of water at 15°C is known as the specific gravity (relative
density). Various units of density, such as kg/m3, lb-mass/ft3, and g/cm3, are commonly used. In addition, molar densities or the density divided by the molecular weight is often specified.
Density values are given at room temperature unless otherwise indicated by the superscript figure;
for example, 2.48715 indicates a density of 2.487 g/cm3 for the substance at 15°C. A superscript 20
over a subscript 4 indicates a density at 20°C relative to that of water at 4°C. For gases the values are
given as grams per liter (g/L).
1.2.2 Melting Point (Freezing Temperature)
The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the solid and the liquid
are the same and the pressure totals one atmosphere and the solid and liquid phases are in equilibrium. For a pure substance, the melting point is equal to the freezing point. Thus, the freezing point is
the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid at normal atmospheric pressure.
The triple point of a material occurs when the vapor, liquid, and solid phases are all in equilibrium. This is the point on a phase diagram where the solid-vapor, solid-liquid, and liquid-vapor equilibrium lines all meet. A phase diagram is a diagram that shows the state of a substance at different
temperatures and pressures.
Melting point is recorded in a certain case as 250 d and in some other cases as d 250, the distinction being made in this manner to indicate that the former is a melting point with decomposition at
250°C while in the latter decomposition only occurs at 250°C and higher temperatures. Where a
value such as –6H2O, 150 is given it indicates a loss of 6 moles of water per formula weight of the
compound at a temperature of 150°C. For hydrates the temperature stated represents the compound
melting in its water of hydration.
1.2.3 Boiling Point
The normal boiling point (boiling temperature) of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor
pressure of the substance is equal to atmospheric pressure.
At the boiling point, a substance changes its state from liquid to gas. A stricter definition of boiling point is the temperature at which the liquid and vapor (gas) phases of a substance can exist in
equilibrium. When heat is applied to a liquid, the temperature of the liquid rises until the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere (gases). At this point there is no
further rise in temperature, and the additional heat energy supplied is absorbed as latent heat of
vaporization to transform the liquid into gas. This transformation occurs not only at the surface of the
liquid (as in the case of evaporation) but also throughout the volume of the liquid, where bubbles of
gas are formed. The boiling point of a liquid is lowered if the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere
(gases) is decreased. On the other hand, if the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere (gases) is
increased, the boiling point is raised. For this reason, it is customary when the boiling point of a substance is given to include the pressure at which it is observed, if that pressure is other than standard,
i.e., 760 mm of mercury or 1 atmosphere (STP, Standard Temperature and Pressure). The boiling

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.17

point of a solution is usually higher than that of the pure solvent; this boiling-point elevation is one
of the colligative properties common to all solutions.
Boiling point is given at atmospheric pressure (760 mm of mercury or 101 325 Pa) unless otherwise indicated; thus 8215mm indicates that the boiling point is 82°C when the pressure is 15 mm of
mercury. Also, subl 550 indicates that the compound sublimes at 550°C. Occasionally decomposition products are mentioned.
1.2.4 Refractive Index
The refractive index n is the ratio of the velocity of light in a particular substance to the velocity of
light in vacuum. Values reported refer to the ratio of the velocity in air to that in the substance saturated with air. Usually the yellow sodium doublet lines are used; they have a weighted mean of
589.26 nm and are symbolized by D. When only a single refractive index is available, approximate
values over a small temperature range may be calculated using a mean value of 0.000 45 per degree
for dn/dt, and remembering that nD decreases with an increase in temperature. If a transition point
lies within the temperature range, extrapolation is not reliable.
The specific refraction rD is given by the Lorentz and Lorenz equation,
rD =

nD2 − 1 1
⋅
nD2 + 2 r

where r is the density at the same temperature as the refractive index, and is independent of temperature and pressure. The molar refraction is equal to the specific refraction multiplied by the molecular
weight. It is a more or less additive property of the groups or elements comprising the compound. An
extensive discussion will be found in Bauer, Fajans, and Lewin, in Physical Methods of Organic
Chemistry, 3d ed., A. Weissberger (ed.), vol. 1, part II, chap. 28, Wiley-Interscience, New York,
1960.
The empirical Eykman equation
nD2 − 1 1
⋅ = constant
nD + 0.4 ρ
offers a more accurate means for checking the accuracy of experimental densities and refractive
indices, and for calculating one from the other, than does the Lorentz and Lorenz equation.
The refractive index of moist air can be calculated from the expression
(n − 1) × 10 6 =

103.49
177.4
86.26  5748 
p1 +
p2 +
1+
p3
T
T
T 
T 

where p1 is the partial pressure of dry air (in mmHg), p2 is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (in
mmHg), p3 is the partial pressure of water vapor (in mmHg), and T is the temperature (in kelvins).
Example: 1-Propynyl acetate has nD = 1.4187 and density = 0.9982 at 20°C; the molecular
weight is 98.102. From the Lorentz and Lorenz equation,
rD =

(1.4187)2 + 1
1
⋅
= 0.2528
2
(1.4187) + 2 0.9982

The molar refraction is
MrD = (98.102)(0.2528) = 24.80
From the atomic and group refractions, the molar refraction is computed as follows:
6H
5C
1 CæC
1 O(ether)
1 O(carbonyl)

6.600
12.090
2.398
1.643
2.211
MrD = 24.942

1.18
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds
Abbreviations Used in the Table
a, acid
abs, absolute
abs ale, anhydrous ethanol
acet, acetone
alk, alkali (aq NaOH or KOH)
anhyd, anhydrous
aq, aqueous
aq reg, aqua regia
atm, atmosphere
BuOH, butanol
bz, benzene
c, solid state

Name

ca., approximately
chl, chloroform
cone, concentrated
cub, cubic
d, decomposes
dil, dilute
disprop, disproportionates
EtOAc, ethyl acetate
eth, diethyl ether
EtOH, 95% ethanol
expl, explodes
fcc, face-centered cubic

Formula

Formula weight

fctetr, face-centered
tetragonal
FP, flash point
fum, fuming
fus, fusion, fuses
g, gas, gram
glyc, glycerol
h, hot
hex, hexagonal
HOAc, acetic acid
i, insoluble
ign, ignites

Density

Melting point,
°C

L, liter
lq, liquid
MeOH, methanol
min, mineral
mL, milliliter
org, organic
oxid, oxidizing
PE, petroleum ether
pyr, pyridine
s, soluble
satd, saturated
sl, slightly
Boiling point,
°C

soln, solution
solv, solvent (s)
subl, sublimes
sulf, sulfides
tart, tartrate
THF, tetrahydrofuran
v, very
vac, vacuum
viol, violently
volat, volatilizes
<, less than
>, greater than
Solubility
in 100 parts solvent

(Continued)
1.19

1.20
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point, Boiling point,
°C
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.21

1.22
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.23

1.24
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.25

1.26
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.27

1.28
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.29

1.30
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.31

1.32
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.33

1.34
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.35

1.36
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)
1.37

1.38
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)
1.39

1.40
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.41

1.42
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.43

1.44
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.45

1.46
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.47

Next Page
1.48
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

Previous Page

(Continued)

1.49

1.50
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.51

1.52
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.53

1.54
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.55

1.56
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)
1.57

1.58

TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.59

1.60
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

(Continued)

1.61

1.62
TABLE 1.3 Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Name

Formula

Formula weight

Density

Melting point,
°C

Boiling point,
°C

Solubility in
100 parts solvent

1.63

1.64

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds
Abbreviations Used in the Table
Color
B
BE
BK
CL
G
GN
O
P

Compound

brown
blue
black
colorless
gray
green
orange
purple

Formula

R
SL
V
W
Y

red
silver
violet
white
yellow

Molecular
weight

Crystal Symmetry
cubic
hexagonal
monoclinic
rhombic
Rhombohedral
tetragonal
trigonal
triclinic

C
H
M
R
RH
T
TG
TR

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Refractive
index nD

Actinium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Oxide

AcBr3
AcCl3
AcF3
Ac2O3

466.7
333.4
284.0
502.0

W
W
W
W

H
H
H
H

Aluminum
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Nitride
Oxide
Phosphate
Silicate
Sulfate
Sulfide

AlBr3
Al4C3
ACl3
AlF3
Al(OH)3
AlI3
Al(NO3)3 ⋅ 9H2O
AlN
Al2O3
AlPO4
Al2SiO5
Al2(SO4)3
Al2S3

