Main Korean Made Simple: A beginner’s guide to learning the Korean language
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The pdf has some Hangul typos (probably a conversion problem) but downloading it as ePub the problem is gone.
24 November 2020 (21:27)
This is a great learning tool for beginners! I have already learned more in 45 minutes using this book than I have in the past two weeks of reading other books.
16 May 2021 (07:06)
Korean Made Simple: A beginner’s guide to the Korean language Volume 1, Edition 1 Written by: Billy Go Edited by: Michelle Chong and Wooseok Lim Published by: GO! Billy Korean Cover and inside illustrations by: HeeJin Park (heejinbakes.tumblr.com) Hangul letter blocks by: Sarah HaEun Jeong (esperes.weebly.com) Copyright 2014 GO! Billy Korean http://www.gobillykorean.com All rights reserved eBook Edition, License Notes This ebook is licensed for your personal enjoyment only. This ebook may not be re-sold or given away to other people. If you would like to share this book with another person, please purchase an additional copy for each recipient. If you’re reading this book and did not purchase it, or it was not purchased for your use only, then please return to your favorite ebook retailer and purchase your own copy. Thank you for respecting the hard work of this author. DEDICATION This book is dedicated to you, the learner. If it weren’t for people like you who are interested in learning the Korean language, this book would not exist. Thank you for being interested in Korean, and for your support in purchasing this book. My only hope is that this book will serve as a strong, first step toward your personal language learning goals – whatever those goals may be. Good luck in your studies. TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Introduction to Hangul More Hangul Introduction to Sound Changes Chapter 1: Saying Hello Chapter 2: Likes and Dislikes Chapter 3: Simple Sentences Chapter 4: Wanting and Not Wanting Chapter 5: Verbs Chapter 6: More Verbs Chapter 7: Asking Questions Chapter 8: More Questions Chapter 9: Adjectives Chapter 10: More Adjectives Chapter 11: Colors Chapter 12: Numbers Chapter 13: More Numbers Chapter 14: Negative Sentences Chapter 15: Korean Markers Chapter 16: Telling Time Chapter 17: Shopping Chapter 18: Relationships Chapter 19: Informal Korean Chapter 20: Past Tense Answer Keys Appendix A. – Typing in Korean Appendix B. – Hangul Chart and Names of Letters Appendix C. – Sound Change Rules Informal; Korean Conversations Special Thanks Glossary Preface So you’ve decided to learn Korean! I congratulate you on your decision, and welcome you on your new journey. As for me, I first learned Korean while living in Korea in 2005. Upon returning home, I chose to major in Korean at my university in 2008, and it’s been nonstop fun ever since. I’m happy with my decision to pursue Korean education as a career, and hope to be able to help many others see their Korean abilities improve as we study this wonderful language together here in this book. What to Expect This book was designed with you, the learner, in mind. As such, I’m assuming that you have never studied Korean before, and will begin teaching from the very basic of basics, working our way up from there. First time language learners, Korean beginners, and curious minds of all ages – yes, even those of you who may think "I’m too old to learn a language" – were in my thoughts while writing this book. This book was designed specifically for you. If you’ve already studied some Korean before, that’s great! Don’t worry. I have you in mind as well. In addition to covering the basics, I always make sure to add in a little more in each chapter. Through my personal and academic studies of the Korean language, I’m finding the majority of resources out there for teaching Korean often fail to present concepts in their correct forms – to put it simply, I find lots of mistakes in Korean being taught in other textbooks and on web sites. As such, it’s likely that you’ll learn something new through this book, even if you’ve already studied Korean before up to any level. Concepts are laid out in their simplest way possible at first, for the beginner. "Advanced Notes" sprinkled throughout each chapter add information that beginning Korean courses might not teach at first, but are still important. Sometimes these will even contain advanced-level material if I feel that it’s something that even beginners should know. "Culture Notes" will deepen your understanding of the Korean language, because you can’t speak Korean well without knowing a thing or two about Korean culture. I didn’t even know where Korea was on a map before I started studying the language (Note to self: North and South Korea are very different!). Do not expect to be speaking fluent Korean by the end of this book. There is simply too much that needs to be covered before you will be able to converse in Korean without any difficulties. However, I promise that if you follow this book well and practice what you learn, you will be able to gain quite an extensive introductory knowledge of the Korean language through this book. And, you will be able to fill in the gaps that most Korean learners face later on in their studies. And I’ll be there the whole way, holding your hand through each lesson – figuratively, of course. I’m not really going to hold your hand the whole time (I’m sorry, but that’s just creepy). How to Use This Book This book builds upon itself with each chapter. I recommend that you take your time going through each lesson, in order. Don’t move on to the next section until you feel comfortable with the last one. Each lesson builds upon knowledge learned from the previous one, so skipping a lesson could lead to problems understanding concepts in later lessons; this negative result would obviously compound the more lessons you skip. In short, do all of the lessons and all of the exercises in order, or at least do all of the lessons if you’re in a rush and feel confident enough to skip the Practice sections. If this is your first time learning Korean, I recommend reading each "Culture Notes" section, but skipping the "Advanced Notes" sections, as these are not designed for first time learners. If this isn’t your first time studying Korean, I recommend reading the additional "Advanced Notes" in each chapter. In addition, if you’ve already read this book once before, I would also recommend reading the "Advanced Notes" sections on your second time through. As you complete each chapter, refer frequently to the vocabulary lists in the back of the chapter, or the Glossary in the back of this book as necessary. If you are having trouble understanding a sentence, or creating a sentence for the Practice sections, it might only be due to not knowing the appropriate vocabulary word. Take notes along the way as you complete each chapter. Practice reading, writing, and speaking as much as possible. If you have a friend who can speak Korean, practice speaking and listening frequently. In addition, if you notice a grammar form you are not familiar with, I would recommend proceeding through the book more slowly. This book builds upon itself, so if you have missed something, and if it does not appear in the chapter you are currently reading, it may have been skipped from a previous chapter. There is no need to rush through the basics of the Korean language. It will take time to become familiar with using the Korean alphabet, and to become used to hearing the sounds of the language – this is normal. Once you have learned the basics, it will become much easier, and faster, to move forward and acquire new concepts. How to Study Korean I’m not the authority on how your brain will learn this language the best, but I do have a few suggestions. Try some of them, and use what works for you. 1. Quiz yourself frequently on words you are learning, or have somebody else quiz you. 2. Force yourself to create sentences using the words and grammar forms that you are learning. 3. If you are fortunate enough to live in an area with many Koreans (such as in Korea, or a major city), make friends and practice speaking the language as much as possible. 4. Keep a regular study schedule. Even if you only have 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, stick to it. 30 minutes a day for 5 days is better than studying 150 minutes at once. Shorter, frequent study is also easier to manage if you have a busy schedule. 5. Write vocabulary words you learn on sticky notes, and place them over things and places that they correspond to. For example, you can write the Korean word for "pencil" on your favorite pencil, or the word for "friend" on your best friend’s forehead. 6. Grammar is more important than vocabulary. A beginner with a strong understanding of basic Korean grammar will sound worlds better than a walking dictionary that can’t construct a coherent sentence. 7. Brush Up Your English Grammar. "This is a Korean book! Why do I have to learn English grammar?" Many concepts in Korean are much easier to explain and understand if you have a basic grasp of English grammar. Could you learn that the Korean word 사과 meant "apple" in English, without knowing the English word "apple" beforehand? As such, you’ll need to be familiar with words such as verb, adjective, noun, and others, in order to better learn the Korean language. Here are a few English concepts I use in this book which you should be at least familiar with before starting: Subject / Object / Noun / Adjective / Adverb / Verb I’ll also be covering necessary grammar words as they come up throughout the book, but knowing what they are in advance will help make concepts easier to digest once we get there. Welcome to Korean and Korea To everyone who’s learning for their first time, welcome! To everyone else, welcome back! Before we dive into the language, it’s important to first know a few things about the country that speaks it. Korea is located to the west of Japan, and it shares a border with the eastern part of China. Originally, Korea was one country, but the end of the Korean War in 1953 resulted in the two sides separating into North Korea and South Korea. "Why?" To put it simply, North Korea and South Korea had some serious disagreements that led to the Korean War starting in the first place. Both North Koreans and South Koreans speak the same Korean language, but decades of being divided from each other caused separate dialects to emerge, and the way each country spoke the same language began to become more different. For comparison, you can think of North Korean speech to South Korean speech as being what British English is to American English; people from both countries can understand each other fine, but have their own distinct differences in pronunciation, and vocabulary. For this book (and like most other Korean language books), we will be learning the Korean language as spoken in South Korea. But before we dive into Korean, let’s start by learning a little bit about the country of South Korea. •Full name: 대한민국 (shortened to 한국) •Population: 50 million •Current capital: Seoul •Language: Korean – of course! Korea shares a lot of its history with its neighbor, China. A large portion of the Korean vocabulary originally came from Chinese as well, although the sounds of these words were changed as they were brought into Korea. Still, although Korea has adopted much of its vocabulary from Chinese, and some of its grammar from Japanese, it is unrelated to either languages; Korean is completely unique from any other language. This makes it even more interesting. We’ll be learning to speak Korean through this book, as well as read and write it. If you can’t yet read or write Korean, no worries! We’ll be covering everything about the written language in the next few sections. Approximately 80 million people speak Korean natively worldwide. Including non-native speakers, and people currently learning to speak Korean (such as yourself), that number is much larger. Korean Sentence Structure The Korean language works differently from other languages. For comparison, let’s take a look at a simple sentence in English: "I kicked the ball." The English language uses a S.V.O. sentence structure – Subject, Verb, and Object. This means that the subject comes first ("I"), followed by the verb ("kicked"), and then the object ("the ball"). However, the Korean language uses a S.O.V. sentence structure – Subject, Object, and Verb. Here’s the same sentence written again, but using Korean sentence structure: "I ball kicked." 