Main 英语搭配大辞典 = The Kenkyusha dictionary of English collocations

英语搭配大辞典 = The Kenkyusha dictionary of English collocations

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Year:
2006
Edition:
Di 1 ban
Publisher:
外语教学与研究出版社, Beijing Shi
Language:
chinese
Pages:
1950
ISBN 10:
7560050662
ISBN 13:
9787560050669
File:
PDF, 147.85 MB
Download (pdf, 147.85 MB)

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1 comment
 
gadamer
日本人英语治学之大乘
2 有用 苏格拉底和猪 2008-02-04
这本词典收词较广,而且其中所列出的搭配与牛津的相比也比较松散。词条多是些常用词,所以不仅可以查,而且可以读。对学习地道的英语有非常大的帮助。就是纸张稍微薄了一点。
1 有用 四季的風 2019-12-27
內容太強大!排版太費眼!
13 December 2020 (05:21) 

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Copyright © 1995 by Kenkyusha Limited.
Originally published by Kenkyusha Limited,
Dictionary o f English Collocations.

Tokyo, Japan, under the title of The Kenkyusha

(H ) T W J I |||» ± é S
ISBN 7- 5600- 5066-2
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m iii'jiiMiâgp
Stephen Boyd

D avid D utcher

W y^M

Paul Snow den

E dm und Skrzypczak

R . M . V . C ollick

Stephen Boyd

D avid D utcher

rîîjll^ tiîg p

Îg Î^ — A

Peter M cM illan

W illiam O ’C onnor

Adrian Pinnington

Edm und Skrzypczak

A nthony Newell
'/ R t t Î Î

Paul Snowden

Kathryn Van Dyck

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e r " ( « |B ] « t» » ) ^ „

Japan

i ^ W “ » E ’’ (collocation)o
m f n m W “ A cat caught a mouse. " a ^ i S o

, ffiHnffi 7 * i t W " W

.

“ catch'■— iB l3 t t ^ ji,ifi);p S 6 C t ffl" s e c u r e " sS ,“ ca p tu re "„ ^ i S i f c f t J ® S t W . № f f l" secure" a !i“ capture" № jjk fij^7

, fP

contingent association o f words " ( fS^SttiS^SS) . if S - i5 :i №j i i iS M M l J J l “ a habitual asso­
ciation of words” ( ^ lilttf f ir B E ) o

♦ 6 » B t 0 W B 'J i E S ii i a " h a b i t u a l association of w o r d s " .
ji- it ^

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Si ®t e » te T IS« iS !|eK¥Wa « X fi; o
< M i s m K A ^ M > 6i

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# « 9 in iH i« * ¥ ^ iS A ± s ^ ji- s E

A

^¿) a

c) < » « « • « « + )

(1)

econom y

(2 ) m m
( 3 ) JB W ig
K
• £ :*

'

t

n.

< ® i? W I- ^ T S ) + >: an a gricu ltu r a l economy /an
'

^

r

f

i

]

a ilin g economy / a b o o m in g [ b o o m ] economy /a
c a p ita l-s ta r v e d economy / a c e n tr a lly p la n n e d
economy / a c lo s e d economy /a c o n t i^ lle d eco­

W « P lil« is J®

8 P « « i B j J ^ i l . #• i n * J i » i t iff B e ® i t (c o llo c a ­

nomy ...

tio n ) EKjjSf f t o
B ^ ± i i ( l ) - ( 3 ) i 1 - , 3 ( s : № a a i S a ‘« C A T g |5 i)- ffl

«

,

{

0
'

W T # « h i i ( l ) ~ (3 ) f i< ( i0 j0 ‘i ^ M « t ! i i E S i ) - « 4 t a

m!SLWM:mm:

fa ce

n.

< J K S i # •^ iSl + ) : ... a h a g g a rd face I H is face
was h ag ga rd w ith anxiety.

t t : 0 > J u E 4 - M « 0 W i t 4 « ^ * ; S . ^ i^ S « ia c ; i t W f i ! i

1 . ^ is lis lg
d)

a ) <«I«1 +>

«

MS

a b ility

5biSJiP & ^ gj i sj s i g. ®

<:rt-iS + >

^ ioJSI) ili a! i r Vi fp i r W1ffi iS Hi. « :ft-isj« ^ ia] ® ig

^

‘e a s e

n.