266.7
143.9
133.3
84.0
78.0
407.7
375.1
41.0
102.0
122.0
162.0
342.2
150.2

CL
Y
W
CL
W
W
CL
W
CL
W
W
W
Y

R
H
H
TR
M

Americium
Oxide IV

AmO2

275.1

B

C

Ammonium
Bromide
Carbonate
Chlorate
Chloride
Chromate
Fluoride
Iodate
Iodide
Nitrate
Nitrite
Oxalate
Perchlorate
Hydrogen Phosphate
Dihydrogen Phosphate
Sulfate
Hydrogen sulfide
Thiocyanate

NH4Br
(NH4)2CO3 ⋅ H2O
NH4ClO3
NH4Cl
(NH4)2CrO4
NH4F
NH4IO3
NH4I
NH4NO3
NH4NO2
(NH4)2C2O4 ⋅ H2O
NH4ClO4
(NH4)2HPO4
NH4H2PO4
(NH4)2SO4
NH4HS
NH4SCN

98.0
114.1
101.5
53.5
152.1
37.0
192.9
144.9
80.0
64.0
142.1
117.5
132.1
115.0
132.1
51.1
76.1

W
W
W
W
Y
W
W
W
W
Y
CL
W
W
W
W
W
CL

C
C
M
C
M
H
R
C
R

1.711

R
R
M
T
R
R
M

1.44–1.59
1.49
1.53
1.48–1.53
1.53
1.74
1.61–1

R
H
H
R
R
R
H

2.70
1.56
1.38

1.54
1.68
1.56
1.66
1.47

1.642
1.315
1.703
1.413

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.65

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Antimony
Bromide III
Chloride III
Chloride V
Fluoride III
Fluoride V
Hydride III
Iodide III
Iodide V
Oxide III
Oxide V
Oxychloride III
Sulfate III
Sulfide III
Sulfide V

SbBr3
SbCl3
SbCl5
SbF3
SbF5
SbH3
SbI3
SbI5
Sb2O3
Sb2O5
SbOCl
Sb2(SO4)3
Sb2S3
Sb2S5

361.5
228.1
299.0
178.8
216.7
124.8
502.5
756.3
291.5
323.5
173.2
531.7
339.7
403.8

CL
CL
W
CL
CL
CL
RD
B
CL
Y
W
W
BK
Y

Arsenic
Acid, ortho
Bromide III
Chloride III
Chloride V
Fluoride III
Fluoride V
Hydride III
Iodide III
Iodide V
Oxide III
Oxide V
Sulfide II
Sulfide III
Sulfide V

H3AsO4 ⋅ 1/2H2O
AsBr3
AsCl3
AsCl5
AsF3
AsF5
AsH3
AsI3
AsI5
As2O3
As2O5
As2S2
As2S3
As2S5

151.0
314.7
181.3
252.2
131.9
169.9
77.9
455.6
709.5
197.2
229.9
214.0
246.0
310.2

CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
R
B
CL
W
R
Y
Y

Barium
Bromate
Bromide
Carbide
Carbonate
Chlorate
Chloride
Chromate
Fluoride
Hydride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxalate
Oxide
Perchlorate
Sulfate
Sulfide
Titanate

Ba(BrO3)2 ⋅ H2O
BaBr2
BaC2
BaCO3
Ba(ClO3)2 ⋅ H2O
BaCl2
BaCrO4
BaF2
BaH2
Ba(OH)2 ⋅ 8H2O
BaI2
Ba(NO3)2
BaC2O4
BaO
Ba(ClO4)2
BaSO4
BaS
BaTiO3

411.2
297.2
161.4
197.4
322.3
208.3
253.3
175.3
139.4
315.5
391.2
261.4
225.4
153.3
336.2
233.4
169.4
233.3

CL
CL
G
W
CL
CL
Y
CL
G
CL
CL
CL
W
CL
CL
W
CL

Crystal
symmetry

Refractive
Index nD

R
R
LIQ
R
LIQ
GAS
H

1.74
1.74
1.6011

R
C
M

2.35

R

4.064

R
LIQ

1.598

LIQ
GAS
GAS
H
M
C
M
M
M

M
R
T
R
M
M
R
C
M
M
C
C
H
R
C
T/H

2.46–2.52
2.4–2.6

1.75
1.676
1.56–1
1.736
1.474
1.502
1.572
1.98
1.636
2.155
2.40
(Continued)

1.66

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Beryllium
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Nitride
Oxide
Sulfate
Sulfate

BeBr2
Be2C
BeCl2
BeF2
Be(OH)2
BeI2
Be(NO3)2 ⋅ 3H2O
Be3N2
BeO
BeSO4
BeSO4 ⋅ 4H2O

168.8
30.0
79.9
47.0
43.0
262.8
187.1
55.1
25.0
105.1
177.1

W
Y
W
CL
W
CL
W
CL
W
CL
CL

Bismuth
Bromide III
Chloride III
Fluoride III
Hydroxide III
Iodide III
Nitrate III
Nitrate, Basic III
Oxide III
Oxide IV
Oxide V
Oxychloride III
Phosphate III
Sulfate III
Sulfide III

BiBr3
BiCl3
BiF3
Bi(OH)3
BiI3
Bi(NO3)3 ⋅ 5H2O
BiO(NO3) ⋅ H2O
Bi2O3
Bi2O4 ⋅ 2H2O
Bi2O5
BiOCl
BiPO4
Bi2(SO4)3
Bi2S3

448.7
315.4
266.0
260.0
589.7
485.1
305.0
466.0
518.0
498.0
260.5
304.0
706.1
514.2

Y
W
G
W
RD
CL
W
Y
B
B
W
W
W
B

Boron
Arsenate
Boric Acid
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Diborane
Fluoride
Iodide
Nitride
Oxide
Sulfide

BAsO4
H3BO3
BBr3
B4C
BCl3
B2H6
BF3
BI3
BN
B2O3
B2S3

149.7
61.8
250.5
55.3
117.2
27.7
67.8
391.6
24.8
69.6
117.8

Bromine
Chloride I
Fluoride I
Fluoride III
Fluoride V
Hydride I

BrCl
BrF
BrF3
BrF5
H Br

Cadmium
Bromide
Carbonate
Chloride

CdBr2
CdCO3
CdCl2

Crystal
symmetry

Refractive
index nD

OR
H
OR
T
R
RH
C
H
T
T

1.44–1.47

C

1.74

H
TR
H
R

1.91

1.72

T
M

2.15

R

1.34–1.46

W
W
CL
BK
CL
CL
CL
W
W
W
W

T
TR
LIQ
RH
LIQ
GAS
GAS

1.68

115.4
98.9
136.9
174.9
80.9

R
B
CL
CL
CL

GAS
GAS
LIQ
LIQ
GAS

272.2
172.4
228.4

W
W
W

H
TG
H

1.531216

H
C

1.453625
1.352925
1.32510

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.67

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Cadmium (Continued)
Fluoride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Sulfate
Sulfate
Sulfide

CdF2
Cd(OH)2
CdI2
Cd(NO3)2 ⋅ 4H2O
CdO
CdSO4
3CdSO4 ⋅ 8H2O
CdS

150.4
146.4
366.2
308.5
128.4
208.5
769.6
144.5

W
W
B
W
B
W
CL
Y

Calcium
Bromate
Bromide
Carbide
Carbonate
Chloride
Chloride
Chromate
Fluoride
Hydride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Nitrate
Nitride
Oxalate
Oxide
Perchlorate
Peroxide
Sulfate
Sulfate
Sulfide

CaBrO3 ⋅ H2O
CaBr2 ⋅ 6H2O
CaC2
CaCO3
CaCl2
CaCl2 ⋅ 6H2O
CaCrO4 ⋅ 2H2O
CaF2
CaH2
Ca(OH)2
CaI2
Ca(NO3)2
Ca(NO3)2 ⋅ 4H2O
Ca3N2
CaC2O4
CaO
Ca(ClO4)2
CaO2
CaSO4
CaSO4 ⋅ 2H2O
CaS

313.9
308.0
64.1
100.1
111.0
219.1
192.1
78.1
42.1
74.1
293.9
164.1
236.2
148.3
128.1
56.1
239.0
72.1
136.1
172.2
72.1

CL
CL
CL
CL
C
Y
CL
W
CL
W
CL
CL
B
CL
CL
CL
W
CL
CL
CL

Carbon
Dioxide
Disulfide
Monoxide
Oxybromide
Oxychloride
Oxysulfide

CO2
CS2
CO
COBr2
COCl2 (Phosgene)
COS

44.0
76.1
28.0
187.8
98.9
60.1

CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL

Cerium
Bromide III
Chloride III
Fluoride III
Iodate IV
Iodide III
Molybdate III
Nitrate III
Oxide III
Oxide IV
Sulfate III
Sulfide