저는 공을 찼습니다. You’ll see in future lessons how sentence structure works, and it’s not that complicated once you’ve practiced with it. As I mentioned, there are over 80 million people speaking Korean currently, and I’m sure that you can learn it as well. Why Korean? But why are you learning Korean? •Business? •Travel? •Making friends? •Dating? •For fun? •"Because I can, that’s why." All of these are great reasons to study Korean. No matter your reason, you’ve truly chosen a fun, interesting, and useful language. I hope that this book will help you reach your own goals for learning Korean. Note About the 니다 Form If this is your first time learning Korean and you have never heard of the 니다 form before, you can feel free to skip this section and begin learning the Korean alphabet. I would like to discuss my usage of the 니다 form in this book. This book has been designed to help people to learn the Korean language clearly and correctly, including proper grammar rules, and is not a phrase book. As such, I’ve chosen to introduce the 니다 form (a very polite way of speaking) first and foremost in this book, and only introduce the 요 form (used for the majority of informal speaking) toward the end, beginning with Chapter 19. As a disclaimer, the 니다 form is not commonly used in real, regular Korean conversations. This is because it is a formal form, and is used most often for formal and business situations. I also discuss this in detail, including when to use the 니다 form, in Chapter 19. In addition, the 니다 form can sound awkward when used to friends or to people who are younger than the speaker. Regardless, I felt it was best to introduce it first for several reasons. However, the 니다 form has several advantages over the 요 form for first time students of the Korean language. 1. It’s simpler to learn, helping to ease the learner into Korean, to save mental resources for focusing on adjusting to the Korean alphabet and grammar. 2. It’s better to be too polite than to be rude. 3. Students who have just begun studying Korean will likely not be able to hold a full conversation, so knowing the 요 form is unnecessary for introductory concepts. While some students of Korean who have already passed the basics may see the 니다 form as useless, or counterproductive to learning Korean, I strongly believe that it is not, and decided to structure the book in this way after intensely comparing the options. While studying the 요 form first can help to adjust the learner to conjugating and using it, it has its own share of problems that I feel outweighs its benefits – at least in the beginning. 1. It requires knowledge of several rules in order to conjugate. This can be intimidating to first time learners. 2. Although it is not rude in itself, when used in situations where formality is required, the 요 form can sound rude. 3. It should not be used to ask questions to people who are older. As such, the learner must also learn honorific grammar and vocabulary in order to properly speak using the 요 form. Nevertheless, I understand the importance of knowing the 요 form in order to hold a real conversation in Korean. Although it is introduced late (Chapter 19), I have included every conversation from every chapter re-written using the 요 form in the back of this book, for practice and also for study. My ultimate goal is for this book to give you a comprehensive introduction to the Korean language – consider it a solid stone step up a tall mountain. I hope that you can trust my methods long enough to be able to take over on your own. Good luck in your language learning, and feel free to contact me with any questions or comments at any time (just please don’t call me late at night when I’m sleeping). Introduction to Hangul What is Hangul? "Hangul" is the name of the writing system used all throughout Korea, both in South Korea and in North Korea. Specifically, it’s an alphabet, meaning that it’s made up of consonants and vowels, just like the English language. Before the 1500s in Korea, there was no way of writing the Korean language. Instead, wealthy and educated Koreans would simply learn Chinese if they wanted to read and write. Because the Chinese language could only be studied by those with money and prestige, the majority of Korea was unfortunately illiterate. But all of this changed with the creation of the Korean alphabet, known as Hangul. Hangul was introduced to Korea in 1446 by King Sejong (세종대왕), who also happens to be one of the most famous people in all of Korean history. This event was extremely important in the development of the Korean language, and allowed even the poorest Korean to read and write due to Hangul’s simplicity. Do I Need to Learn Hangul? The short answer is "yes." The long answer is also "yes." The only truly reliable way of writing and reading the Korean language is through Hangul. Although there are ways of using the English alphabet to spell Korean words, none of these are perfect, and all have their flaws – Hangul is the only true way of learning to correctly read and write Korean. There are several systems available for writing the Korean language with the English alphabet, and yet none of them can correctly capture the sound, spelling, and meaning of the original word written at the same time. For example, take the Korean word 독립문 ("Independence Gate"). Depending on which system you are using, it could be written as Dongnimmun, Toklipmun, or even Dog-Rib-Moon, among several others. While one system might preserve the actual sound of the word (Dongnimmun), it loses the original spelling in the process. A different system may preserve the original spelling (Toklipmun), but loses the actual sound. And while another system may preserve the original spelling and the original sound (Dog-Rib-Moon), it looks completely silly. In short, there is no substitute for learning to read and write Hangul. Hangul is an Alphabet Fortunately for you, Hangul is simple. As I mentioned, it’s an alphabet. As such, you only need to learn the letters in order to be able to construct every sound possible in the Korean language. Although Hangul might look like complex symbols, such as Chinese, each syllable is composed of simple consonants and vowels. There are 10 unique vowels and 14 basic consonants in Hangul, making a total of 24 letters (contrast this with English which has 26 letters). Just like in English, consonants combine with vowels to form syllables, and words. Syllables are written one letter at a time, and letters are written in order from left to right, and top to bottom. Each syllable is written as a single block. For example, the word 한글 ("Hangul") is made up of two separate blocks, which are actually separate syllables – 한 and 글. The first syllable, 한, is made of three letters (ㅎ, ㅏ, and ㄴ). The second syllable, 글, is also made of three letters (ㄱ, ㅡ, and ㄹ). Although we haven’t learned what these letters mean yet, for now take note that letters – vowels and consonants – combine to form blocks of syllables. These syllables then combine to form words and sentences. I’ll be with you through our entire process of learning Hangul and the Korean language in this book. Take your time with these lessons, and learn each new letter as well as you can. Having a solid grasp of Hangul will greatly help you later on with the lessons, as well as with your own personal goals of mastering the Korean language. Basic Consonants and Vowels Before we start covering all of the different letters, let’s first take a look at the basic structure of Hangul. To begin, we’ll take a look at three consonants and one vowel. We’ll learn how to combine consonants with vowels to create our first syllables. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is similar to a "k" or "g." However, it is not strong like a "k" in "kite," nor is it strong like a "g" in "great." It’s a bit softer, and somewhere between a "k" and a "g." To keep things simple, let’s call it a "g." Number of Strokes: 1 Stroke Order: Starting from the top left, draw a single line to the right, and without lifting your writing instrument, curve down. What is Stroke Order? Before going any further, let’s take a moment to talk about stroke order. Every letter in Korean has a certain order in which it must be drawn. Think of stroke order like following a recipe; although you know what the end result should be, you have to make sure you get there by adding ingredients in the right order. Having proper stroke order is essential to producing good, legible Korean letters. Incorrect stroke order can easily result in the letter looking like something else – take my word on this for now. It is much easier to learn proper stroke order in the beginning than to try to fix it later. Take care to practice proper stroke order from the beginning and you will thank me later. Since it’s difficult to compare the Korean alphabet with English sounds (such as in the above letter ㄱ), all sounds in this book will be compared to American English as it is the most widely taught and used version of English internationally. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is similar to an "a," as in the word "law" or "car." You can also think of it as the "ah" sound you might say when you’ve realized something. Number of Strokes: 2 Stroke Order: Starting from the top, draw a single line down. Then draw a second, shorter line beginning from the middle of the first, going to the right. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is similar to an "n," such as in the word "now." Number of Strokes: 1 Stroke Order: Starting from the top, draw a line down, and without lifting your writing instrument, continue drawing to the right. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is similar to a "t" or "d." However, it is not strong like a "t" in "ten," nor is it strong like a "d" in "dog." It’s a bit softer, and somewhere between a "t" and a "d." To keep things simple, let’s call it a "d." Number of Strokes: 2 Stroke Order: Starting from the top left, draw a single line to the right. Start a second line from the left end of the first line, moving down then right, just like you did earlier when drawing ㄴ. Making Syllables Now that we’ve got a few consonants and a vowel to work with, let’s try making some syllables. Remember that a syllable, just like in English, consists of at least one vowel and at least one consonant. Try to see what the following syllables will sound like, before reading their explanations. You can do this by covering the right side of the page as you complete each one. ㄱ+ㅏ=? Answer: "ga" ㄴ+ㅏ=? Answer: "na" ㄷ+ㅏ=? Answer: "da" Remember that ㄱ is not a strong "k" or a strong "g," and ㄷ is not a strong "t" or a strong "d." These sounds are softer, and somewhere between these two sounds. As you can already see, many sounds in Korean do not have exact English equivalents. This is why it’s best to learn Korean through Hangul, instead of through writing the language with English or another writing system. Being able to pronounce Hangul correctly will greatly improve your overall Korean pronunciation. But syllables in Hangul aren’t written like "ㄱ + ㅏ," so we need to learn the proper way to write them. Remember that Hangul uses blocks of syllables to create words. These blocks are formed in a few ways. Let’s take a look at what the above examples would look like written in Hangul as real syllable blocks. 가/나/다 Each of these syllable blocks contains at least one consonant and at least one vowel. Since these are our first basic syllables, they each contain only one consonant and only one vowel. Later on we’ll learn how to make more complex syllables using more letters. Notice also how each of these is written – the consonant is on the left, and the vowel is on the right. This is due to the vowel that we used. The vowel that is used in a consonant will determine the way that a syllable block is written. For vertical vowels, such as ㅏ in the above examples, here’s the block form used to write them. For block forms represented in this book, "C" represents a consonant and "V" represents a vowel. Let’s re-write our first example (ㄱ + ㅏ) as a real syllable using the above block form. This is what we get, but it looks a bit awkward, kind of like a robot wrote it. To make it more natural, the ㄱ is stretched out longer to make it match closer to the height of the ㅏ. Here’s how it will be written: And just as English will have different ways of writing the alphabet (different styles or fonts), Korean will too. This is another reason why it’s important to learn the right stroke order. As long as you know the correct stroke order for a letter, you will be able to read Hangul written in any possible style. Before moving on, practice writing a few syllables on your own. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is pronounced like an "m," as in the word "mother." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Starting from the top left, draw a single line down. Start a second line from the top of the first line, going to the right and then downward like drawing a ㄱ. Start the third line from the bottom of the first line, going to the right and connecting with the second line. Be especially careful with the stroke order on ㅁ, as drawing it the wrong order (or just drawing a square) can easily cause it to appear as a different letter (ㅇ, which we will learn soon). Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is similar to a "p" or "b." However, it is not strong like a "p" in "park," nor is it strong like a "b" in "bat." It’s a bit softer, and somewhere between a "p" and a "b." To keep things simple, let’s call it a "b." Number of Strokes: 4 Stroke Order: Starting from the top left, draw a single line down. Start a second line parallel to the first, from the top, also going down. Start a third line from the middle of the first line, going to the right and connecting to the middle of the second line. Start a fourth line from the bottom of the first line, going to the right and connecting to the bottom of the second line. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is pronounced like "s," such as in the word "snake." Number of Strokes: 2 Stroke Order: Starting from the top, draw a slightly curved line down sideways and to the left. Start a second line, also slightly curved, from the top of the first line, going sideways and to the right. Both lines should curve inward. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is similar to a "ch" or "j." However, it is not strong like a "ch" in "cherry," nor is it strong like a "j" in "job." It’s a bit softer, and somewhere between a "ch" and a "j." To keep things simple, let’s call it a "j." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Starting from the top left, draw a line to the right. Start a second line from the middle of the first line, going down and to the left. Start a third line again from the middle of the first line, going down and to the right. You can think of this letter as a flat line sitting on top of a ㅅ. Just like ㅅ, make sure to curve the two bottom lines inward slightly. Advanced Notes: You might also see this letter written in the above way; either way is fine. To draw it this way, start the first stroke the same way, but begin the second line from the right end of the first line. The third stroke will then instead begin from the middle of the second stroke. Here, the second stroke will curve, just like for ㅅ, but the third stroke will curve in the opposite direction. Feel free to write this letter either way you’d prefer. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is pronounced similar to an "h," as in the word "hall." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Starting from the top, draw a short line downward. Start the second stroke on the left, going to the right, and connecting with the first stroke in the middle. The third stroke is simply a circle, but you should start drawing it from the very top, going counterclockwise. This consonant might remind you of a stick figure’s head wearing a pointed hat. Advanced Notes: You might also see this letter written in the above way; either way is fine. To draw it this way, start the first stroke by going parallel to the second stroke, instead of perpendicular to it. The rest is completed the same way. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is pronounced like an "o," as in the word "old." Number of Strokes: 2 Stroke Order: Starting from the top, draw a short line downward. Start the second stroke on the left, going to the right, and connecting with the first stroke in the middle. It will look like the top part of ㅎ, only larger. When you say this vowel, your lips will round into an "o" shape. Now that we’ve introduced this new vowel (ㅗ), there’s an additional block form we can use to create syllables with. Previously, we learned the following method for vertical vowels, such as ㅏ. But now we can also make syllables using horizontal vowels, such as ㅗ. Here’s what that block form would look like: Using this format, let’s take the letters ㅁ ("m") and ㅗ ("o") and combine them together. This would then be pronounced as "mo." This can then be written on its own to look like: Reading Practice Using every letter that we’ve covered so far (ㄱ, ㅏ, ㄴ, ㄷ, ㅁ, ㅂ, ㅈ, ㅅ, ㅎ, ㅗ), let’s make some new syllables. Try to read them on your own before looking at the explanations. ㄱ+ㅗ=고 Answer: "go" ㄱ+ㅏ=가 Answer: "ga" ㄴ+ㅗ=노 Answer: "no" ㄴ+ㅏ=나 Answer: "na" ㄷ+ㅗ=도 Answer: "do" ㄷ+ㅏ=다 Answer: "da" ㅁ+ㅗ=모 Answer: "mo" ㅁ+ㅏ=마 Answer: "ma" ㅂ+ㅗ=보 Answer: "bo" ㅂ+ㅏ=바 Answer: "ba" ㅈ+ㅗ=조 Answer: "jo" ㅈ+ㅏ=자 Answer: "ja" ㅅ+ㅗ=소 Answer: "so" ㅅ+ㅏ=사 Answer: "sa" ㅎ+ㅗ=호 Answer: "ho" ㅎ+ㅏ=하 Answer: "ha" Above is every possible combination of two-letter syllables that we can make using only the letters that what we’ve learned so far. Practice writing your own syllables below, using what we’ve learned so far. More Consonants Believe it or not, we’ve almost finished learning all of the basic consonants in Hangul. There are just two more, which we’ll cover now. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is pronounced like an "l" sound, such as in the word "long." However, when you say ㄹ, position your tongue as if you were saying a "d" (such as in "dog") – then say "l" instead. It will come out sounding like a cross between an "l" and an "r," and this is exactly what you will want it to sound like. Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Starting from the top left, draw a single line to the right, and without lifting your writing instrument, curve down – just like ㄱ. Start the second line, a single straight line going from left to right and connecting at the end of the first line. The third line will start from the left side of the second line, going downward, then to the right – just like when drawing ㄴ. Although it may be tempting, do not write this letter with one stroke. It’s essential to maintain the correct stroke order. Even if the end result might appear similar to you, it will not look correct to the trained eye of a native Korean speaker. Type: Consonant Pronunciation: This is pronounced "ng," such as in the word "song" or "hang," but only when ㅇ is used at the end of a syllable. Number of Strokes: 1 Stroke Order: Start from the top, and draw a circle going counterclockwise (just like you did for ㅎ). Although ㅇ is pronounced "ng" at the end of a syllable, when it’s used at the beginning of a syllable it has no sound. We’ll go over how to use this letter in detail soon. Vowel Sounds So far we’ve learned how to combine consonants with vowels to form syllable blocks, but what if we want to have a vowel sound by itself? What if we only want to say the sound that ㅏ makes? We learned that a syllable must have at least one consonant and one vowel. In this case, we can use ㅇ as the consonant, which has no sound when used at the beginning of a syllable (its "ng" sound only applies when ㅇ appears at the end of a syllable, which we will cover soon). ㅇ+ㅏ=아 Answer: "a" ㅇ+ㅗ=오 Answer: "o" Remember that it would be incorrect to write ㅏ or ㅗon their own, because every syllable in Korean must have at least one consonant and one vowel. Quick Reading Practice Practice reading the following syllables. Just as before, first try reading them on your own before looking at their answers. ㄹ+ㅗ=로 Answer: "lo" ㅇ+ㅗ=오 Answer: "o" ㄹ+ㅏ=라 Answer: "la" ㅇ+ㅏ=아 Answer: "a" Three Letter Syllables Up until now we’ve only been working with syllables using two letters – one consonant and one vowel. We need to learn how to make syllables with two consonants and one vowel. Let’s look at the syllable blocks we can use to do this. Like before, the type of syllable block you will choose depends on whether you’re using a vertical vowel (such as ㅏ) or a horizontal vowel (such as ㅗ). For vertical vowels, we have this syllable block: And for horizontal vowels, we have this syllable block: Let’s take a look at some examples of various three letter syllables. Try to guess what they will sound like on your own first, before looking at the answers. ㄹ+ㅏ+ㅇ=랑 Answer: "lang" ㄱ+ㅏ+ㄴ=간 Answer: "gan" ㅁ+ㅗ+ㅁ=몸 Answer: "mom" ㅇ+ㅏ+ㅇ=앙 Answer: "ang" ㅇ+ㅗ+ㅇ=옹 Answer: "ong" ㄴ+ㅗ+ㄹ=놀 Answer: "nol" ㅅ+ㅗ+ㄴ=손 Answer: "son" ㄴ+ㅏ+ㄱ=낙 Answer: "nag" ㄷ+ㅏ+ㅂ=답 Answer: "dab" ㅈ+ㅗ+ㄱ=족 Answer: "jog" More Vowels We’ve done everything so far using only two vowels, ㅏ and ㅗ. Let’s go over some more vowels we can use to expand our Korean. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: The vowel this sound makes is similar to "uh" – as if you’re thinking of something. You can also think of it as the "uh" sound at the beginning of the word "up." Number of Strokes: 2 Stroke Order: Starting from the left, draw a short line going to the right, which will touch the middle of the second line. Draw a longer second line from the top, going down. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is pronounced like the "u" sound in the word "glue." Number of Strokes: 2 Stroke Order: Starting from the left, draw a line to the right. Start a second line from the middle of the first line, going down. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is pronounced like "oo" in the word "good." Number of Strokes: 1 Stroke Order: Start from the left and draw a single straight line to the right. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is pronounced like "ee" in the word "tree." Number of Strokes: 1 Stroke Order: Start from the top and draw a single straight line down. More Practice Try to read the following syllables on your own before reading their pronunciation. ㅁ+ㅓ=머 Answer: "muh" ㄱ+ㅜ=구 Answer: "gu" ㅂ+ㅡ=브 Answer: "boo" ("oo" as in "good") ㅎ+ㅣ=히 Answer: "hee" ㅅ+ㅣ When you combine ㅅ with ㅣ you get a slightly different result than what you might expect. Instead of becoming "see" (like the English word) it actually becomes "shee" (like the word "she" in English). ㅅ+ㅣ=시 Answer: "shee" ㅅ+ㅣ+ㄴ=신 Answer: "sheen" ㅅ+ㅣ+ㄹ=실 Answer: "sheel" ㅅ+ㅣ+ㅇ=싱 Answer: "sheeng" ㅅ+ㅣ+ㅁ=심 Answer: "sheem" ㅅ+ㅣ+ㄱ=식 Answer: "sheeg" ㅅ+ㅣ+ㅂ=십 Answer: "sheeb" Practice writing a few syllables using the following block forms. Your First Korean Words We’ve covered several consonants and vowels, and now it’s time to start learning some real words (just a few). We’ll actually be going over these words again later in the lessons (so don’t stress too much about memorizing them), but take a moment to look over them here and become familiar with as many of them as you can. Just like before, try reading them on your own before looking at the answers. 한글 - "Hangul" (the Korean alphabet) Answer: "han-gool" ("oo" as in "good") 한국 - "Korea" Answer: "han-guk" ("u" as in "glue") 저 - "I" or "me" Answer: "juh" 당신 - "You" Answer: "dang-sheen" More Vowels Let’s continue learning the rest of the vowels in 한글. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is pronounced like the "e" in the word "egg." You can also think of it as an "eh" sound. Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Start from the left, drawing a short line to the right (this will touch the middle of the second line). The second line starts from the top, going down and perpendicular to the first line. Begin the third line from the top, parallel to the second line, going down. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is pronounced like the "a" in the word "apple." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Start from the top left, drawing a line straight down. Draw the second line starting from the middle of the first line, going to the right (this will touch the middle of the third line, connecting the middles of the first and third line together). Draw the third line parallel to the first line, starting from the top and going down. ㅐ is only slightly different from ㅔ in sound, and actually the difference is not extremely important. Even many Koreans are not able to distinguish them by sound (but will be able to distinguish the spelling). Therefore, although ㅐ is slightly different from ㅔ, feel free to pronounce ㅐ the same way as ㅔ ("eh") until you are more comfortable with distinguishing it. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is pronounced like "ya," such as in the expression "ya’ll." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Start from the top, drawing a line straight down. Draw the second line starting from 1/3 down the first line, going to the right. Draw the third line starting from 2/3 down the first line, also going to the right, and parallel to the second line. You can also think of this vowel as being ㅣ combined with ㅏ ("ee" + "a" = "ya"). Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is pronounced "yo," like the slang word "yo." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Start from the top and draw a line down (this will connect at the point 1/3 of the way to the right on the third line). Begin the second line parallel to the first, going down (this will connect at the point 2/3 of the way to the right on the third line). Draw the third line from left to right, connecting at the end of the first and second lines. Except for having a different stroke order, this letter is a ㅑ turned on its back. You can also think of this vowel as being ㅣ combined with ㅗ ("ee" + "o" = "yo"). More Practice Try to read the following syllables on your own before looking at their pronunciations. ㅇ+ㅔ=에 Answer: "e" ("e" in "egg") ㅇ+ㅐ=애 Answer: "e" (the "a" sound in "apple") ㅇ+ㅑ=야 Answer: "ya" ㅇ+ㅛ=요 Answer: "yo" ㄱ+ㅔ=게 Answer: "ge" ㄱ+ㅑ=갸 Answer: "gya" ㄱ+ㅛ=교 Answer: "gyo" ㄹ+ㅔ=레 Answer: "le" ㄹ+ㅏ=라 Answer: "la" ㄹ+ㅛ=료 Answer: "lyo" ㅈ+ㅐ=재 Answer: "je" ㅈ+ㅑ=쟈 Answer: "jya" ㅈ+ㅛ=죠 Answer: "jyo" ㅅ+ㅑ=샤 Answer: "shya"* ㅅ+ㅛ=쇼 Answer: "shyo"* *ㅅ will actually become "sh" not only before ㅣ, but also before ㅑ and ㅛ. Let’s start taking a look at some examples that are a bit longer. ㅇ + ㅔ + ㄹ + ㅂ + ㅣ + ㅅ + ㅡ = 엘비스 Answer: "el-bee-soo" ("oo" as in "good") ㅎ + ㅔ + ㅇ + ㅓ + ㅁ = 헤엄 Answer: "he-uhm" ㅇ + ㅐ + ㄱ + ㅈ + ㅔ = 액제 Answer: "eg-je" ㅁ + ㅐ + ㄱ + ㅈ + ㅜ = 맥주 Answer: "meg-ju" ㅅ + ㅏ + ㄴ + ㅑ + ㅇ = 사냥 Answer: "sa-nyang" ㄴ + ㅑ + ㅁ + ㄴ + ㅑ + ㅁ = 냠냠 Answer: "nyam-nyam" ㅇ + ㅛ + ㄱ + ㅈ + ㅗ = 욕조 Answer: "yog-jo" ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄱ + ㄱ + ㅛ = 학교 Answer: "hag-gyo" ㅎ + ㅛ + ㅈ + ㅓ + ㅇ = 효정 Answer: "hyo-juhng" Goodbye Romanization "It’s not you. It’s me." As you’ve probably noticed already, writing Korean using Romanization (using the English alphabet) is a bit messy, and as we go on it will grow even further away from the actual Korean sounds. This is why from now on, there will be no more Romanization used in this book, with the exception of teaching pronunciation of new sounds. By the start of Chapter 1, it will be completely absent from this book. It’s important to become comfortable with how 한글 actually sounds, and to steer away from writing or even reading the sounds written with the English alphabet. It might be a bit difficult at first, but I promise you that your Korean will improve much more by learning the language exclusively through 한글. Now let’s continue learning the rest of the letters in 한글. New Vocabulary Let’s go over just a few more words that we can learn using the letters we know so far. Like before, don’t stress about memorizing these words, as we’ll be covering them again later in this book. 네 - "yes" 아니요 - "no" 개 - "dog" 고양이 - "cat" 용 - "dragon" Vowels…. Again? We’re almost at the finish line. We can see the light at the end of the tunnel. There are only a few more vowels left in 한글to learn. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is a combination of a "y" sound with ㅓ, so it is pronounced like "yuh." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Draw a short line from left to right (this line will connect 1/3 down the third line). Draw a second line below, parallel to the first, going from left to right (this line will connect 2/3 down the third line). Draw the third line starting from the top, going straight down and touching the first two lines. Knowing how to pronounce ㅓwill make pronouncing this letter simple. You can also think of this vowel as being ㅣ combined with ㅓ ("ee" + "uh" = "yuh"). Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is a combination of a "y" sound with ㅜ, so it is pronounced "yu" (like the English word "you"). Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Start from the top left, drawing a line to the right. Begin the second line from the point 1/3 of the way to the right on the first line. Begin the third line parallel to the second from the point 2/3 of the way to the right on the first line, going down. Except for having a different stroke order, this letter is a ㅛ turned upside down. Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is a combination of a "y" sound with ㅔ, so it is pronounced "ye." Number of Strokes: 4 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅕ, then draw a ㅣ parallel to the right of it. You can also think of this vowel as being ㅣ combined with ㅔ ("ee" + "eh" = "yeh"). Type: Vowel Pronunciation: This is a combination of a "y" sound with ㅐ, so it is pronounced "ye." Number of Strokes: 4 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅑ, then draw a ㅣ parallel to the right of it. You can also think of this vowel as being ㅣ combined with ㅐ ("ee" + "eh" = "yeh"). More Practice Try reading the following syllables on your own. 여 /유 / 예 / 얘 / 열 / 육 / 례 / 쟤 / 벼 / 규 / 계 / 걔 Blending Syllables Together We learned that ㅇ has no sound when at the beginning of a syllable. Because of this, it essentially acts like an empty space. Therefore, whatever letter that comes before it will replace it, as if it never existed. 미국인 "an American" We can read this word as 미 + 국 + 인, right? Yes. But if you wanted to say it at a regular speed, what would happen? Try saying it yourself. Since the ㅇ in the beginning of 인 will have no sound, this allows the sound before it to flow through, taking its place. 미국인 would therefore be said 미구긴 when speaking at a normal speed, to make it easier to pronounce. Let’s take a look at some more examples of this happening. Spelling → Pronunciation 백인 → 배긴 믿어 → 미더 사람이 → 사라미 할아버지 → 하라버지 만이 → 마니 걸어 → 거러 발음 → 바름 한옥 → 하녹 연어 → 여너 한우 → 하누 Before we move on, practice writing a few syllables using the block forms we’ve learned. You can combine any characters that you’d like. The more you practice, the faster you’ll be able to write and read, and the better you’ll be able to learn Korean. Four Letter Syllables So far we’ve seen both two letter and three letter syllables. Now let’s take a look at syllables that have four letters in them. Here’s what the block form will look like for vertical, or for horizontal vowels. For vertical vowels, we have this syllable block: And for horizontal vowels, we have this syllable block: Three consonants and one vowel will come together to form a four letter syllable. Here are some examples using four letter syllables, along with their pronunciations: Spelling → Pronunciation 앉아 → 안자 읽은 → 일근 밝은 → 발근 삶이 → 살미 맑은 → 말근 흙을 → 흘글 값이 → 갑시 긁어 → 글거 For syllables that have two consonants on the bottom, one of them being ㄹ, and which are not followed by any other letter which might affect the pronunciation (such as being followed by ㅇ, allowing the sound to simply pass through), most of the time the consonant which is not ㄹ will be pronounced. Some combinations you will see often are ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄼ, and ㅀ. Spelling → Pronunciation 옮기다 → 옴기다 삶→삼 흙→흑 여덟 → 여덜* *Note that I said most of the time. The above example is a common exception to the rule. New Vocabulary Let’s learn some more words. As before, don’t worry about memorizing these words as we’ll be going over them in later chapters. 안녕하세요. - "Hello." 미국인 - "an American" 한국인 - "a Korean" 삶 - "life" Let’s take moment to practice writing some more syllables, using each of the possible forms. Try to make unique characters each time. As this is only practice, feel free to create any combination you’d like, provided it follows the rules for the block forms. Moving Forward Congratulations on learning all of the individual vowels and consonants in Korean. But wait, there’s more! We still need to cover double consonants (when two copies of the same consonant combine together), strong consonants (when a consonant is pronounced with more force) and diphthongs (when more than one vowel combines together). But if you know the vowels and consonants we’ve learned so far, these should all be a piece of cake. I’ll guide you through the next lesson as soon as you’re ready to tackle it. More Hangul Take your time on these introductory lessons, and go through them slowly. 한글 can be difficult because it’s an alphabet and there are numerous letters and rules to cover, but you’ll be using it everywhere once we start learning Korean and it will become second nature. Once you’re ready to move on, let’s get started and finish learning everything you will need to know about 한글. Double Consonants A double consonant is simply two of the same consonant combined together. There are five of them to learn, but they shouldn’t be a problem to remember. Let’s learn them all at the same time. Notice how each double consonant is composed of two of the same consonant – ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅅ, and ㅈ. In addition, they’re drawn in the same space that one single consonant would normally take up. Pronunciation: Each of these is pronounced the same way as their singular versions, but is spoken by tensing your mouth before saying them. Before pronouncing a double consonant, take a short, quick pause. This will naturally cause the sound after the pause to come out tensed. Stroke Order: Each of these is drawn the same way as their singular versions. Draw the left half first, then draw the right half. For comparison, take a look at the following two syllables: 가/까 The left one is somewhere between a "ka" or "ga." Think of ㄲ as the "k" in the English word "ska" – notice that while saying "ska" the "k" becomes tense because of its position in the word (coming after an "s"). This is what a double consonant sounds like. 다/따 Think of ㄸ as the "t" in the English word "stop." 바/빠 Think of ㅃ as the "p" in the English word "spa." 사/싸 Think of ㅆ as either of the "s" sounds in the English word "seesaw," or "psycho." It’s more of a hissing "s" sound than simply saying "snake." 자/짜 Think of ㅉ as the "ch" sound in "got’cha" ("got you"). Double Consonant Practice Practice by reading the following sounds. 가/까/다/따/바/빠/사/싸/자/짜/고/꼬/도/또/보/뽀/소/쏘/조/쪼 New Vocabulary Let’s take a look at a few examples of words that use double consonants. 딸 - "daughter" 빵 - "bread" 쌀 - "(uncooked) rice" 꼭 - "surely," "certainly" 뿔 - "horn(s)" 똥 - "poop" 말씀 - "words" 꿀 - "honey" Strong Consonants A strong consonant is similar to a normal consonant, but pronounced with more force. Imagine saying 가, but putting more force into your voice when saying the consonant – it would come out sounding more like a strong "k," like the word "kite." This is what a strong consonant is. There are only four to learn. Let’s take a look at all of them before we go over them individually. Three of these four should be simple to learn, as they look similar to their normal versions. Normal → Strong ㄱ→ㅋ ㄷ→ㅌ ㅂ→ㅍ ㅈ→ㅊ Advanced Notes: Another word for strong consonant is "aspirated consonant." Depending on what additional sources you use for studying Korean, you might see them referred to in this way. Pronunciation: This is pronounced more strongly than a ㄱ, so you can think of it as a hard "k." Number of Strokes: 2 Stroke Order: First draw a ㄱ. Start the second stroke from the left, going right, connecting with the middle of the first stroke. Pronunciation: This is pronounced more strongly than a ㄷ, so you can think of it as a hard "t." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: Draw the first line, on top, going from left to right. Start a second line parallel to the first and below it. Begin the third line from the left side of the first stroke, going down and touching the left side of the second stroke, and continuing a bit further. Without starting a fourth stroke, draw a straight line to the right. Advanced Notes: You might also see this letter written in the above way; either way is fine. To draw it this way, simply draw the third line beginning from the left side of the second stroke. The rest is drawn in the same way. Pronunciation: This is pronounced more strongly than a ㅂ, so you can think of it as a hard "p." Number of Strokes: 4 Stroke Order: First draw a line on top, going to the right. Begin the second stroke from the first line, a bit to the right from the far-left side, going down. Start the third stroke also from the first line, parallel to the second, a bit to the left from the far-right side, going down. Draw the fourth line on the bottom, from left to right, touching the second and third strokes. Pronunciation: This is pronounced more strongly than a ㅈ, so you can think of it as a hard "ch." Number of Strokes: 4 Stroke Order: First draw a short line from the top middle, going down. Then draw a ㅈ attached to it. Advanced Notes: You might also see this letter written in the above way; either way is fine. To draw it this way, simply draw the first stroke horizontally instead of vertically, going from left to right. The rest is drawn in the same way as normal. Normal Consonants, Double Consonants, and Strong Consonants Here’s a useful trick. You can see the difference between a normal consonant, a double consonant, and a strong consonant by using a piece of paper. Hold a single sheet of paper out in front of your mouth, and try saying the following three sounds one at a time. 