n.
+ ' : feel at ease I set sb’s mind a t ease / f o r

(

< S it S + > ; a d m ire [e n v y , re s p e c t] sb's a b ility /
The drug a ff c c t s the a b ility o f the liv e r to function ef­

ease o f consultation [ reference, conveyance ]

ficien tly. / a n a ly z e sb’s a b ility [a b ilitie s ] / a p p r e c i­

T h is new m achinery can cut tunnels through rock with

a te sb 's a b ility

the greatest o f ease.
f f i: <

W T W » : ( , l) ^ } i~ iM № lR . ^ n lJ iB ] - A 2 ) “ R ^ m m

+

is) +

,

accor di ng

to , because o f, due to , instead o f ^

® iR til (ft # : j£

( * ii- w

t ^ + >J I 4 '

. m w is im a ( *

b) <-fgijia>

e) <+;n-«>

'baby

'jo k e

«.

< + iS (liS ) : ... The baby g u rg le d [ b u r b le d ] with
pleasure. /T h e baby is te e th in g

I For

ease o f reference, all sources are given in the text. /

now.

n.

(+
■■■ She made some extrem ely unkind
Jokes at m y expense, / a jo ke in poor [ b ad ] taste I
W Tiere's the jo ke in that? /1 tried to make a jo ke of it.

/T h e baby

to d d le d over to me. / T h e baby has w e t his diapers
[n a p p y ].

b ea u ty

2.

n.

(+ ^ 191 ) ; H er kind o f beauty does not a t t r a c t
me. /Be a u ty c o m e s from w ithin.

a ) < M iS l 1 )

/ H e r beauty w ill

fa d e . /Be a u ty does not la s t. /Be a u ty p a sse s.

’phone

V.

< M ia i I> : Phone a h e a d and make rcscn'ations. /
f e } g ( 2 ) ^ i « ) S i S ; (3 ) ^ * - ^ t r il& ! ) if f iiS W ig i& ^ o

phone b e fo r e h a n d / ... /phone h o m e / 1 phoned her

VI

lo n g -d is ta n c e .

y . 'f q .

b ) < IiJiS)2 >

ffl) M—ffiS'jiB]
V.

M

lït c

c ) < + w h.)

№J

o v e r.

W ff M

n.

must never happen again. IW e are here to enforce the
agreement that nuclear facilities should be disnianilcd.

W tli Blfflfi? ÍÍ-« (

<

iS)

(-t-Chat M f i] ) ; Tnerc is general agreement that this

about, along, d ow n , in , o ff, o n , o u t, o ve r, through,

up
^ m is t

« «

agreem ent

2 >: The w indshield [ windscreen ] m isted

wh-word S Î Î â ; ^ j B ) ; 2 ; Æ ï B Î , È w h -?| i f

I H er eyes m isted o v e r. / M y glasses have m ist­

ed u p . / T h e ir breath m isted u p the mirror.

id e a

c)

n.

<

^ « 5Í Wig^ ÍE- ifeM/h iff?fa^ isj te (&, ft i?;^ iiT)

+ wh.> : D o you have any idea w hy he did it? /1

have no idea how deep the water is here. / 1 have tio
idea how to get there.

^ call

>-

<+
: c a ll a c ro s s a river / 1 called a f t e r yo u ,
but you d id n't hear. I She was called Sophia a f t e r her
grandmother. I Th ey called him George a ft e r the illu s­
trious W ash in g to n ./roW a t sb’s house [h o m e , resi­

2

.
a ) <+ to d o ;

ÎîWWWift:

dence, o ffice , h o tel]
A i r f i e a L . # " + ^ ;if t + to < io"

3.
a)

’dem and

<Mia>

v.

<-f to d o ) ; H e demands to be told everything.

11

demand to know when I w ill receive the money,

d isa p p o in te d

happen

adj.

H e was a c u t e ly disappointed by the re­
ception given to his play. /1 was b it t e r ly disappointed
not to have seen Jo e. / H e was d e e p ly [g r ie v o u s ly ,
t e r r ib ly ] disappointed. /1 was g r e a t ly disappointed

V.

(+ to d o ) : ... Do you happen to know [rem em ber]
his nam e? 11 happened to be at home. I It happened to
be a fine day.

a d v ise

v.

to d o ) : I advised him to be cautious.

in the result. / H o w disappointed she w ill b e!

him to do it him.self.

11 advised

I One is advised to avoid haste in

such eases.

b)
# iíí] Í S -ft-№

is] in

S

a , Sc iS

fn

iS

b ) <-t- doing )
’ fa t

adj.