CeBr3
CeCl3
CeF3
Ce(IO3)4
CeI3
Ce2(MoO4)3
Ce(NO3)3 ⋅ 6H2O
Ce2O3
CeO2
Ce2(SO4)3
Ce2S3

380.0
246.5
197.1
839.7
520.8
760.0
434.2
328.2
172.1
568.4
376.4

CL
W
Y
Y
Y
CL
GN
W
CL
Y

Crystal
wymmetry
C
TR
H
C
R
M
H

M
H
T
R
C
T
M
C
R
H
H
C
M
H
C
C
T
M
M
C

GAS
LIQ
GAS
LIQ
GAS
GAS

Refractive
index nD
1.56

1.565
2.51

1.75
1.681
1.52
1.417
1.434
1.574

1.498

1.838

1.576
1.5226
2.137

1.6290

H
H
H
R
T

2.01

H
C
M/R
C
(Continued)

1.68

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Cesium
Bromide
Carbonate
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Iodide III
Nitrate
Oxide
Perchlorate
Periodate
Peroxide
Sulfate
Superoxide
Trioxide

CsBr
Cs2CO3
CsCl
CsF
CsOH
CsI
CsI3
CsNO3
Cs2O
CsClO4
CsIO4
Cs2O2
Cs2SO4
CsO2
Cs2O3

212.8
325.8
168.4
151.9
149.9
259.8
513.7
194.9
281.8
232.4
323.8
297.8
361.9
164.9
313.8

CL
CL
CL
CL
W

Chlorine
Dioxide
Fluoride
Trifluoride
Monoxide
Hydrochloric Acid
Perchloric Acid

ClO2
ClF
ClF3
Cl2O
HCl
HClO4

67.5
54.5
92.5
86.9
36.5
100.5

Y
CL
CL
B
CL
CL

GAS
GAS
GAs
GAS
GAS
LIQ

Chromium
Bromide II
Carbide III
Chloride II
Chloride III
Fluoride II
Fluoride III
Iodide II
Nitrate III
Nitrate III
Oxide II
Oxide III
Oxide IV
Oxide VI
Phosphate III
Sulfate III
Sulfide II
Sulfide III

CrBr2
Cr3C2
CrCl2
CrCl3
CrF2
CrF3
CrI2
Cr(NO3)3
CrN
CrO
Cr2O3
CrO2
CrO3
CrPO4 ⋅ 6H2O
Cr2(SO4) ⋅ 18H2O
CrS
Cr2S3

211.8
180.0
122.9
158.4
90.0
109.0
305.8
238.0
66.0
68.0
152.0
84.0
100.0
255.1
716.5
84.1
200.2

W
G
W
V
GN
GN
B
GN

M
R
R
R
M
R
M

BK
GN
B
RD
V
V
BK
B

Cobalt
Bromide II
Chlorate II
Chloride II
Fluoride II
Fluoride III
Hydroxide II
Iodate II

CoBr2
Co(ClO3)2 ⋅ 6H2O
CoCl2
CoF2
CoF3
Co(OH)2
Co(IO3)2

218.8
333.9
129.8
96.9
115.9
92.9
408.7

GN
R
BE
R
B
R
V

BK
W
R
CL
W
Y
CL
Y
B

Refractive
index nD

C

1.642

C
C

1.534
1.481

C
R
H

1.661; 1.669

R
R
R
R

1.55
1.479

1.564

C

C
H
H
R
TR
C
M
TG

H
C
H
M
H
R

1.25410

2.551

1.564

1.55

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.69

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Cobalt (Continued)
Iodide II
Nitrate II
Oxide II
Oxide III
Oxide II–III
Perchlorate II
Sulfate II
Sulfate II
Sulfide II
Sulfide III

CoI2
Co(NO3)2 ⋅ 6H2O
CoO
Co2O3
Co3O4
Co(ClO4)2
CoSO4
CoSO4 ⋅ 7H2O
CoS
Co2S3

312.7
291.0
74.9
165.9
240.8
257.8
155.0
281.1
91.0
214.1

BK
R
GN
B
BK
R
BE
R
R
BK

Copper
Bromide I
Bromide II
Carbonate, Basic II
Chloride I
Chloride II
Chloride II
Fluoride II
Hydroxide I
Hydroxide II
Iodide I
Nitrate II
Oxide I
Oxide II
Sulfate II
Sulfate II
Sulfide I
Sulfide II
Thiocyanate I

CuBr
CuBr2
2CuCO3 ⋅ Cu(OH)2
CuCl
CuCl2
CuCl2 ⋅ 2H2O
CuF2 ⋅ 2H2O
CuOH
Cu(OH)2
CuI
Cu(NO3)2 ⋅ 3H2O
Cu2O
CuO
CuSO4
CuSO4 ⋅ 5H2O
Cu2S
CuS
CuSCN

143.5
223.4
344.7
99.0
134.5
170.5
137.6
80.6
97.6
190.5
241.6
143.1
79.5
159.6
249.7
159.1
95.6
121.6

W
BK
BE
W
Y
Y
W
Y
BE
W
BE
R
BK
W
BE
BK
BK
W

Curium
Bromide III
Chloride III
Fluoride III
Fluoride IV
Iodide III

CmBr3
CmCl3
CmF3
CmF4
CmI3

488
353
304
323
628

W
W
B
W

R
H
H
M
H

Dysprosium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Sulfate

DyBr3
DyCl3
DyF3
DyI3
Dy(NO3)3 ⋅ 5H2O
Dy2O3
Dy2(SO4)3 ⋅ 8H2O

402.3
268.9
219.5
543.2
438.6
373.0
757.3

CL
Y
CL
GN
Y
W
Y

R
M
H
H
TR
C
M

Erbium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride

ErBr3
ErCl3
ErF3

407.1
273.6
224.3

V
V
RD

R
M
R

Refractive
index nD

H
M
C
R
C
1.50
C
M
H

C
M
M
C
M
R
M

1.48

1.731

C

2.346

C
TR
R
TR
C
H

2.705
2.63
1.52

(Continued)

1.70

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color
V
R
W
R

Erbium (Continued)
Iodide
Oxide
Sulfate
Sulfide

ErI3
Er2O3
Er2(SO4)3
Er2S3

548.0
382.6
622.7
263.5

Europium
Bromide II
Bromide III
Chloride II
Chloride III
Fluoride II
Fluoride III
Iodide II
Iodide III
Oxide III
Sulfate III

EuBr2
EuBr3
EuCl2
EuCl3
EuF2
EuF3
EuI2
EuI3
Eu2O3
Eu2(SO4)3 ⋅ 8H2O

311.8
391.7
222.9
258.3
190.0
209.0
405.8
532.7
351.9
736.2

Fluorine
Dioxide
Hydride
Oxide

F2O2
HF
F2O

Cadolinium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Sulfate
Sulfide

Crystal
symmetry

Refractive
index nD

H
C
M

G
W
Y
Y
W
GN

R
R
R
H
C
R
M

R
R

C
M

70.0
20.0
54.0

B
CL
CL

GAS
GAS
GAS

GdBr3
GdCl3
GdF3
GdI3
Gd(NO3)3 ⋅ 6H2O
Gd2O3
Gd2(SO4)3
Gd2S3

397.0
263.6
214.3
538.0
451.4
362.5
602.7
410.7

W
W
W
Y
W
CL
Y

H
H
R
H
T
C

Gallium
Arsenide III
Bromide III
Chloride II
Chloride III
Fluoride III
Iodide III
Oxide I
Oxide III
Sulfide I
Sulfide II

GaAs
GaBr3
Ga2Cl4
GaCl3
GaF3
GaI3
Ga2O
Ga2O3
Ga2S
Ga2S3

144.6
309.5
281.3
176.0
126.7
450.4
155.4
187.4
171.5
235.6

G
CL
W
CL
W
Y
G
G
G
Y

Germanium
Bromide IV
Chloride IV
Fluoride IV
Hydride IV
Iodide IV
Oxide II

GeBr4
GeCl4
GeF4
GeH4 (Germane)
GeI4
GeO

392.2
214.4
148.6
76.6
580.2
88.6

G
CL
CL
CL
R
G

C

C

TR
RH

M (b)

1.95

H

LIQ
GAS
GAS
C

1.627
1.464
1.00089
1.607

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.71

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Germanium (Continued)
Oxide IV
Sulfide II
Sulfide IV

GeO2
GeS
GeS2

104.6
104.7
136.7

CL
Y
W

Gold
Bromide I
Bromide III
Chloride I
Chloride III
Hydroxide III
Iodide
Iodide III
Sulfate III
Sulfide I
Sulfide III