가/까/카 The 카 should cause the piece of paper to shake. In comparison, the 가 will only cause the piece of paper to wobble slightly. However, the 까 should not cause the piece of paper to move noticeably at all. This is because strong consonants require more energy to say, and therefore more air to say them. Double consonants, however, are made by taking a short, quick pause before saying them. As a result most of the air released when pronouncing a double consonant is dissipated – the air isn’t leaving the mouth in a concentrated burst like it is for normal consonants or strong consonants. Pay close attention to the different sounds made from normal consonants, double consonants, and strong consonants. Knowing the difference is extremely important, and words can easily be misunderstood if pronounced using the wrong one. Although 불 means "fire," 뿔 means "horns," and 풀 can mean "grass" or "glue." Koreans can easily hear the differences between these sounds because they’re accustomed to using them on a regular basis, and with practice so can you. More Consonant Practice Practice reading these syllables on your own. 가/까/카/다/따/타/바/빠/파/자/짜/차/고/꼬/코/도/또/토/보/뽀/포 /조/쪼/초 Practice writing just a few more syllables, using double consonants and strong consonants. New Vocabulary Here are a few new words to read over and practice. Notice how words using normal consonants, double consonants, and strong consonants can each have separate, unrelated meanings. 코 - "nose" 털 - "hair," "fur" (not on the head) 핸드폰 - "cell phone" (literally, "hand phone") 검 - "sword" 껌 - "gum" 춤 - "a dance" 컴퓨터 - "computer" 덕 - "moral" 떡 - "rice cake" 턱 - "chin" 베다 - "to cut (into)" 빼다 - "to remove" 패다 - "to beat," "to bash" 자다 - "to sleep" 짜다 - "to be salty" 차다 - "to kick" Diphthongs What is a diphthong? Well, it’s nothing to be afraid of. A diphthong is a combination of more than one vowel into a single new vowel. Imagine taking a 오 sound (ㅗ) and mixing it with a 아 sound (ㅏ) – you’d get a "wa" sound, right? Right! And in Korean, there’s an easy way to combine two vowels together into a new vowel. These combinations are called diphthongs. Let’s go over each of them. There are seven in total. Pronunciation: This is a combination of ㅡ and ㅣ. It is pronounced the same way as saying 으 immediately followed by 이, quickly – as in "uhee." Number of Strokes: 2 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅡ. Next, draw a ㅣ. Although this diphthong is pronounced "uh-ee" when written as 의, when used with any other consonant besides ㅇ it becomes pronounced the same as ㅣ. For example, 희 is simply pronounced 히. Advanced Notes: There’s also one more situation where 의 is pronounced differently, and that’s when it’s used as the Possessive Marker. We’ll learn about the Possessive Marker in Chapter 11. Pronunciation: This is a combination of ㅗ and ㅏ. It is pronounced the same way as saying 오 immediately followed by 아, quickly – as in "wa." Number of Strokes: 4 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅗ. Next, draw a ㅏ. Pronunciation: This is a combination of ㅜ and ㅓ. It is pronounced the same way as saying 우 immediately followed by 어, quickly – as in "u-uh" or the English word "whoa." Number of Strokes: 4 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅜ. Next, draw a ㅓ. Pronunciation: This is a combination of ㅜ and ㅣ. It is pronounced the same way as saying 우 immediately followed by 이, quickly – as in "u-ee" or the French word "oui." Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅜ. Next, draw a ㅣ. Pronunciation: This is a combination of ㅗ and ㅐ. It is pronounced the same way as saying 오 immediately followed by 애, quickly – as in "o-e" or the English word "way." Number of Strokes: 5 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅗ. Next, draw a ㅐ. Pronunciation: This is a combination of ㅗ and ㅣ. However, it is pronounced differently than it may look. It is actually pronounced the same way as saying 오 immediately followed by ㅔ, quickly – as in "o-e" or the English word "way." Just like how ㅔ and ㅐ are pronounced similarly, ㅙ and ㅚ are similar as well; feel free to pronounce ㅚ the same way as ㅙ. Number of Strokes: 3 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅗ. Next, draw a ㅣ. Advanced Notes: You will never see a diphthong that is written combining ㅗ and ㅔ. It can’t even be typed on a Korean keyboard. Instead, remember to use either ㅙ or ㅚ when writing. Pronunciation: This is a combination of ㅜ and ㅔ. It is pronounced the same way as saying 우 immediately followed by 에, quickly – as in "u-e." Number of Strokes: 5 Stroke Order: First draw a ㅜ. Next, draw a ㅔ. Practicing Diphthongs Now that wasn’t so bad, right? Practice reading these syllables on your own. 의/와/워/위/왜/외/웨 희/과/궈/귀/괘/괴/궤 긔/봐/줘/뒤/돼/뇌/쉐 흰/촬/꿩/윈/괜/뵙/웬 New Vocabulary and Final Practice Here are a few new words you can learn using diphthongs. 의사 - "doctor" 희망 - "hope" 과일 - "fruit" 원 - "Won" (the Korean currency) 귀 - "ear" 왜 - "why" 열쇠 - "key" 웰빙 - "healthy" (literally, "well being") For a final exercise, before moving onto sound changes, practice writing 한글 using the following block forms. Try to use different letters for each syllable as much as possible, and incorporate diphthongs in several of them; to keep things simple it might be best at first to practice using diphthongs in syllable blocks with fewer letters (2 or 3). Of course, don’t limit your 한글 practice to solely these exercises. Also don’t limit yourself to using block forms when writing – they’re only for helping you to adjust to the way that 한글 syllables are written. Practice writing in a notebook, on your own, as much as possible. If you have time, I’d also recommend copying down as much as you can from this book as you move through it, such as conversations and example sentences, in order to improve your writing even more. Introduction to Sound Changes Congratulations! We’ve now finished learning every basic consonant and vowel, every double consonant and strong consonant, and now every diphthong. In fact, there are no more letters left to learn in 한글. What remains are rules regarding how sounds are pronounced. Let me explain what that means. Take this English sentence: "Nice to meet you." First say it slowly: "Nice to meet you." Next, say it at a normal speed: "Nice t’ mee’chu." The individual words haven’t changed, but their sounds do because of their relationship to other sounds (for example, the ‘t’ in "meet" coming before the ‘y’ in "you"). A similar thing happens in Korean. Of course, these changes occurred only to make the words easier to pronounce, just like in English. Imagine having to say "Nice to meet you," while pronouncing each individual word accurately, every time you wanted to say it. Although there are many rules for sound changes in Korean, they are for the good of everyone. Learning the rules for sound changes as thoroughly as possible will greatly improve your speaking and understanding. This section will introduce only basic sound change rules that are necessary to say individual syllables. For a complete explanation of sound change rules, please read through Appendix C after completing this section (before beginning Chapter 1). As you learn sound change rules, I recommend reading each example out loud as practice. Don’t worry about memorizing any of the words, as they’re only to demonstrate the rules when pronouncing 한글. Let’s go over the rules for sound changes in Korean. Bottom Consonants We’ve actually already been working with syllables that have bottom consonants. Any syllable with three or more letters contains one or two bottom consonants. A bottom consonant is simply a consonant on the bottom of a syllable. For the syllable 강, it’s ㅇ. And for the syllable 삶, they are ㄹ and ㅁ. Korean has a special word for these bottom consonants – 받침, which literally means "support." Knowing what a syllable’s 받침 is will help you know how to pronounce it in a sentence. You might be thinking, "But I already know how to pronounce 강 and 삶. We learned that ㅇ is pronounced like "ng" at the end of a syllable, so 강 is just 강. And 삶 is pronounced 삼." Well, you’re right. 강 is just 강, and 삶 is pronounced 삼. Most rules for sound changes only apply when syllables are combined together with others in a sentence, just like the individual words in "Nice to meet you" do not change when pronounced individually. But sometimes even on their own, we need sound change rules to pronounce certain syllables – specifically, syllables with bottom consonants. 낮 This is the word for "day." But how would you pronounce it? You couldn’t say it like "나즈" because that would be adding in an additional vowel, and there is no vowel at the end – its 받침 is simply ㅈ, which has no sound on its own without a vowel. We need rules to dictate how to pronounce words like these. Let’s take a look at our first rule for pronouncing 받침. 1. ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅎ This rule applies to syllables ending in any of the consonants ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㄷ, ㅌ, and ㅎ. Whenever a syllable’s 받침 is one of the above consonants, and the syllable is at the end of a word or phrase (or said on its own), it will be pronounced as if it were a ㄷ. Spelling → Pronunciation 낮→낟 갖→갇 핫→핟 멧→멛 못→몯 있→읻 갔→갇 낯→낟 갗→갇 밭→받 맡→맏 히읗 → 히읃 You’ll often find ㅅ at the end of words that were imported into Korean from other languages, especially English. One example is the word 인터넷 for "internet." When writing English words that end in ‘t’ into Korean, remember to use ㅅ at the end to represent the final sound, instead of another letter such as ㄷ. Advanced Notes: ㅉ and ㄸ are absent from this rule because there are no syllables in Korean that end with these letters at the bottom. 2. ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ Any of these three consonants (ㄱ, ㄲ, and ㅋ) are simply pronounced as ㄱ at the end of a syllable. Spelling → Pronunciation 박→박 각→각 싹→싹 부엌 → 부억 닭* → 닥* 깎→깍 볶→복 묶→묵 *Review how to pronounce syllables ending in ㄺ. Advanced Notes: Syllables ending in ㅋ are quite rare (although 부엌 is a common word), while syllables ending in ㄱ are the most common. 3. ㅂ and ㅍ Both of these two consonants ( ㅂ and ㅍ) are pronounced as ㅂ at the end of a syllable. Spelling → Pronunciation 갑→갑 합→합 업→업 잎→입 갚→갑 숲→숩 Advanced Notes: ㅃ is absent from this list because there are no syllables in the Korean language that end with it on the bottom. 4. ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ, ㄹ This is an easy rule. These four consonants are all pronounced like normal at the end of a syllable. Spelling → Pronunciation 감→감 움→움 혼→혼 난→난 멍→멍 옹→옹 쌀→쌀 말→말 However, remember that 받침 sounds will still flow through the consonant ㅇ as we learned previously. Spelling → Pronunciation 낫→낟 낫이 → 나시 낮→낟 낮에 → 나제 있→읻 있어 → 이써 낯→낟 낯이 → 나치 믿→믿 믿어 → 미더 맡→맏 맡아 → 마타 Make sure you feel comfortable with each of these rules before moving on to our first Korean lesson. To see all of the letters we’ve learned in one place, look at the chart in Appendix B in the back of this book. Also, make sure to check out the expanded sound change rules in Appendix C. It’s much easier, and will save you a lot of time, to learn how to read 한글 properly now than to have to go back and fix your own pronunciation later. If possible, study these rules with flashcards and have them memorized, and then move onto the next section. I’ll wait here patiently until you’re ready to move on. Chapter 1: Saying Hello Like acquiring any skill, Korean can be learned through dedication and study. I’m here to help make your work a bit easier by guiding you along this process. Before we go into anything else, the most important thing you’ll need to know in Korean is how to introduce yourself to others. Let’s start with a few of the most commonly used greetings. Read the conversation below on your own first, and then we’ll break it up and learn what each part means. Conversation 1 A: 안녕하세요. B: 안녕하세요. A: 안녕히 가세요. B: 안녕히 계세요. It might not look like much, but this is our very first Korean conversation, and it’s certainly important. Let’s go over each part one at a time. "Hello." – 안녕하세요. This means "hello," and you can say it to anyone you’d like. It also happens to be an appropriate reply to anyone saying "hello." "Goodbye." (to a person leaving) – 안녕히 가세요. Although the first two syllables look the same as "hello," this phrase means "goodbye." However, Korean has two ways of saying "goodbye." This is how to say "goodbye" to a person who is leaving. It literally means "Go in peace." "Goodbye." (to a person staying) – 안녕히 계세요. Here is the second way to say "goodbye" in Korean. This is how to say "goodbye" to a person who is staying. It literally means "Stay in peace." Notice how the two ways of saying "goodbye" differ in only one syllable – 안녕히 가세요 and 안녕히 계세요. Remembering this difference will help you save time memorizing them both individually. When meeting someone for the first time, it’s best to start off by saying "hello." Let’s look at another conversation, this time between 철 수 and 영희, and then go over what each of its parts mean. Culture Notes: Koreans will bow slightly when greeting others, and the amount that they bow will depend on the status of the other person. For example, it would be acceptable to greet someone younger than you by just lowering your head as if nodding, while greeting a company’s boss would require a formal bow – if you want specifics, the maximum angle for a more formal bow will be around 45 degrees… but I didn’t do any scientific studies so don’t quote me on that number (I’m a Korean teacher, not a mathematician). Your greetings will vary between lowering your head and a formal bow, depending on how much respect you wish to show them. When in doubt, choose the formal bow. You may also shake hands while bowing. This is common as well in any situation. If you want to be extra polite and formal (usually for business transactions), use both hands when shaking hands. Or, use your right hand to shake hands, while holding your right forearm with your left hand (you read that right). However, save these kind of handshakes for only the most heartfelt and formal situations, such as the day you get to meet your favorite actor or actress in Korea. Conversation 2 철수: 안녕하세요. 