<+ í^ iS > ; I ’m fa t a ro u n d the waist, /g e l fa t fro m
lack o f exercise / I ’m growing fa t o n a ll the wonderful
meals they give me here.

“ + ^ « ^ - d o in g ” W Jg ^ i& ( l3 A llt ^ < ,
l ) d o i n g i t ; ^ ; g i q B i , f r i a M ^ i § ^ W S № i i ^ i ‘D
i i i « t w i i i t ; 2 )doing

’ r e c a ll

V.

(-f d o in g ) : I recalled meeting him .

B

I I rec a ll being

very happy then. I I don’t recall hearing him say that. II
recalled his leaving earlier than usual.

tVH.i

W«: 0 . If. f

á ie .
1

’keep

V.

<-t-doing) ! . . . keep sb working \Keep the fire burn­
ing.

.

\keep the ball rolling I The d river kept the engine

running w h ile he waited. I Sorry to have kept you w ait­

a ) <+ to d o ;

ing so long.

i f lo

hear

'

a tte m p t

n.
(+ to d o ) : H e made an attempt to escape from the

concentration camp.

a b ility

n.

<-t-tO d o ) : W illiu u t the a b ility to flatter, you w ill
not be successful in business. I The a b ility to remember
names is vital in business.

I No one likes to be kept waiting.

V.

{-«■doing) : She heard the door slam m ing all night
long.

IA bird was heard singing.

11 heard her being

scolded by the teacher.
c ) (- H h a t jyLtO )
W i$ i a i £ i^ that

rem em ber

v

( + th at M ■&) ' : 1 remembered that 1 had a lot o f

effo rt

things to do.

\Remember that 1 love you very much.

She made an effort to clarify the issue.

c o m p l a in

V.

n.
<+ to d o ) ; He made no e jfon to explain his rca.sons. I

{+ th at
b ) <+ th a tM ÍD >
that

) : He com plains that his job gives him

no satisfaction.
drank too much.

I She complained that her husband

VII
cessful.

d ) <4-wh.)

11 am glad to be o f service.

I “ W ill you be

co m in g ?" — " Y e s , I ’ll be glad to. "
iif f lM

wh-word [Si w hat, who (w h o m , w h o s e ), w h ich ,

w hen, w h ere, w h y , h o w , whether

^ r e c a ll

\Olad lo meet

you.

if i f o
b ) <+ th a tM - e ])

V.

<+ w h .) : I cannot recatl what was said then.

ih a t M ^ o

I I

can’t re c a ll where we went.

11 can’t re c a ll who made
it. 11 can’t re c a ll w hy 1 married her. 11 cannot rec a ll

ii»

that

how to cook it.

c a r e h il

adj.

(+ th at JW. •fi) ) : B e careful ( th a t) he gets on the
e ) (+ - s e lf)

right bus.

it t ii

a tta ch

V.

<+-self>;
rock.

These

I Be

careful that you

d on't hurt other

people’s feelings.

-self)

shellfish

tfiem selves

to

I H e attached him self to me lik e a lim pet.

I I

attach

avoided attaching m yself to any particular school o f

c ) < + w h.)
W

S

w h at, who ( w hom , whose ) , w h ich , w h en,

w here, w h y , h o w , whether V J iR if

econom ics.

c a refu l

f ) <+♦!'>

careful what you do.

51

adj.

<+w h .) I T ry to be more careful what you say. I Be
o f her.

^ r e m a in

I B e careful what you do in front

I B e careful where you get o ff [ w hich bus you

catch J .

v.

(+ ♦ !'): W hen everyone else was in a p a n ic, she re ­
I The exhibition rem ains open till. ..

mained calm.

She remained single [ unmarried ].

I

I One incident re ­

m ains v iv id in m y mem ory.

d e sig n a te

4 ;» A « - « a

rti

w <5ijT-, .£■ s Bi ifl a e iS iEui “ "pj a

v.

(+ ♦ !'): T h e moors w ere designated an area o f out­
standing natural beauty. I H e was designated winner o f

H ®

the 1994 Chopin contest.

M <Ä itfe )

day

+ o

n.

( Ä t t ) ! the day after [ before ]

3.