AuBr
AuBr3
AuCl
AuCl3
Au(OH)3
AuI
AuI3
Au2(SO4)3 · H2O
Au2S
Au2S3

276.9
436.7
232.4
303.3
248.0
323.9
577.7
490.5
426.0
490.1

G
B
Y
R
B
Y
G
B
B
B

Hafnium
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Nitride
Oxide
Sulfide

HfBr4
HfC
HfCl4
HfF4
HfI4
HfN
HfO2
HfS2

498.1
190.5
320.3
254.5
686.1
192.5
210.5
242.6

W

Y
W

C
T
H

Holmium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide

HoBr3
HoCl3
HoF3
HoI3
Ho2O3

404.7
271.3
221.9
545.6
377.9

Y
Y
B
Y

R
M
H

Hydrogen
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide
Oxide-Deutero
Peroxide
Selenide
Sulfide
Telluride

HBr
HCl
HF
HI
H2O
2H2O
H2O2
H2Se
H2S
H2Te

80.9
36.5
20.0
127.9
18.0
20.0
34.0
81.0
34.1
129.9

CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL

GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
LIQ
LIQ
LIQ
GAS
GAS
GAS

Indium
Bromide I
Bromide III
Chloride I
Chloride III
Fluoride III

InBr
InBr3
InCl
InCl3
InF3

194.7
354.5
150.3
221.2
171.8

B
CL
R
CL
CL

C
M
H

Refractive
index nD

H
R
R

R

TR

C
W
CL

M

1.56

C
2.77–67

1.466
1.3333
1.3284
1.41422
1.374

(Continued)

1.72

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Indium (Continued)
Iodide I
Iodide III
Oxide III
Sulfate III
Sulfide III

InI
InI3
In2O3
In2(SO4)3
In2S3

241.7
495.5
277.6
517.8
325.8

B
Y
Y
W
R (b)

Iodine
Bromide I
Chloride I, a
Chloride I, b
Chloride III
Fluoride V
Fluoride VII
Oxide IV
Oxide V
Iodic Acid
Hydrogen Iodide

IBr
ICl
ICl
ICl3
IF5
IF7
I2O4
I2O5
HIO3
HI

206.8
162.4
162.4
233.3
221.9
259.9
317.8
333.8
175.9
127.9

BK
R
R
Y
CL
CL
Y
CL
W
CL

Iridium
Bromide II
Bromide IV
Chloride III
Chloride IV
Fluoride VI
Iodide III
Iodide IV
Oxide IV
Sulfide IV

IrBr3 · 4H2O
IrBr4
IrCl3
IrCl4
IrF6
IrI3
IrI4
IrO2
IrS2

504.0
511.8
298.6
334.0
306.2
572.9
699.8
224.2
256.3

GN
BK
GN
R
Y
GN
BK
BK
BK

Iron
Arsenide
Arsenide, di–
Bromide II
Bromide III
Carbide
Carbonate II
Chloride II
Chloride III
Fluoride III
Hydroxide II
Hydroxide III
Iodide II
Nitrate II
Nitrate III
Nitride
Oxide II
Oxide III
Oxide II-III
Phosphate III
Phosphide
Sulfate II

FeAs
FeAs2
FeBr2
FeBr3 · 6H2O
Fe3C
FeCO3
FeCl2
FeCl3
FeF3
Fe(OH)2
Fe(OH)3
FeI2
Fe(NO3)2 · 6H2O
Fe(NO3)3 · 9H2O
Fe2N
FeO
Fe2O3
Fe3O4
FePO4 · 2H2O
Fe2P
FeSO4 · 7H2O

130.8
205.7
215.7
403.7
179.6
115.9
126.8
162.2
112.9
89.9
106.9
309.7
288.0
404.0
125.7
71.9
159.7
231.6
186.9
142.7
278.0

W
G
GN
R
G
G
G
GN
W
GN
B
BK
GN
CL
G
BK
B
BK
W
G
GN

Crystal
symmetry

Refractive
index nD

M
C
M
C

OR
C
LIQ
R
LIQ
GAS

R
GAS

1.466

H
C
T

R
R
H
C
H
H
R
H
H
R
M
C
TG
C
M
H
M

2.32
3.04
2.42
1.35
1.48

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.73

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color
Y
GN
BK
BK
Y

Iron (Continued)
Sulfate III
Sulfate II, Ammonium
Sulfide II
Sulfide III
Sulfide, di

Fe2(SO4)3
(NH4)2 Fe(SO4) · 6H2O
FeS
Fe2S3
FeS2

399.9
392.2
87.9
207.9
120.0

Lanthanum
Bromate
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Molybdate
Oxide
Sulfate
Sulfide

La(BrO3)3 · 9H2O
LaBr3
LaCl3
LaF3
LaI3
La2(MoO4)3
La2O3
La2(SO4)3
La2S3

684.8
378.6
245.3
195.9
519.6
757.6
325.8
566.0
374.0

Lead
Acetate II
Acetate IV
Arsenate II
Bromide II
Carbonate II
Chloride II
Chloride IV
Chromate II
Fluoride II
Hydroxide II
Iodate II
Iodide II
Molybdate II
Nitrate II
Oxide II
Oxide IV
Oxide II–IV
Phosphate, III
Sulfate II
Sulfide II
Tungstate II

Pb(C2H3O2)2
Pb(C2H3O2)4
Pb3(AsO4)2
PbBr2
PbCO3
PbCl2
PbCl4
PbCrO4
PbF2
Pb(OH)2
Pb(IO3)2
PbI2
PbMoO4
Pb(NO3)2
PbO
PbO2
Pb3O4
Pb3(PO4)2
PbSO4
PbS
PbWO4

325.3
443.4
899.4
367.0
267.2
278.1
349.0
323.2
245.2
241.2
557.0
461.0
367.2
331.2
223.2
239.2
685.6
811.6
303.3
239.3
455.1

W
CL
W
W
CL
W
Y
Y
CL
W
W
Y
CL
CL
R
B
R
W
W
BK
CL

Lithium
Aluminum Hydride
Bromide
Carbonate
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide

LiAlH4
LiBr
Li2CO3
LiCl
LiF
LiH
LiOH
LiI
LiNO3
Li2O

37.9
86.9
73.9
42.4
25.9
8.0
24.0
133.9
68.9
29.9

W
W
W
W
W
CL
W
W
W
W

W
W
W
G
W
W
Y

Crystal
symmetry
R
M
H
H
C

Refractive
index nD
1.81
1.49

H
H
H
H
R
T
R
H

M
R
R
R
LIQ
M
R
H
H
T
C
T
T
T
H
R
C
M

C
M
C
C
C
T
C
TG
C

1.80–2.08
2.22
2.33

2.30
1.782

1.95
1.85
3.911

1.784
1.43; 1.5
1.662
1.391
1.46
1.955
1.435;1.439
1.644
(Continued)

1.74

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

W
CL
CL
W

Crystal
symmetry

Lithium (Continued)
Peroxide
Perchlorate
Phosphate
Sulfate,
Sulfide

Li2O2
LiClO4
Li3PO4
Li2SO4
Li2S

45.9
160.4
115.8
109.9
45.9

Lutetium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide

LuBr3
LuCl3
LuF3
LuI3
Lu2O3

414.7
281.3
232.0
555.7
397.9

W
W
W
B

TG
M
R
H
C

Magnesium
Aluminate
Bromide
Carbonate
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Silicide
Silicate, m
Silicate, o
Sulfate
Sulfide

MgO · Al2O3
MgBr2
MgCO3
MgCl2
MgF2
Mg(OH)2
MgI2
Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
MgO
Mg2Si
MgSiO3
Mg2SiO4
MgSO4
MgS

142.3
184.1
84.3
95.2
62.3
58.3
278.2
256.4
40.3
76.7
100.4
140.7
120.4
56.4

CL
W
W
W
CL
CL
W
CL
CL
BE
W
W
CL
R

C
H
TG
H
T
H
H
M
C
C
M
R
R
C

Manganese
Bromide II
Carbonate II
Chloride II
Fluoride II
Iodide II
Oxide II
Oxide III
Oxide IV
Oxide II–IV
Potassium Permanganate
Silicide
Sulfate II
Sulfide II