영희: 안녕하세요. 철수: 저는 철수입니다. 영희: 저는 영희입니다. 철수: 만나서 반갑습니다. 영희: 네, 반갑습니다. Let’s break apart the conversation to understand what it means. 철수: 안녕하세요. "Hello." This line and the next are straightforward. 철수 is saying "hello." Culture Notes: The names 철수 and 영희 are to Koreans what "Bob" and Sally" are to English speakers, and are standard names used frequently in Korean textbooks. In fact, they were used so frequently that everyone in Korea associates these names with textbooks. 영희: 안녕하세요. "Hello." 철수: 저는 철수입니다. "I am Chul-soo." Here we have 저는 followed by a name, 철수, and then 입니다 (we’ll talk about 입니다 in just a moment). What is 저는? 저 means "I" or "me." The 는 that comes after it is called a Topic Marker, and basically means "this is what we’re going to be talking about now." 저는 can therefore translate to "we’re going to be talking about me now." I’ll go over the Topic Marker in detail later on, but for now, feel free to simply remember that you can use 저는 at the start of sentences when you’re talking about yourself. Using 입니다 입니다 means "am" or "is" or "are" – as in "I am," or "he/she is," or "you are." Here, since we used 저는 at the beginning, it means "I am." You can also think of 입니다 as meaning "equals." 저는 철수입니다. "I am Chul-soo," or "I equal Chul-soo." In English, even a verb as simple as "to be" can have several ways to say it depending on the subject – I am, you are, he/she is, they are, et cetera. Korean has no such thing. 입니다 can be used in all of these cases. Attach 입니다 directly after a noun (here, after a name). 입니다 will only appear at the end of a sentence. Remember that due to sound change rules, 입니다 is pronounced 임니 다. 영희: 저는 영희입니다. "I am Yung-hee." 철수: 만나서 반갑습니다. "It’s nice to meet you." 철수 says 만나서 반갑습니다, which means "It’s nice to meet you." 영희: 네, 반갑습니다. "Yes, nice to meet you." "Nice to meet you." 영희 replies with a "yes" (네), followed by 반갑습니다. Notice how even though 영희 did not use 만나서 in her reply, the translation is still "It’s nice to meet you." This is because "만나서" is optional in this phrase; it’s fine to use it, and it’s fine to leave it off. If you look in another textbook for learning Korean, you might find "nice to meet you" taught as 처음 뵙겠습니다. This is actually the most standard and formal way of saying "nice to meet you," but is much less commonly used. However, feel free to learn it and you might hear it a few times. I would recommend (만나서) 반갑습니다 in most normal situations besides formal business meetings. Advanced Notes: 만나서 comes from the verb 만나다, which means "to meet." However, 반갑습니다 comes from the verb 반갑다, which means "to be glad," and implies that you’re glad because you’re meeting someone. Adding 만나서 onto 반갑습니다 simply lengthens the phrase, and can make it sound a bit more polite. Its meaning stays the same. Practice Complete the conversation: 1. _______________. "Hello." 2. _______________. 저는 _______________입니다. "Hello. I am Chul-soo." 3. 저는 _______________입니다. 만나서 _______________. "I am Yung-hee. Nice to meet you." 4. 네, _______________. "Yes, nice to meet you." 5. 안녕히 _______________. "Goodbye." (to someone leaving) 6. 안녕히 _______________. "Goodbye." (to someone staying) Translate to English: 7. 안녕하세요. 저는 철수입니다. 만나서 반갑습니다. 안녕히 가세요. Translate to Korean: 8. "Hello. Nice to meet you. I am [your name]. Goodbye (you are leaving)." New Phrases 안녕하세요. - "Hello." 안녕히 가세요. - "Goodbye." ("Go in peace.") 안녕히 계세요. - "Goodbye." ("Stay in peace.") 저는 _____입니다. - "I am _____." (만나서) 반갑습니다. - "Nice to meet you." 처음 뵙겠습니다. - "Nice to meet you." 네 - "yes" 아니요 - "no" New Vocabulary 저 - "I," "me" 입니다 - "am," "is," "are," "equals" Chapter 2: Likes and Dislikes Once you’re able to introduce yourself, you’ll need to learn how to express your feelings and emotions to other people in order to communicate freely. Because after all, expression is the heart of any language. In this chapter we’ll go over how to express a few emotions related to likes and dislikes. As this is a shorter chapter, take your time to make sure that you feel comfortable with each expression and grammar form before moving on. Conversation A: 저는 스포츠를 좋아합니다. B: 저는 음악을 좋아합니다. 스포츠를 싫어합니다. This lesson brings us a short conversation, but it should be enough for what we need to cover. Let’s go over each part. A: 저는 스포츠를 좋아합니다. "I like sports." You’ll notice right away that "I like" comes after "sports." This is a bit backwards from the way we do things in English. I’ll explain how this works in the next chapter, but for now simply remember that what you like comes before the word "like." What is that 을 or 를? This is called an Object Marker. Its purpose is to point out, "hey, there’s an object right before me!" "What is an object?" Let’s look at the sentence "I eat food." Here, the verb is "eat," and the object of that verb is "food." An object is what receives the action of a verb. An Object Marker is placed directly after the object, and never before. Use 를 when it comes after a vowel, and use 을 when it comes after a consonant. Vowel: 스포츠를 Consonant: 음악을 B: 저는 음악을 좋아합니다. 스포츠를 싫어합니다. "I like music. I dislike sports." Here, the sentence works the same as above. We put "music" before "love" because that’s how Korean does things. Pronouns You may have noticed that although we translated the second sentence as "I like sports," there is no word for "I" in the sentence anywhere. Korean is a bit unique, in that as long as the pronoun can be easily guessed from the sentence, you don’t need to include it. Pronouns in Korean are only used when necessary. In addition, once it’s already clear who you are talking about, there is no need to repeat 저는 every sentence. 저는 수영을 좋아합니다. 축구를 싫어합니다. "I like swimming. I dislike football." In this sentence it is not necessary to use 저는 in the second sentence, because it is already clear who you are talking about. 댄스를 싫어합니다. "I dislike dance." Here, unless it would be vague who dislikes dance, it’s not necessary to include 저는 at the beginning. 저는 수영을 좋아합니다. "I like swimming." For this sentence, perhaps someone else was talking about his or her opinions before, and now you want to add your thoughts. Culture Notes: Most Korean names are 3 syllables; one syllable for the family name, or last name, and two syllables for the first name. For example, in the name 김철수, 김 is the last name and 철수 is the first name. Practice Practice making your own sentences using a noun, the Object Marker, and one of each of our phrases in the spaces below. Choose the correct Object Marker for each sentence. 1. 저는 __________을/를 좋아합니다. 2. 저는 __________을/를 사랑합니다. 3. 저는 __________을/를 싫어합니다. Translate to English: 4. 안녕하세요. 저는 철수입니다. 음악을 좋아합니다. 댄스를 싫어합니다. Translate to Korean: 5. I love sports. I like basketball. I love American football. I dislike swimming. New Phrases 좋아합니다. - "I like." 사랑합니다. - "I love." 싫어합니다. - "I dislike." New Vocabulary 을/를 - Object Marker 스포츠 - "sports" 야구 - "baseball" 축구 - "football" 미식축구 - "American football" 농구 - "basketball" 배구 - "volleyball" 테니스 - "tennis" 탁구 - "table tennis," "ping-pong" 피구 - "dodge ball" 하키 - "hockey" 수영 - "swimming" 골프 - "golf" 등산 - "mountain climbing," "hiking" 음악 - "music" 시 - "poetry" 댄스 - "dance" 역사 - "history" 음식 - "food" Chapter 3: Simple Sentences In this lesson we’ll learn how to make simple sentences using what we’ve learned so far. We’ll also learn about basic sentence structure in Korean. Let’s go over the conversation, and then break it down a bit to understand it. Try reading each part on your own first. Conversation 철수: 저는 고양이를 좋아합니다. 영희: 저는 고양이를 싫어합니다. 개를 좋아합니다. 철수: 저는 김치를 좋아합니다. 영희: 저는 삼겹살을 더 좋아합니다. Let’s take a look at each sentence in the conversation one at a time. 철수: 저는 고양이를 좋아합니다. "I like cats." Korean Sentence Structure English is an "SVO" language. "SVO" means that the language uses sentences structured with a subject, followed by a verb, and then an object. Let’s take the sentence "I eat food." "I" is the subject, "eat" is the verb, and "food" is the object that is being eaten. Korean is an "SOV" language. This means that the object will always come before the verb, so the sentence "I eat food" would be structured "I food eat" in Korean – the subject, followed by the object, and then the verb. Become comfortable with this structure as soon as you’re able to, as it’s what all of Korean grammar is based upon. It’s quite important! We learned previously that 저 is used to say "I" or "me," and that 는 (the Topic Marker) is added onto the end to mark that we’re talking about "me." 고양이 means cat, and it’s followed by the Object Marker, here 를. 영희: 저는 고양이를 싫어합니다. 개를 좋아합니다. "I dislike cats. I like dogs." Notice that the second sentence, "I like dogs," doesn’t begin with 저는 like the first one does. This is because we already said that we’re going to be talking about "me" in the first sentence, so there’s no need to repeat 저는 in the second sentence, assuming we’re still referring to "me." Remember that anytime it’s clear what the topic is, feel free to omit it. 철수: 저는 김치를 좋아합니다. "I like kimchi." What is 김치? A long time ago before there were refrigerators, people had to get creative to find ways to make their food last longer. Often, adding some type of preservative (salt) to food allowed it to stay edible for a long time. Koreans began adding salt to cabbage, then storing it underground where it was cooler in large clay pots. It would ferment (get old with the help of bacteria), but remain safe to eat. This allowed people to eat cabbage all year round, which was a good source of vitamins and fiber. More recently, Koreans added red peppers to the recipe, and led us to what 김치 is today – spicy, fermented (and delicious) cabbage. There are more varieties of 김치 than could ever fit in this book. I encourage you to experiment and try some if you’re able to get your hands on any. There’s a saying that language learners who love to eat 김치 speak the best Korean. 영희: 저는 삼겹살을 더 좋아합니다. "I like pork belly more." What is 삼겹살? 삼겹살 is sliced pork belly, which resembles thick bacon, but has not been cured or salted. It’s fried directly at tables in restaurants, cut into bite-sized pieces, and eaten with a combination of vegetables, side dishes, and 김치. I’m not going to talk about 삼겹살 anymore because it’s making me hungry. Adverbs in Korean In Korean, adverbs are most often placed directly before a verb. 저는 티파니를 사랑합니다. "I love Tiffany." 저는 제시카를 더 사랑합니다. "I love Jessica more." 더 is an adverb which means "more." Its opposite is 덜, which means "less." 저는 수지를 덜 좋아합니다. "I like Suzy less." Advanced Notes: Although using adverbs after a verb can sometimes be acceptable in casual conversation, it is not the norm. For better-sounding and clearer Korean, only use adverbs directly before verbs. Plurals Let’s take one more look at the first sentence in the example conversation. 철수: 저는 고양이를 좋아합니다. "I like cats." 고양이 means "cat," but notice how the English translation is "I like cats" and not "I like cat." In Korean, using plurals is optional. It’s only necessary to use a plural when you need to emphasize that something is plural. 고양이 therefore can mean either "cat" or "cats," depending on what fits better in the sentence. But sometimes you might need to emphasize that something is plural. If you do, here’s how you do it. Noun + 들 Take any noun you want to make plural, and attach 들. 고양이 "cat" → 고양이들 "cats" 원숭이 "monkey" → 원숭이들 "monkeys" However, remember that most of the time, you won’t need to use 들. 저는 원숭이를 좋아합니다. "I like monkeys." But you wouldn’t say, 저는 원숭이들을 좋아합니다. It would be unnecessary, and strange, to add 들 since it is already clear that we mean "monkeys" and not "monkey." Articles English uses articles such as "a," "an," and "the" to indicate several things, such as quantity ("a car" can mean "one car"), or to be specific about a certain thing ("the car" refers to a car that the speaker has already previously referred to). There’s good news – Korean has no such thing to worry about. In the future, we will cover how to indicate quantity simply using numbers (Chapter 13), and how to be specific about a certain thing by pointing out "this" or "that" (Chapter 11). Practice Translate to English: 1. 