MnBr2
MnCO3
MnCl2
MnF2
MnI2
MnO
Mn2O3
MnO2
Mn3O4
KMnO4
MnSi
MnSO4
MnS

214.8
114.9
125.9
92.9
308.8
70.9
157.9
86.9
228.8
158.0
83.0
151.0
87.0

W
W
W
R
W
GN
BK
BK
BK
P

H
R
H
T
H
C
C
R
R
R
C

R
GN

C

Mercury
Bromide I
Bromide II
Chloride I
Chloride II
Cyanide II
Fluoride I

Hg2Br2
HgBr2
Hg2Cl2
HgCl2
Hg(CN)2
Hg2F2

561.1
360.4
472.1
271.5
252.7
439.2

W
CL
W
CL
CL
Y

T
R
T
R
T
C

H
H
R
M
C

Refractive
index nD

1.465

1.723
1.51; 1.70
1.59; 1.67
1.38
1.57

1.736
1.66
1.65
2.271

1.817

2.16

1.59

1.97; 2.66
1.72; 1.97
1.645

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.75

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Mercury (Continued)
Fluoride II
Iodide I
Iodide II
Nitrate I
Nitrate II
Oxide I
Oxide II
Sulfate I
Sulfate II
Sulfide III

HgF2
Hg2I2
HgI2
Hg2(NO3)2 · 2H2O
Hg(NO3)2 · 1/2H2O
Hg2O
HgO
Hg2SO4
HgSO4
HgS

238.6
655.0
454.4
561.2
333.6
417.2
216.6
497.3
296.7
232.7

CL
Y
R/Y
CL
W
BK
Y/R
CL
CL
R

C
T
T/R
M

Molybdenum
Carbide II
Carbide IV
Chloride II
Chloride III
Chloride V
Fluoride VI
Iodide II
Molybdic Acid
Oxide IV
Oxide VI
Silicide IV
Sulfide IV

Mo2C
MoC
MoCl2
MoCl3
MoCl5
MoF6
MoI2
H2MoO4 · 4H2O
MoO2
MoO3
MoSi2
MoS2

203.9
108.0
166.9
202.3
273.2
202.9
349.8
180.0
127.9
143.9
152.1
160.1

W
G
Y
R
BK
Cl
B
Y
G
CL
G
BK

H
H

Neodymium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide
Sulfide

NdBr3
NdCl3
NdF3
NdI3
Nd2O3
Nd2S3

384.0
250.6
201.2
524.9
336.5
384.7

V
V
V
G
BE
GN

R
H
H
R
H

Neptunium
Bromide II
Chloride III
Chloride IV
Fluoride III
Fluoride VI
Iodide III
Oxide IV

NpBr3
NpCl3
NpCl4
NpF3
NpF6
NpI3
NpO2

476.7
343.4
378.8
294.0
351.0
617.7
269.0

GN
GN
BN
P
O
B
GN

R
H
T
H
R
R
C

Nickel
Arsenide
Bromide II
Carbonyl
Chloride II
Fluoride II
Hydroxide II
Iodide II
Nitrate II
Oxide II

NiAs
NiBr2
Ni(CO)4
NiCl2
NiF2
Ni(OH)2
NiI2
Ni(NO3)2 · 6H2O
NiO

133.6
218.5
170.7
129.6
96.7
92.7
312.5
290.8
74.7

W
Y
CL
Y
Y
GN
BK
GN
G

H

R
M
R
H

Refractive
index nD

2.45; 2.7

2.37; 2.6

2.85; 3.2

M

M
T
R
T
H

LIQ
H
T
H
M
C

4.7

1.45810

2.37
(Continued)

1.76

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Nickel (Continued)
Phosphide
Sulfate II
Sulfide II

Ni2P
NiSO4
NiS

148.4
154.8
90.8

G
Y
BK

C
TR

Niobium
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide

NbBr5
NbC
NbCl5
NbF5
NbI5
Nb2O5

492.5
104.9
270.2
187.9
727.4
265.8

R
BK
W
CL
BRASS
W

R
C
M
M
M
R

Nitrogen
Ammonia
Hydrazine
Hydrazoic Acid
Hydroxylamine
Nitric Acid
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide I (nitrous-)
Oxide II (nitric-)
Oxide III (tri-)
Oxide IV (per-)
Oxide V (penta-)
Sulfide II
Nitrosyl Chloride
Nitrosyl Fluoride
Nitryl Chloride

NH3
N2H4
NH3
NH2OH
HNO3
NCl3
NF3
NI3
N2O
NO
N2O3
NO2
N2O5
N4S4
NOCl
NOF
NO2Cl

17.0
32.0
43.0
33.0
63.0
120.4
71.0
394.7
44.0
30.0
76.0
46.0
108.0
184.3
65.5
49.0
81.5

CL
CL
CL
W
CL
Y
CL
BK
CL
CL
B
B
W
O
O
CL
CL

GAS
LIQ
LIQ
R
LIQ
LIQ
GAS

Osmium
Chloride IV
Fluoride V
Fluoride VI
Fluoride VIII
Iodide IV
Oxide IV
Oxide VIII
Sulfide IV

OsCl4
OsF5
OsF6
OsF8
OsI4
OsO2
OsO4
OsS2

332.0
285.2
304.2
342.2
697.8
222.2
254.1
254.3

R
G
GN
Y
BK
BK
CL
BK

T
M
C

Oxygen
Fluoride
Ozone

OF2
O3

54.0
48.0

B
CL

GAS
GAS

Palladium
Bromide II
Chloride II
Fluoride II
Iodide II
Oxide II
Sulfide II

PdBr2
PdCl2
PdF2
PdI2
PdO
PdS

266.6
177.3
144.4
360.2
122.4
138.5

B
R
B
BK
G
BK

GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
R
M
GAS
GAS
GAS

M
C

C
T
T
T

Refractive
index nD

1.325
1.4707
1.44023.5
1.39716

1.19316

2.046

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.77

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Phosphorus
Hypophosphorous Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Phosphorous Acid
Bromide III
Bromide V
Chloride III
Chloride V
Fluoride III
Fluoride V
Hydride (Phosphine)
Iodide III
Oxide III
Oxide IV
Oxide V
Oxybromide V
Oxychloride
Oxyfluoride
Sulfide
Sulfide V
Thiobromide V
Thiochloride V

H3PO2
H3PO4
H3PO3
PBr3
PBr5
PCl3
PCl5
PF3
PF5
PH3
PI3
P4O6
PO2
P2O5
POBr3
POCl3
POF3
P4S7
P2S5
PSBr3
PSCl3

66.0
98.0
82.0
270.7
430.5
137.3
208.3
88.0
126.0
34.0
411.7
219.9
63.0
142.0
286.7
153.4
104.0
348.4
222.3
302.8
169.4

CL
CL
CL
CL
Y
CL
W
CL
CL
CL
R
W
CL
W
CL
CL
CL
Y
Y
Y
CL

Platinum
Bromide II
Bromide IV
Chloride II
Chloride IV
Fluoride IV
Fluoride VI
Hydroxide II
Hydroxide IV
Iodide II
Oxide II
Oxide IV
Sulfate IV
Sulfide II
Sulfide III
Sulfide IV

PtBr2
PtBr4
PtCl2
PtCl4
PtF4
PtF6
Pt(OH)2
Pt(OH)4
PtI2
PtO
PtO2
Pt(SO4)2 · 4H2O
PtS
Pt2S3
PtS2

354.9
514.8
260.0
336.9
271.2
309.1
229.1
263.1
448.9
211.1
227.1
459.4
227.2
486.6
259.2

B
B
GN
B
R
R
BK
B
BK
G
BK
Y
BK
G
G

C

Plutonium
Bromide III
Carbide IV
Chloride III
Fluoride III
Fluoride IV
Fluoride VI
Iodide III
Nitride III
Oxide IV

PuBr3
PuC
PuCl3
PuF3
PuF4
PuF6
PuI3
PuN
PuO2

481.7
256.0
346.4
299.0
318.0
356.0
622.7
256.0
274.0

GN
SL
GN
P
B
B
GN
BK
GN

R
C
H
H
M
R
R
C
C

Refractive
index nD

R
LIQ
R
LIQ
T
GAS
GAS
GAS
H
M
R
H

1.694519

LIQ
GAS

C
LIQ

1.63525

H

T

T

2.4
(Continued)

1.78

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Polonium (Continued)
Bromide IV
Chloride II
Chloride IV
Oxide IV

PoBr4
PoCl2
PoCl4
PoO2

529.7
281.0
351.9
242.0

R
R
Y
R/Y

C
R
M
T/C

Potassium
Bromate
Bromide
Carbonate
Chlorate
Chloride
Cyanide
Dichromate
Ferrocyanide
Fluoride
Hydroxide
Iodate
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Perchlorate
Periodate
Permanganate
Peroxide
Phosphate, o
Sulfate
Sulfide
Superoxide
Thiocyanate

KBrO3
KBr
K2CO3
KClO3
KCl
KCN
K2Cr2O7
K4[Fe(CN)6] · 3H2O
KF
KOH
KIO3
KI
KNO3
K2O
KClO4
KIO4
KMnO4
K2O2
K3PO4
K2SO4
K2S
KO2
KSCN

167.0
119.0
138.2
122.6
74.6
65.1
294.2
422.4
58.1
56.1
214.0
166.0
101.1
94.2
138.6
230.0
158.0
110.2
212.3
174.3
110.3
71.1
97.2

CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
O
Y
CL
W
CL
W
CL
CL
CL
CL
P
Y
CL
CL
B
Y
CL

TR
C
M
M
C
C
M/TR
M/T
C
C/R
M
C
R/TR
C
R
T
R
R
TR
R/H
C
T
R

Praseodymium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide
Sulfate
Sulfide

PrBr3
PrCl3
PrF3
PrI3
Pr2O3
Pr2(SO4)3 · 8H2O
Pr2S3

380.6
247.3
197.9
521.6
329.8
714.1
378.0

GN
GN
GN
G
Y
GN
B

H
H
H
R
H
M

Protactinium
Bromide IV
Chloride IV
Fluoride IV
Iodide III
Oxide IV

PaBr4
PaCl4
PaF4
PaI3
PaO2

470.9
372.9
307.1
611.8
263.1

R
GN
B
BK
BK

T
T
M
R
C

Radium
Bromide
Chloride
Sulfate

RaBr2
RaCl2
RaSO4

385.8
296.1
322.1

Y
Y
CL

M
M
R

Refractive
index nD

1.559
1.426; 1.431
1.409; 1.423
1.490
1.410
1.738 TR
1.577
1.35

1.677
1.335; 1.?
1.47
1.63
1.59

1.495

1.55

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.79

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Rhenium
Bromide III
Chloride III
Chloride V
Fluoride IV
Flouride VI
Flouride VII
Oxide IV
Oxide VI
Oxide VII
Oxybromide VII
Oxychloride VII
Sulfide IV
Sulfide VII

ReBr3
ReCl3
ReCl5
ReF4
ReF6
ReF7
ReO2
ReO3
Re2O7
ReO3Br
ReO3Cl
ReS2
Re2S7

425.9
292.6
363.5
262.5
300.2
319.2
218.2
234.2
484.4
314.1
269.7
250.4
596.9

B
R
B
GN
Y
O
BK
R
Y
W
CL
BK
BK

Rhodium
Chloride III
Fluoride III
Hydroxide III
Oxide III
Oxide IV
Sulfide III

RhCl3
RhF3
Rh(OH)3
Rh2O3
RhO2
Rh2S3

209.3
159.9
155.9
253.8
134.9
302.0

R
R
Y
G
B
BK

Rubidium
Bromate
Bromide
Carbonate
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Perchlorate
Peroxide
Sulfate
Sulfide
Superoxide

RbBrO3
RbBr
Rb2CO3
RbCl
RbF
RbOH
RbI
RbNO3
Rb2O
RbClO4
Rb2O2
Rb2SO4
Rb2S
RbO2

213.4
165.4
231.0
120.9
104.5
102.5
212.4
147.5
187.0
189.4
202.9
267.0
203.0
117.5

CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
W
CL
CL
Y

Ruthenium
Chloride III
Fluoride V
Oxide IV
Oxide VIII
Sulfide IV

RuCl3
RuF5
RuO2
RuO4
RuS2

207.4
196.1
133.1
165.1
165.2

R
GN
BE
Y
BK

TR/H
M
T
R
C

Samarium
Bromate III
Bromide II
Bromide III
Chloride II

Sm(BrO3)3 · 9H2O
SmBr2
SmBr3
SmCl2

696.2
310.2
390.1
221.3

Y
B
Y
B

H

Y
CL
Y
Y

Refractive
index nD

T
LIQ
C
M
C
H
LIQ
H
T

R

C
C
C
C
R
C
C
C/R
C
R

1.5530
1.493
1.398
1.6474
1.52
1.4701
1.513

T

R
R
(Continued)

1.80

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Samarium (Continued)
Chloride III
Fluoride II
Fluoride III
Iodide II
Iodide III
Nitrate III
Oxide III
Sulfate III
Sulfide III

SmCl3
SmF2
SmF3
SmI2
SmI3
Sm(NO3)3 · 6H2O
Sm2O3
Sm2(SO4)3 · 8H2O
Sm2S3

256.7
188.4
207.4
404.2
531.1
444.5
348.7
733.0
396.9

Y
Y
W
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Scandium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Sulfate

ScBr3
ScCl3
ScF3
ScI3
Sc(NO3)3
Sc2O3
Sc2(SO4)3

284.7
151.3
102.0
425.7
231.0
137.9
378.1

W
CL

Selenium
Bromide I
Bromide IV
Chloride I
Chloride IV
Fluoride IV
Fluoride VI
Hydride II
Oxide IV
Oxide VI
Oxybromide
Oxychloride
Oxyfluoride
Selenic Acid
Selenous Acid

Se2Br2
SeBr4
Se2Cl2
SeCl4
SeF4
SeF6
H2Se
SeO2
SeO3
SeOBr2
SeOCl2
SeOF2
H2SeO4
H2SeO3

317.7
398.6
228.8
220.8
154.9
192.9
81.0
111.0
127.0
254.8
165.9
133.0
145.0
129.0

R
B
B
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
W
O
Y
CL
W
CL

Silicon
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydride (silane)
Hydride (disilane)
Hydride (trisilane)
Iodide
Nitride
Oxide II
Oxide IV (amorph)
Oxychloride
Sulfide

SiBr4
SiC
SiCl4
SiF4
SiH4
Si2H6
Si3H8
SiI4
Si3N4
SiO
SiO2
Si2OCl6
SiS2

347.7
40.1
169.9
104.1
32.1
62.2
92.3
535.7
140.3
44.1
60.1
284.9
92.2

CL
BK
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
G
W
CL
CL
W

Compound

W
CL
W
CL

Crystal
symmetry
H
C
R
M
H
TR
M
M
C

Refractive
index nD

1.55

RH
RH
H
C

LIQ
LIQ
C
LIQ
GAS
GAS
T
T
LIQ
LIQ
LIQ
R
H

LIQ
C/H
LIQ
GAS
GAS
GAS
LIQ
C
H
C

1.807
1.895
>1.76

1.651

1.57971
2.67

1.4588
LIQ
R

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.81

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Silver
Bromate
Bromide
Carbonate
Chlorate
Chloride
Cyanide
Fluoride
Iodate
Iodide
Nitrate
Nitrite
Oxide
Perchlorate
Phosphate, o
Sulfate
Sulfide
Telluride
Thiocyanate

AgBrO3
AgBr
Ag2CO3
AgClO3
AgCl
AgCN
AgF
AgIO3
AgI
AgNO3
AgNO2
Ag2O
AgCIO4
Ag3PO4
Ag3SO4
Ag2S
Ag2Te
AgSCN

235.8
187.8
257.8
191.3
143.3
133.9
126.9
282.8
234.8
169.9
153.9
231.8
207.4
418.6
311.8
247.8
343.4
166.0

CL
Y
Y
W
W
W
Y
CL
Y
CL
Y
B
W
Y
W
BK
G
CI

Sodium
Bicarbonate
Bromate
Bromide
Carbonate
Chlorate
Chloride
Cyanide
Fluoride
Hydride
Hydroxide
Iodate
Iodide
Nitrate
Nitrite
Oxide
Perchlorate
Periodate
Peroxide
Phosphate, o
Silicate, m
Sulfate
Sulfide
Sulfite
Thiosulfate

NaHCO3
NaBrO3
NaBr
Na2CO3
NaCIO3
NaCl
NaCN
NaF
NaH
NaOH
NaIO3
NaI
NaNO3
NaNO2
Na2O
NaClO4
NaIO4
Na2O2
Na3PO4
Na2SiO3
Na2SO4
Na2S
Na2SO3
Na2S2O3

84.0
150.9
102.9
106.0
106.4
58.4
49.0
42.0
24.0
40.0
197.9
149.9
85.0
69.0
62.0
122.4
213.9
78.0
163.9
122.1
142.1
78.1
126.1
158.1

W
CL
Cl
W
CL
CL
CL
CL
SL
W
W
CL
CL
Y
G
W
CL
Y
W
CL
CL
W
W
CL

Strontium
Bromide
Carbonate
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydride

SrBr2
SrCO3
SrCl2
SrF2
SrH2

247.5
147.6
158.5
125.6
89.6

W
CL
CL
CL
W

Crystal
symmetry
T
C
T
C
H
C
R
H/C
R
R
C
C
C
R
C/R
M

M
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
R/C
R
C
TR
R
C
C/R
T
H

Refractive
index nD
1.874,1.904
2.253

2.071
1.685,1.9

2.21
1.74

1.500
1.594
1.6412
1.535
1.513
1.544
1.452
1.336
1.470
1.358
1.775
1.34;1

1.46

M
R
C
H
M

1.52
1.48

R
R
C
C
R

1.575
1.521
1.650
1.442

1.5

(Continued)

1.82

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Strontium (Continued)
Hydroxide
Iodate
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Peroxide
Sulfate
Sulfide

Sr(OH)2
Sr(IO3)2
SrI2
Sr(NO3)2
SrO
SrO2
SrSO4
SrS

121.7
437.4
341.4
211.7
103.6
119.6
183.7
119.7

CL
CL
W
CL
CL
CL

TR
––
C
C
T
R
C

Sulfur
Bromide I
Chloride I
Chloride II
Chloride IV
Fluoride I
Fluoride VI
Hydride
Oxide IV
Oxide VI
Pyrosulfuric Acid
Sulfuric Acid
Sulfuryl Chloride
Thionyl Bromide
Thionyl Chloride

S2Br2
S2Cl2
SCl2
SCl4
S2F2
SF6
H2S
SO2
SO3
H2S2O7
H2SO4
SO2Cl2
SOBr2
SOCl2

224.0
135.0
103.0
173.9
102.1
146.0
34.1
64.1
80.1
178.1
98.1
135.0
207.9
119.0

R
Y
R
R
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
CL
Y
CL

LIQ
LIQ
LIQ
LIQ
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
LIQ
LIQ
LIQ
LIQ
LIQ
LIQ

Tantalum
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Nitride
Oxide
Sulfide

TaBr5
TaC
TaCl5
TaF5
TaI5
TaN
Ta2O5
Ta2S4

580.5
193.0
358.2
275.9
815.4
194.9
441.9
490.1

Y
BK
Y
CL
BK
BK
CL
BK

R
C
M
M
R
H
R
H

Tellurium
Bromide II
Bromide V
Chloride II
Chloride IV
Fluoride VI
Hydride
Iodide IV
Oxide IV
Oxide VI
Telluric Acid, o

TeBr2
TeBr4
TeCl2
TeCl4
TeF6
H2Te
TeI4
TeO2
TeO3
H2TeO6

287.4
447.3
198.5
269.4
241.6
129.6
635.2
159.6
175.6
229.7

GN
Y
GN
W
CL
CL
BK
W
Y
W

Terbium
Bromide
Chloride

TbBr3
TbCl3

398.6
265.3

W
W

Refractive
index nD

W

M
GAS
GAS
R
T/R
C

1.567
1.870
1.62
2.107

1.736
1.66614
1.557

1.374

1.42923
1.44412
1.52710

2.00–2.35

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.83

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Terbium (Continued)
Fluoride
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide

TBF3
TbI3
Tb(NO3)3 · 6H2O
Tb2O3

215.9
539.6
453.0
365.8

W
CL
W

R
H
M
C

Thalliun
Bromide I
Carbonate I
Chloride I
Chloride III
Fluoride
Hydroxide I
Iodide I
Nitrate I
Oxide I
Oxide III
Sulfate I
Sulfide I

TlBr
Tl2CO3
TlCl
TlCl3
TlF
TlOH
TlI
TlNO3
Tl2O
Tl2O3
Tl2SO4
Tl2S

284.3
468.8
239.8
310.8
223.4
221.4
331.3
266.4
424.7
456.7
504.8
440.8

W
CL
W
W
CL
Y
Y/R
W
BK
CL
CL
BK

C
M
C
H
R
R
R/C
C/TR
RH
C
R
T

Thorium
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide
Sulfate
Sulfide

ThBr4
ThC2
ThCl4
ThF4
ThI4
ThO2
Th(SO4)2
ThS2

551.7
256.1
373.9
308.0
739.7
264.0
424.2
296.2

W
Y
W
W
Y
W
W
BK

T
T
T
M
M
C
M
R

Thulium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide

TmBr3
TmCl3
TmF3
TmI3
Tm2O3

408.7
275.2
225.9
549.6
385.9

W
Y
W
Y
Y

H
M
R
H
C

Tin
Bromide II
Bromide IV
Chloride II
Chloride IV
Fluoride II
Fluoride IV
Hydride
Iodide II
Iodide IV
Oxide II
Oxide IV
Sulfide II
Sulfide IV

SnBr2
SnBr4
SnCl2
SnCl4
SnF2
SnF4
SnH4
SnI2
SnI4
SnO
SnO2
SnS
SnS2

278.5
438.4
189.6
260.5
156.7
194.7
122.7
372.5
626.3
143.7
150.7
150.8
182.8

Y
CL
W
CL
W
W

R
R
R
LIQ
M
M
GAS
R
C
T
T
R
H

R
R
BK
W
BK
Y

Refractive
index nD

2.4–2.8
2.247

2.78

1.87

1.512

2.106
1.996

(Continued)

1.84

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Titanium
Bromide IV
Carbide IV
Chloride II
Chloride III
Chloride IV
Fluoride IV
Iodide IV
Nitride
Oxide II
Oxide IV
Sulfide IV

TiBr4
TiC
TiCl2
TiCl3
TiCl4
TiF4
TiI4
TiN
TiO
TiO2
TiS2

367.6
59.9
118.8
154.3
189.7
123.9
555.5
61.9
63.9
79.9
112.0

O
G
BK
V
Y
W
B
Y
BK
BK
Y

Tungsten
Bromide V
Carbide II
Carbide IV
Chloride V
Chloride VI
Fluoride VI
Oxide IV
Oxide VI
Sulfide IV
Tungstic Acid

WBr5
W2C
WC
WCl5
WCl6
WF6
WO2
WO3
WS2
H2WO4

583.4
379.7
195.9
361.1
396.6
297.8
215.9
231.9
248.0
250.0

B
G
G
GN
BE
CL
B
Y
BK
Y

Uranium
Bromide III
Bromide IV
Carbide
Carbide
Chloride III
Chloride IV
Fluoride IV
Fluoride VI
Nitride
Oxide IV
Oxide VI
Oxide IV–VI
Uranyl Acetate
Uranyl Nitrate

UBr3
UBr4
UC
UC2
UCl3
UCl4
UF4
UF6
UN
UO2
UO3
U3O8
UO2(C2H3O2)2 · 6H2O
UO2(NO3)2 · 6H2O

477.8
557.7
250.0
262.0
344.4
379.9
314.1
352.1
252.0
270.1
286.1
842.2
422.1
502.1

R
B
BK
BK
R
GN
GN
Y
B
BK
R
BK
Y
Y

H
M
C
T
H
T
M
R
C
C
H
R
R
R

Vanadium
Carbide IV
Chloride IV
Fluoride III
Fluoride V
Iodide II
Oxide III
Oxide IV
Oxide V
Oxychloride V
Sulfide II

VC
VCl4
VF3
VF5
VI2
V2O3
VO2
V2O5
VOCl3
VS

62.9
192.7
107.9
145.9
304.7
149.9
82.9
181.9
173.3
83.0

BK
R
GN
CL
V
BK
BE
R
Y
BK

C
LIQ
R
R
H
RH
T
R
LIQ
H

M
C
H
H
LIQ
C
C
C
T
H

Refractive
index nD

1.61

2.55

H
C
C
GAS
T
M
H
R

2.24

1.38

1.49

1

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.85

TABLE 1.4 Color, Crystal Symmetry and Refractive Index of Inorganic Compounds (Continued)
Compound

Formula

Molecular
weight

Color

Crystal
symmetry

Xenon
Fluoride II
Fluoride IV
Fluoride VI
Oxide VI

XeF2
XeF4
XeF6
XeO3

169.3
207.3
245.3
179.3

CL
CL
CL
CL

T
M
M
R

Yttebium
Bromide III
Chloride II
Chloride III
Fluoride III
Iodide II
Iodide III
Oxide III
Sulfate III

YbBr3
YbCl2
YbCl3
YbF3
YbI2
YbI3
Yb2O3
Yb2(SO4)3

412.8
244.0
279.3
230.0
426.9
553.8
394.1
634.3

CL
GN
W
W
BK
Y
CL
CL

R
M
R
H
H
C

Yttrium
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Oxide
Sulfate

YBr3
YCl3
YF3
YI3
Y2O3
Y2(SO4)3

328.6
195.3
145.9
469.6
225.8
466.0

W
W
W
W
W
W

Zinc
Acetate
Bromide
Calbonate
Chloride
Fluoride
Hydroxide
Iodide
Nitrate
Oxide
Sulfate
Sulfide