저는 고양이를 더 좋아합니다. 2. 저는 개를 더 좋아합니다. Translate to Korean: 3. I love movies. 4. I love books more. 5. I dislike bugs. 6. I dislike spiders more. New Vocabulary 고양이 - "cat" 개 - "dog" 원숭이 - "monkey" 벌레 - "bug," "insect" 거미 - "spider" 책 - "book" 작가 - "author" 사전 - "dictionary" 전자 사전 - "electronic dictionary" 영화 - "movie" 김치 - "kimchi" 삼겹살 - "pork belly" 더 - "more" (adverb) 덜 - "less" (adverb) Chapter 4: Wanting and Not Wanting In this chapter we’ll cover how to express our wants, as well as what we don’t want. We’ll also learn how to ask for things politely with "please," and a few essential Korean particles. Conversation 김철수: 저는 아르바이트를 원합니다. 김영희: 저도 아르바이트를 원합니다. 김철수: 하지만 일을 원하지 않습니다. 돈만 원합니다. 김영희: 저도 일하고 싶지 않습니다. 게임 하고 싶습니다. 김철수: 저도 게임 하고 싶습니다. 하지만 돈도 벌고 싶습니다. "Want" and "Want to" Korean has two ways to say "want" – which one you use will depend on whether you’re using a verb or a noun. 저는 핸드폰을 원합니다. "I want a cell phone." 저는 핸드폰을 받고 싶습니다. "I want to get a cell phone." The difference between the two above sentences is the first one uses only a noun – "cell phone." The second sentence uses a verb – "to get." Let’s go over both of these: "Want" – Noun + (을/를) 원합니다. "Don’t want" – Noun + (을/를) 원하지 않습니다. When you want to express that you want something, take the noun and attach the Object Marker. Then add 원합니다. 저는 음식을 원합니다. "I want food." 저는 연필을 원합니다. "I want a pencil." The opposite can be expressed by using 원하지 않습니다 instead. 저는 야채를 원하지 않습니다. "I don’t want vegetables." 저는 돈을 원하지 않습니다. 사랑을 원합니다. "I don’t want money. I want love." "Want to" – Verb Stem + 고 싶습니다. "Don’t want to" – Verb Stem + 고 싶지 않습니다. When you want to express that you want to do an action, take the verb stem and attach 고. Then add 싶습니다. What is the Verb Stem? Getting the verb stem of a verb is simple. Just take a verb and remove the 다 at the end, and that’s it! You’re going to see verb stems used everywhere in Korean grammar. 하다 →하 벌다 →벌 먹다 →먹 저는 과일을 먹고 싶습니다. "I want to eat fruits." 저는 돈을 벌고 싶습니다. "I want to earn money." The opposite would be made by using 고 싶지 않습니다. 저는 야채를 먹고 싶지 않습니다. "I don’t want to eat vegetables." 저는 죽고 싶지 않습니다. "I don’t want to die." 저는 웃고 싶지 않습니다. "I don’t want to laugh." Note that the verb 웃다 can mean both "to smile" or "to laugh." Which one it translates to depends on the context of the sentence. If either seem to fit, feel free to translate it as either. 저는 웃고 싶지 않습니다. "I don’t want to smile." Advanced Notes: However! This form (verb stem + 고 싶습니다) can only be used for "I" or "you," and it cannot be used to mean "he" or "she" – it cannot be used to mean "he/she wants to." This is because in Korean, you cannot talk about the desires of another person directly. Although you can say "I want to go" or "you want to go," in Korean it is not acceptable to say "he wants to go" or "she wants to go" with this same form. You can use this form only when talking about yourself or someone else who you are directly speaking to. Remember that if you’re expressing that you want to do something, use 고 싶습니다, and if you’re expressing that you want something, use 원합니다. "Please give me…" Noun + (을/를) 주세요 In order to ask for something politely, say what you want followed by the Object Marker, and then add 주세요. 돈을 주세요. "Please give me money." 힌트를 주세요. "Please give me a hint." 책을 주세요. "Please give me a book." Culture Notes: Approximately 5% of all Korean vocabulary comes from foreign words, most of those from the English language. This includes words such as 힌트, and 오렌지. Words such as these are sometimes referred to as Konglish – a combination of Korean and English. So if you hear a word in Korean that sounds a lot like an English word, chances are it originally was. Now that we’ve learned some important grammar, let’s read over the conversation. 김철수: 저는 아르바이트를 원합니다. "I want a part time job." The word "아르바이트" comes from the German word "arbeit" (which means "job"). In slang, this word is commonly shortened to 알바. 김영희: 저도 아르바이트를 원합니다. "I want a part time job too." Here in the conversation we have the word 저, meaning "I" or "me," followed by도. Together, 저도 means "I also" or "me too." The Particle 도 Notice how 도 is taking the place of 는 in the above sentence. Saying 저는도 would be incorrect. When using the particle 도, it replaces whatever particle was there previously (if there was one). 도 is placed directly after a word. The meaning of 도 is "also," "even," or "too." 저도 김치를 좋아합니다. "I also like kimchi." (Other people also might like kimchi) 저는 김치도 좋아합니다. "I like kimchi too." (I might also like other things) Notice how the meaning changes by placing the 도 in a different location. 도 emphasizes "also," "even," or "too" only for the noun or pronoun that it directly follows. 저도 자동차를 원합니다. "I also want a car." (Other people also might want a car) 저는 자동차도 원합니다. "I want a car too." (I might also want other things) Because the 도 in this sentence is placed after "car," it means "I want a car, in addition to whatever else I may want," and not "I also want a car, just like you do." The word car can be shortened simply to 차, but know that 차 can also mean "tea." Only shorten 자동차 to 차 when the meaning is clear from the context. Let’s continue with the conversation. 김철수: 하지만 일을 원하지 않습니다. 돈만 원합니다. "But I don’t want work. I only want money." 하지만 means "but" or "however," and can only be used at the beginning of a sentence. The Particle 만 만 works grammatically similar to 도, in that it comes after a noun. It replaces whatever particle was previously there (if there was one), except for the Object Marker, which you may replace if you want. 저만 좋아합니다. "Only I like it." 저는 참치만 원합니다. "I only want tuna." Here, without 만, the sentence would be 저는 참치를 원합니다. Because it would normally use an Object Marker, you could have also written the above sentence like this: 저는 참치만을 원합니다. "I only want tuna." To keep things simple, feel free to remove whatever particle was previously there every time, and you’ll be just fine. 김영희: 저도 일하고 싶지 않습니다. 게임 하고 싶습니다. "I also don’t want work. I want to play games." 김철수: 저도 게임 하고 싶습니다. 하지만 돈도 벌고 싶습니다. "I also want to play games. But I want to earn money too." Practice Translate to English: 1. 저는 토마토도 먹고 싶습니다. 2. 저는 토마토만 먹고 싶습니다. 3. 저도 돈을 벌고 싶습니다. 4. 저만 돈을 벌고 싶습니다. Translate to Korean: 5. "Only I like kimchi." 6. "I like only kimchi." 7. "I also want to eat vegetables." 8. "I want to eat vegetables also." New Phrases 원합니다. - "I want…" 원하지 않습니다. - "I don’t want…" Verb Stem + 고 싶습니다. - "I want to…" Verb Stem + 고 싶지 않습니다. - "I don’t want to…" 주세요. - "Please give me…" New Vocabulary 하다 - "to do" 먹다 - "to eat" 죽다 - "to die" 태어나다 - "to be born" 받다 - "to get," "to receive" 벌다 - "to earn (money)" 울다 - "to cry" 웃다 - "to smile," "to laugh" 게임(을) 하다 - "to play games" 게임 - "game" 하지만 - "but," "however" 아르바이트 (or 알바) - "part time job" 돈 - "money" 일 - "work," "job" 연필 - "pencil" (자동)차 - "car" 배 - "boat" 핸드폰 - "cell phone" (literally, "hand phone") 사랑 - "love" 야채 - "vegetables" 과일 - "fruit" 바나나 - "banana" 포도 - "grape" 토마토 - "tomato" 레몬 - "lemon" 오렌지 - "orange" 아이스크림 - "ice cream" 차 - "tea" 참치 - "tuna" 힌트 - "a hint" 도 - "also," "even," "too" (particle) 만 - "only" (particle) Chapter 5: Verbs This chapter is all about using verbs. We’ll learn how to use verbs to make our own sentences and conversations, as well as how to refer to other people. Conversation 김철수: 영희 씨, 안녕하세요. 김영희: 안녕하세요. 저는 학교에 갑니다. 김철수: 저는 집에 갑니다. 김영희: 저는 공부합니다. 김철수: 저는 놉니다. Let’s read over the conversation together. 김철수: 영희 씨, 안녕하세요. "Hello Yung-hee." Using 씨 In Korean, 씨 takes the place of "Mr.," "Mrs.," or "Miss." 씨 is placed after a person’s name. If you don’t know a person’s first name, it is fine to simply place 씨 after their last name. 김씨 "Mr./Mrs./Miss Kim" 박씨 "Mr./Mrs./Miss Park" But a more common, recommended usage of 씨 is with first names. 영희 씨 "Yung-hee" 철수 씨 "Chul-soo" Although it is a bit formal and impersonal, it is also acceptable to refer to someone by their full name with 씨 attached. 김영희 씨 "Mr./Mrs./Miss Kim Yung-hee" In Korean, calling someone by only their first name (without 씨) is only acceptable in casual situations with close friends; it would be impolite at other times. This is different from other English speaking countries, where calling someone by their first name is considered friendly. Also notice in the conversation how the person’s name comes before the greeting. In English we would say "Hello Yung-hee," but in Korean it’s proper to place the name of the person you are talking to at the beginning of the sentence. 철수 씨, 안녕하세요. "Hello Chul-soo." Also remember that 씨 is used when referring to other people – you should not add 씨 when saying your own name. 김영희: 안녕하세요. 저는 학교에 갑니다. "Hello. I go to school." The 니다 Verb Form Verb Stem + ㅂ니다/습니다 It’s time we started looking at how verbs work. Let’s take a moment and go over how to conjugate – change the form of – a verb in present tense. An example of a present tense sentence in English would be "I watch a movie." Present tense means the sentence is happening in the present. This is different from past tense ("I watched a movie yesterday.") which we will cover later, or future tense ("I will watch a movie tomorrow.") In the last chapter we learned a few of our first verbs such as 하다 ("to do"), 먹다 ("to eat"), and 받다 ("to get," "to receive"). To make it easier to learn verbs, we’ll teach them first in this book in their standard unconjugated form. But we can’t simply use them in a sentence without conjugating them first. Verbs will conjugate differently depending on how they’re being used. To conjugate a verb to the present tense, take the verb stem (review how from the last chapter) and attach ㅂ니다 if it ends in a vowel, or attach 습니다 if it ends in a consonant. Here are a few examples: 가다 → 가 + ㅂ니다 → 갑니다 하다 → 하 + ㅂ니다 → 합니다 먹다 → 먹 + 습니다 → 먹습니다 받다 → 받 + 습니다 → 받습니다 오다 → 오 + ㅂ니다 → 옵니다 죽다 → 죽 + 습니다 → 죽습니다 놀다 → 놀 + ? Verb stems that end in ㄹ are an exception. For verbs in the present tense with this form, remove the ㄹ after you get the verb stem. 놀다 → 놀 – ㄹ → 노 + ㅂ니다 → 놉니다 벌다 → 벌 – ㄹ → 버 + ㅂ니다 → 법니다 Here are some more examples. 저는 갑니다. "I go." 저는 옵니다. "I come." 저는 치즈를 먹습니다. "I eat cheese." 저는 게임합니다. "I play games." The Particle 에 에 is a particle that can have a few different meanings depending on how it’s used. It can mean "to," such as in the above dialogue, "I go to school" (going to somewhere). It can also mean "at" (located at somewhere), or "in" (located in somewhere). However, for this chapter we will focus on its meaning of "to" a location. 저는 병원에 갑니다. "I go to the hospital." 저는 영화관에 갑니다. "I go to the movie theater." Let’s go back to the conversation. 김철수: 저는 집에 갑니다. "I go home." More on 에 The above sentence, "I go home," might sound a bit strange – almost robotic, or like a caveman – when read in English. However in Korean, speaking in the present tense is perfectly normal, and does not sound strange. But to make a more natural translation, feel free to translate the present tense to the ing form in English. 저는 집에 갑니다. "I’m going (to) home." 저는 학교에 갑니다. "I’m going to school." 김영희: 저는 공부합니다. "I study." Here we have a new verb, 공부(를) 하다. This verb is a combination of 공부, which means "study" and is a noun, with the verb 하다 ("to do"). Together it literally means "to do study." In this book and through your own studying you will learn many verbs in Korean which are a combination of a noun and the verb 하다. 김철수: 저는 놉니다. "I play." The Verb 놀다 놀다 can translate as either "to play" or "to hang out." This is because although it means "to play," it is the standard word you would use when meeting up with a friend to do something. In English, "to play" is a word reserved for certain things such as games or for children meeting together. However in Korean, it’s normal to keep using the verb 놀다 into adulthood. In the above example as well, to make a more natural sounding translation, feel free to translate this sentence as "I’m playing." Practice Translate to Korean: 1. "I go to the hospital." 2. "I come to the hospital." 3. "I want to go to school." 4. "I want to hang out." Translate to English: 5. 저는 게임을 합니다. 6. 저는 박물관에 갑니다. 7. 저는 바닷가에 갑니다. 8. 저는 치즈도 먹고 싶습니다. New Vocabulary 가다 - "to go" 오다 - "to come" 놀다 - "to play," "to hang out" 살다 - "to live" 공부(를) 하다 - "to study" 좋아하다 - "to like" 싫어하다 - "to dislike" (person/thing) 미워하다 - "to hate" (person) 사랑(을) 하다 - "to love" 환전(을) 하다 - "to exchange money" 원하다 - "to want" 공부 - "study" 학교 - "school" 집 - "home," "house" 병원 - "hospital" 치과 - "dentist" 수영장 - "swimming pool" 도서관 - "library" 사무실 - "office" 카페 - "café" 은행 - "bank" 슈퍼(마켓) - "supermarket" 영화관 - "movie theater" 박물관 - "museum" 바다 - "ocean" 바닷가 - "beach" 해변 - "seaside," "seashore" 주소 - "an address" 집 주소 - "home address" 고향 - "hometown" 도시 - "city" 지역 - "an area," "a region" 길 - "a street," "a road," "a way" 부분 - "part," "portion" 역할 - "(acting) role" 연극 - "performance," "play" 방송 - "a broadcast" 프로그램 - "a program" 치즈 - "cheese" 에 - "to," "at," "in" (particle) 씨 - "Mr," "Ms./Mrs." Chapter 6: More Verbs This chapter contains a more in-depth explanation of Korean verbs, as well as introduces a few more important verbs that you’ll need to know. Also, you’ll be introduced to the Subject Marker, and another way of working with verbs – to connect two sentences using "but" ("I am an American, but I love Korea."). Conversation A: 저는 한국 사람입니다. 