Zn(C2H3O2)2
ZnBr2
ZnCO3
ZnCl2
ZnF2
Zn(OH)2
ZnI2
Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O
ZnO
ZnSO4
ZnS

183.5
225.2
125.4
136.3
103.4
99.4
319.2
297.5
81.4
161.4
97.5

CL
CL
CL
W
CL
CL
CL
CL
W
CL
CL

Zirconium
Bromide
Carbide
Chloride
Fluoride
Iodide
Nitride
Oxide

ZrBr4
ZrC
ZrCI4
ZrF4
ZrI4
ZrN
ZrO2

410.9
103.2
233.1
167.2
598.8
105.2
123.2

W
G
W
W
W
B
W

Refractive
index nD

1.79

M
H
C

M
R
TR
H
M
R
C
T
H
R
C/H

C
C
M

M

1.5452
1.168
1.687

2.01
1.669
2.36

1.59

1.86

SECTION ONE

TABLE 1.5 Refractive Index of Minerals
Mineral name

Refractive index

Actinolite
Adularia moonstone
Adventurine feldspar
Adventurine quartz
Agalmatoite
Agate
Albite feldspar
Albite moonstone
Alexandrite
Almandine garnet
Almandite garnet
Amazonite feldspar
Amber
Amblygonite
Amethyst
Anatase
Andalusite
Andradite garnet
Anhydrite
Apatite
Apophyllite
Aquamarine
Aragonite
Augelite
Axinite
Azurite

1.618–1.641
1.525
1.532–1.542
1.544–1.533
1.55
1.544–1.553
1.525–1.536
1.535
1.745–1.759
1.76–1.83
1.79
1.525
1.540
1.611–1.637
1.544–1.553
2.49–2.55
1.634–1.643
1.82–1.89
1.571–1.614
1.632–1.648
1.536
1.577–1.583
1.530–1.685
1.574–1.588
1.675–1.685
1.73–1.838

Barite
Barytocalcite
Benitoite
Beryl
Beryllonite
Brazilianite
Brownite

1.636–1.648
1.684
1.757–1.8
1.577–1.60
1.553–1.562
1.603–1.623
1.567–1.576

Calcite
Cancrinite
Cassiterite
Celestite
Cerussite
Ceylanite
Chalcedony
Chalybite
Chromite
Chrysoberyl
Chrysocolla
Chrysoprase
Citrine
Clinozoisite
Colemanite
Coral
Cordierite
Corundum

1.486–1.658
1.491–1.524
1.997–2.093
1.622–1.631
1.804–2.078
1.77–1.80
1.53–1.539
1.63–1.87
2.1
1.745
1.50
1.534
1.55
1.724–1.734
1.586–1.614
1.486–1.658
1.541
1.766–1.774

Mineral name

Refractive index

Crocoite
Cuprite

2.31–2.66
2.85

Danburite
Demantoid garnet
Diamond
Diopsite
Dolomite
Dumortierite

1.633
1.88
2.417–2.419
1.68–1.71
1.503–1.682
1.686–1.723

Ekanite
Elaeolite
Emerald
Enstatite
Epidote
Euclase

1.60
1.532–1.549
1.576–1.582
1.663–1.673
1.733–1.768
1.652–1.672

Fibrolite
Fluorite

1.659–1.680
1.434

Gaylussite
Glass
Grossular garnet

1.517
1.44–1.90
1.738–1.745

Hambergite
Hauynite
Hematite
Hemimorphite
Hessonite garnet
Hiddenite
Howlite
Hypersthene

1.559–1.631
1.502
2.94–3.22
1.614–1.636
1.745
1.655–1.68
1.586–1.609
1.67–1.73

Idocrase
Iolite
Ivory

1.713–1.72
1.548
1.54

Jadeite
Jasper
Jet

1.66–1.68
1.54
1.66

Kornerupine
Kunzite
Kyanite

1.665–1.682
1.655–1.68
1.715–1.732

Labradorite feldspar
Lapis gem
Lazulite
Leucite

1.565
1.50
1.615–1.645
1.5085

Magnesite
Malachite
Meerschaum

1.515–1.717
1.655–1.909
1.53.… none

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1.87

TABLE 1.5 Refractive Index of Minerals (Continued)
Mineral name

Refractive index

Microcline feldspar
Moldavite
Moss agate

1.525
1.50
1.54–1.55

Natrolite
Nephrite
Nephrite jade

1.48–1.493
1.60–1.63
1.600–1.627

Obsidian
Oligoclase feldspar
Olivine
Onyx
Opal
Orthoclase feldspar

1.48–1.51
1.539–1.547
1.672
1.486–1.658
1.45
1.525

Painite
Pearl
Periclase
Peridot
Peristerite
Petalite
Phenakite
Phosgenite
Prase
Prasiolite
Prehnite
Proustite
Purpurite
Pyrite
Pyrope

1.787–1.816
1.52–1.69
1.74
1.654–1.69
1.525–1.536
1.502–1.52
1.65–1.67
2.117–2.145
1.54–1.533
1.54–1.553
1.61–1.64
2.79–3.088
1.84–1.92
1.81
1.74

Quartz

1.55

Rhodizite
Rhodochrisite
Rhodolite garnet
Rhodonite
Rock crystal
Ruby
Rutile

1.69
1.60–1.82
1.76
1.73–1.74
1.544–1.553
1.76–1.77
2.61–2.90

Sanidine
Sapphire
Scapolite
Scapolite (yellow)
Scheelite

1.522
1.76–1.77
1.54–1.56
1.555
1.92–1.934

Mineral name

Refractive index

Serpentine
Shell
Sillimanite
Sinhalite
Smaragdite
Smithsonite
Sodalite
Spessartite garnet
Spinel
Sphalerite
Sphene
Spodumene
Staurolite
Steatite
Stichtite
Sulfur

1.555
1.53–1.686
1.658–1.678
1.699–1.707
1.608–1.63
1.621–1.849
1.483
1.81
1.712–1.736
2.368–2.371
1.885–2.05
1.65–1.68
1.739–1.762
1.539–1.589
1.52–1.55
1.96–2.248

Taaffeite
Tantalite
Tanzanite
Thomsonite
Tiger eye
Topaz (white)
Topaz (blue)
Topaz (pink, yellow)
Tourmaline
Tremolite
Tugtupite
Turquoise
Turquoise gem

1.72
2.24–2.41
1.691–1.70
1.531
1.544–1.553
1.638
1.611
1.621
1.616–1.652
1.60–1.62
1.496–1.50
1.61–1.65
1.61

Ulexite
Uvarovite

1.49–1.52
1.87

Variscite
Vivianite

1.55–1.59
1.580–1.627

Wardite
Willemite
Witherite
Wulfenite

1.59–1.599
1.69–1.72
1.532–1.68
2.300–2.40

Zincite
Zircon
Zirconia (cubic)
Zoisite

2.01–1.03
1.801–2.01
2.17
1.695

1.88
TABLE 1.6 Properties of Molten Salts

Material

Melting
point
Tm (°K)

Boiling
point
(°K)

Density at
melting
point
(g ⋅ cm−3)

LiF
NaF
KF
RbF
LiCl
NaCl
KCl
LiBr
NaBr
KBr
NaNO2
KNO2
LiNO3
NaNO3
KNO3
RbNO3
AgNO3
TlNO3
Li2SO4
Na2SO4
K2SO4
ZnCl2
HgCl2
PbCl2
Na2WO4
Na3AlF6
KCNS

1121
1268
1131
1048
883
1073
1043
823
1020
1007
544
692
527
583
610
589
483
480
1132
1157
1347
548
550
771
969
1273
450

1954
1977
1775
1681
1655
1738
1680
1583
1665
1656
d > 593
d623
—
d653
d > 613
—
d > 485
706
—
—
—
1005
577
1227
—
—
—

1.83
1.96
1.91
—
1.60
1.55
1.50
2.53
2.36
2.133
1.81
—
1.78
1.90
1.87
2.48
3.97
4.90
2.00
2.07
1.88
2.39
4.37
3.77
3.85
1.84
1.60

Notes: (a) 5893 Å; (b) 5890 Å.

Critical
temperature
(°K)
4140
4270
3460
3280
3080
3400
3200
3020
3200
3170

Volume
change on
melting
∆Vf /∆Vs 100
29.4
27.4
17.2
—
26.2
25.0
17.3
24.3
22.4
16.6
—
—
21.4
10.7
3.32
−0.23