한국에 아파트가 있습니다. B: 저는 미국 사람입니다. 미국에 집이 있습니다. A: 저는 미국에 가고 싶습니다. B: 저는 한국에 가고 싶지만 지금 미국에 있습니다. Let’s go over each line in the conversation one at a time. A: 저는 한국 사람입니다. 한국에 아파트가 있습니다. "I am a Korean. I have an apartment in Korea." More About 입니다 입니다 is actually the verb 이다 conjugated to the present tense. The verb 이다 (here, 입니다) attaches directly to the word before it, with no spaces. 저는 일본 사람입니다. "I am Japanese." 저는 영국 사람입니다. "I am English." 저는 독일 사람입니다. "I am German." The Verb 있다 The verb 있다 literally means "to exist." However, it can be used in two ways. First, you can use the verb 있다 to say that something or someone exists – there is something or someone. Use a noun, followed by the Subject Marker (we’ll go over this next), and then conjugate the verb 있다. 집이 있습니다. "There is a house." Literally this sentence means, "a house exists." And second, you can use 있다 to say that you have something. 저는 돈이 있습니다. "I have money." Literally this sentence means "I, money exists," but you can use 있다 in this way to say that you have something. Use the Subject Marker after what it is that you have. 저는 자동차가 있습니다. "I have a car." 저는 펜이 있습니다. "I have a pen." Advanced Notes: As you discover more about Korean markers in this book in later chapters, you will learn that other markers can also be used instead of only the Subject Marker. 저는 자동차도 있습니다. "I also have a car." 자동차는 있습니다. "As for a car, I have one." The Object Marker, however, cannot be used in this way. The sentence 저는 자동차를 있습니다 would therefore be incorrect. This is because the verb 있다 does not have an object – it merely means that something or someone exists. Introducing the Subject Markers – 이 and 가 In the sentences above you’ll notice either 이or 가after a noun. These are Subject Markers. A Subject Marker in Korean marks a subject of a verb. This is different from the Topic Marker, which I’ll go over in a later chapter. For now, you don’t need to know exactly how to use a Subject Marker yet; we’ll cover it more in detail later on as we use it. Simply know that a Subject Marker is used together with 있다 to say that you have something, or to say that something or someone exists. The Subject Marker is 이 when it comes after a consonant, or 가 when it comes after a vowel. 집이 자동차가 한국이 아파트가 Let’s look at some examples with the Subject Marker and the verb 있다. 저는 일이 있습니다. "I have work." 저는 자동차가 있습니다. "I have a car." 자동차가 있습니다. "There is a car," or "I have a car." 집이 있습니다. "There is a house," or "I have a house." The context of a sentence will always make it clear whether someone is talking about something they have or something that simply exists. More About 에 In the last chapter we focused on how 에 can mean "to" (to somewhere). In this chapter we’ll learn how it can also mean "at" (located at somewhere) and "in" (located in somewhere). (저는) 한국에 집이 있습니다. "I have a house in Korea." This sentence literally can mean "I, a house exists in Korea," but here in context 있다 is being used to mean "have." What you have, or what exists, will most often come right before the verb 있다 in a sentence. 저는 집에 티비가 있습니다. "I have a TV at my house." Advanced Notes: It is also accurate to say (저는) 집이 한국에 있습니다. Switching 집이 around with 한국에 is still grammatically accurate, and adds emphasis to the location. Although the English translation would be similar, you can think of it meaning "I have a house in Korea" (emphasis added). 병원에 환자가 있습니다. "There are patients at the hospital." 한국에 한국 사람이 있습니다. "There are Koreans in Korea." 저는 미국에 여자 친구가 있습니다. "I have a girlfriend in America." 저는 한국에 남자 친구가 있습니다. "I have a boyfriend in Korea." Additional Notes on "Have" While the verb 있다 is used to say that someone "exists" for people and things, it cannot be used to say that you "have" an animal. For animals, the verb 키우다 ("to raise") must be used. 저는 고양이를 키웁니다. "I have a cat (as a pet)." 저는 개를 키우고 싶습니다. "I want to have a dog (as a pet)." However, you will still use the verb 있다 when stating that an animal simply exists. 학교에 고양이가 있습니다. "There is a cat in the school." B: 저는 미국 사람입니다. 미국에 집이 있습니다. "I am an American. I have a house in America." It’s not required to state 저는 at the beginning of every single sentence, once it’s already clear that you’re talking about yourself. An alternate word for 미국 사람 is 미국인. Both have the same meaning, but 미국인 is a bit more formal sounding. 인 means "person," but can’t be used by itself. Feel free to use either word. The same thing applies to 일본인 and 한국인, among others. A: 저는 미국에 가고 싶습니다. "I want to go to America." 있다 can also be used for saying that a person is "in" or "at" a location. 저는 집에 있습니다. "I am at home." Literally this means, "I exist at home." 저는 한국에 있습니다. "I am in Korea." Remember that 에 can mean both "in" or "at" (as we used it with 있다), or "to" (as we used it last chapter). Also remember that the location you are going "to" will come before the verb. 저는 유럽에 가고 싶습니다. "I want to go to Europe." B: 저는 한국에 가고 싶지만 지금 미국에 있습니다. "I want to go to Korea, but now I’m in America." Verb Stem + 지만 In Chapter 4 we learned about how to use 하지만 at the beginning of a sentence to mean "but" or "however." This time, let’s learn how to say "but" or "however" when it’s in the middle of a sentence. Take the verb stem and attach 지만, then finish the sentence with whatever you want to say. That’s all there is to it. 저는 미국 사람이지만 한국을 사랑합니다. "I am an American, but I love Korea." 이지만 comes from the verb 이다. However, the verb stem of 이다 changes when used after words ending in a vowel. First, here is what 이다 looks like with 지만 when used after a consonant: 미국 사람이지만 And here is what it looks like after a vowel: 남자지만 Notice how after a vowel, the verb stem of 이다 changes to become nothing. Advanced Notes: Although I said that the verb stem of 이다 changes after a vowel, it’s actually not completely wrong to say 남자이지만. But this sounds lengthy and looks more like something you might find in an old textbook than in modern spoken Korean. 저는 우유를 싫어하지만 마십니다. "I dislike milk, but I drink it." 저는 한국 사람이지만 한국말을 공부합니다. "I am a Korean, but I study Korean." The Adverbs 지금 and 이제 지금 is an adverb, meaning it describes a verb (similar to how an adjective describes a noun); it means "now" or "right now," and comes before the verb in a sentence. 저는 지금 가고 싶습니다. "I want to go now." 저는 지금 한국에 있습니다. "I am in Korea now." Notice how it comes before the verb – in the first sentence before 가다, and in the second sentence before 있다. It will never appear at the end of the sentence. Another similar word is 이제, which also means "now." While 지금 emphasizes "right now," 이제 emphasizes "from now." However, both will translate simply as "now." 저는 지금 가고 싶습니다. "I want to go (right) now." 저는 이제 가고 싶습니다. "I want to go (from) now." Both have similar meanings, so feel free to use either one. Practice Translate to English: 1. 저는 지금 유럽에 갑니다. 2. 저는 핸드폰이 있습니다. 3. 저는 미국에 자동차가 있습니다. 4. 저는 한국에 가고 싶지만 미국에도 가고 싶습니다. Translate to Korean: 5. "I’m going to Korea." 6. "I’m going to America now." 7. "I have a car." 8. "There is kimchi in Korea." 9. "There are Americans in America." 10. "I want to go to England, but I want to go to Korea also." New Vocabulary 말(을) 하다 - "to speak," "to say" 거짓말(을) 하다 - "to lie" 이다 - "to be" 있다 - "to exist" 키우다 - "to raise" 진실(을) 말하다 - "to tell the truth" 고백(을) 하다 - "to confess" 한국말 - "Korean (language)" 영어 - "English (language)" 중국말 - "Chinese (language)" 일본말 - "Japanese (language)" 독일어 - "German (language)" 프랑스어 - "French (language)" 스페인어 - "Spanish (language)" 말 - "word" 거짓말 - "lie" 진실 - "truth" 의미 - "meaning" 의견 - "opinion" 성격 - "personality" 차이 - "difference" 사이다 - "cider," "soda" 아파트 - "apartment" 환자 - "a patient" 여자 - "girl," "woman" 남자 - "boy," "man" 친구 - "friend" 여자 친구 - "girlfriend" 남자 친구 - "boyfriend" 외국 - "foreign country" 외국어 - "foreign language" 섬 - "island" 정원 - "garden" 호수 - "lake" 강 - "river" 한국 - "(South) Korea" 한국 사람 - "a Korean (person)" 한국인 - "a Korean (person)" 미국 - "America" 미국 사람 - "an American (person)" 미국인 - "an American (person)" 일본 - "Japan" 일본 사람 - "a Japanese (person)" 일본인 - "a Japanese (person)" 영국 - "England" 영국 사람 - "English (person)" 독일 - "Germany" 독일 사람 - "a German (person)" 중국 - "China" 중국 사람 - "a Chinese (person)" 유럽 - "Europe" 북한 - "North Korea" 지금 - "(right) now" 이제 - "(from) now" 사람 - "person" 인간 - "human" 괴물 - "monster" 귀신 - "ghost" 신 - "god" 텔레비전 - "television" 티비 - "television" (abbreviation) 펜 - "pen" 우유 - "milk" 물 - "water" 마시다 - "to drink" 보다 - "to see" 읽다 - "to read" 듣다 - "to listen" 믿다 - "to believe" 신문 - "newspaper" 뉴스 - "news" 지도 - "map" 사진 - "photo" 카메라 - "camera" 사진(을) 찍다 - "to take a photo" 그림 - "drawing" 그리다 - "to draw" 그림(을) 그리다 - "to draw (a drawing)" 출발(을) 하다 - "to depart" 도착(을) 하다 - "to arrive" 떨어지다 - "to fall" 떨어뜨리다 - "to drop (something)" 열다 - "to open (something)" 닫다 - "to close (something)" 만들다 - "to make" Chapter 7: Asking Questions So far we’ve only been able to make statements in Korean. This chapter will explain how to ask questions, as well as how to respond. We’ll also learn an additional way of referring to other people. Then, we’ll learn how to connect two nouns together using "and" – "pizza and cola." Conversation 김철수: 선생님, 안녕하세요. 잘 지내세요? 김영희: 아, 네. 김철수 씨도 잘 지내세요? 김철수: 네. 요즘 무엇을 합니까? 김영희: 저는 학생들을 가르칩니다. 김철수: 무엇을 가르칩니까? 김영희: 저는 수학과 과학을 가르칩니다. 김철수: 저도 수학과 과학을 배우고 싶습니다. 김영희: 정말 배우고 싶습니까? 김철수: 네. 하지만 숙제와 시험을 싫어합니다. 선생님은요? 김영희: 하하. 저도 숙제와 시험을 싫어합니다. Try reading the conversation on your own before we start dissecting it. Got it? Okay, let’s start. Actually, before we go over the conversation, let’s learn how to ask questions in Korean. Verb Stem + ㅂ니까/습니까 Just like when we conjugated the present tense (ㅂ니다/습니다), making questions is done in the same way. Take the verb stem (review Chapter 5 if you’re not sure) and add ㅂ니까 if it ends in a vowel, or add 습니까 if it ends in a consonant. Add a question mark to the end just like in English. 가다 → 가 + ㅂ니까 → 갑니까? 받다 → 받 + 습니까 → 받습니까? 하다 → 하 + ㅂ니까 → 합니까? 먹다 → 먹 + 습니까 → 먹습니까? 김치를 좋아합니까? "Do you like kimchi?" 네, 김치를 좋아합니다. "Yes, I like kimchi." 김치를 먹습니까? "Do you eat kimchi?" 네, 김치를 먹습니다. "Yes, I eat kimchi." Now let’s look over the conversation. 김철수: 선생님, 안녕하세요. 잘 지내세요? "Hello teacher. Are you doing well?" What is a 선생님? In Chapter 5 we learned about 씨, and how it can be used to mean "Mr.," "Mrs.," or "Miss" when attached to the end of a person’s full name or last name. 선생님 can mean "Mr." when attached to a male’s full name or last name, or it can also mean "Sir" when used on its own. Using 선생님 can be even more polite than using 씨, so use it when you’re able to with older males. 김 선생님 "Mr. Kim" 김철수 선생님 "Mr. Kim Chul-soo" 선생님 "Sir" However, 선생님 can also be used as a polite way to refer to someone who is a teacher. When used to mean "teacher," it can be used for both males and females. 선생님 "Teacher" 김 선생님 "Mr./Mrs./Miss Kim" (who is a teacher) Note that although 선생님 can mean "teacher," it is not necessary that they be your teacher. 잘 지내세요 is a common and polite way to ask someone if they are doing well. 잘 is an adverb which means "well." 김영희: 아, 네. 김철수 씨도 잘 지내세요? "Ah, yes. Are you doing well too, Mr. Kim Chul-soo?" Remember that 도 ("also," "even," "too") is attached directly to whatever it’s used with – in this case 씨, since 씨 is a title and counts as part of the person’s full name. It would be incorrect to say 김철수도 씨. 김철수: 네. 요즘 무엇을 합니까? "Yes. What do you do these days?" 요즘 means "lately," "nowadays," or "these days." 무엇 means "what" (it even kind of sounds like "what"). Here, since we’re using the verb 하다 after it, 무엇 is acting as an object, and therefore is followed by the Object Marker. 무엇 can be used in many situations. 무엇을 먹고 싶습니까? "What do you want to eat?" 무엇을 좋아합니까? "What do you like?" 무엇이 있습니까? "What do you have?" Notice how there’s no pronoun (here, "you") at the start of the sentence above. This is because pronouns in Korean are not necessary unless it is not clear who you are referring to. Here, it’s clear that the speaker is talking about the other person, so it’s not necessary to add the pronoun "you." 김영희: 저는 학생들을 가르칩니다. "I teach students." Here, 들 is used after 학생 to emphasize that she teaches multiple students. Without 들, it could be vague whether the teacher is teaching only one student, or more. However, in situations where it’s not vague, remember that 들 is not necessary. When in doubt, don’t add 들. 김철수: 무엇을 가르칩니까? "What do you teach?" This is another example of 무엇 being used as an object. 김영희: 저는 수학과 과학을 가르칩니다. "I teach math and s