I a few days after

[ late r] I a few days before 11 had met her two days be­
fore.

a ) (-)■ to d o )
to

la few [so m e , 2 or 3 . 5 , 6 , etc. J days ago I

inn(x:enl as the day I a day o ff

a v .^ to

^dead
<

apt

adj.
> : be ( a s) dead as a doornail [ dodo ] I W e

had given you up for dead. I H e was given up for dead

adj.

and the search was called off.

<+ to d o ) : I'm apt to forget where I ’ve put things. I
People who have been treated like that are apt to resent

on the baltlefield.

it.

2f a i l

I He is apt to lose his temper when I mention his

size.

g la d

I They left him for dead

I She was found dead.

V

<J t t e ) : H e fa ile d h alf the students he taught. I She
was so frightened that words

adj.

her.

<-f to d o ) : Y o u w ill be glad to hear that I was suc­

II

A

K i)-

, fi w ä

K m
55

is]'^

. R - «1H ■i'?¥ f t ^ [31Sf fifeHi,
SPTW ^:

o m e le t, o m e le tte

'a v e r a g e
'a v er a g e
’average

■c o lo r ,

[ her tongue ] fa ile d

I D on’t f a il me this Friday.

n.

B

n.
v.
adj. - « W . » i f i W ;

< .^ )

c o lo u r

n.

( 1)

B lif e !Jll& :

fl.

noun

1>.

verb ^ 1s]
j4

^ c o lo r , <3S> colotu -

^

-

adjective

adj.

± i-t-, a W a T

K f t b ii« :

adv.

adverb B 'Jii?

p ro n.

pronoun

iS)

iij, ffl - « t±

VM
prep.

preposition

int.

inteijection flgnxiifl

c o n s id e r a b le face over that affair, / a c r a g g y face /a
crim son face /H is face was crim so n with fiiry
[ sh am e ]. / a c u t e face

c

3.
« ffi) B

a «C ^

f t . 9 «: ® iÇ Ji; 5F« PI'J*-

Ift «
( m

m

«li( T

m

s is x

^ m

ix k >s

< ig ?± tk ® ( Shakespeare )

D

ia-)^

b e g in n in g
<

( x 5Ï ) ) „

n.

i l'i s ! + > : ■■• In the fcfginning G od crcated the
I In

heaven and the eanh.

^ i i A ^ |HI T

^ ifi i f m . i f 4^ ffl 5fe * iil # 3

M.Xo fa« B fittsaj0 U » « ^"7 flg fei^itis)a

W ord.

(Jo h n 1 :1 ) ..

day

n.

green in judgm ent,

2.

the beginning

was the

+ ) : •■• M y sa la d da ys, when I was

( JK S iS

W i f « SI. «*■{«! i i i f t t f f l .

.

a .v .>

... (S h a k ., Antony I v 7 3 ) ...

ft:
i ) P h ‘‘ (c f .

¥(;)PSJTo »j!C'«-iaiUti»Ja!c)!iaü;^-^iÇ«WMî]B&a
« t t a £ № W B i W f f i d i n f i f He X

...)■• tu

' a rra y

.

V.

(+

'u se

: •■. Kven Solom on in all his glory was not

arrayed lik e one o f the.se ( lilie s o f the fie ld ) .

■■

(c f .

Matt. 6 :2 9 ) ...

v i g il

(Æ ÎS Æ ^ r â ]0 9 )» « :iiï« iitt'^

n.

raiftS Si.*S iJ«i:fc.

jiZ.Jll!Hiifi ^ W ( 1 ) .

4.

( 2 ) -- ( g s t i a i f E i j - o

la titu d e

one, sb t l S sth
P»)iiE't^ ffl"o n e / o n e 's( ‘3 ± i B > j R - A B i ) " . “ sb { =

n. ( 1 ) < i ) i ; [ - s ] ^ 1 i j * № K

somebody )/ s b ’s ( = somebody’s ) ( i-i Ü 5

^ A R — A

H i ) ” , “ ,sth(= som ething) " Ü W Îl 'W t “ sth’s "

n i VJ. I f ^

(2 )

A " ii £ “ ¥ 1i!)” o
go fishing on one’s day o ff
com e to an arrangement w ith sb about.,,

E

i?>)i£

order sb’s arre.st
exam ine .sth from a scientific aspect

1. e iJf f iW ® / ?
0 S ® , !S a iÔ < )T - ii «№ FF№ ?ilc

'baby

n.

( S tliS + > : a b a n d o n a bahy / b a p tiz e a baby / D o
you b re a s t- fe e d or b o ttle - fe e d your baby^ / b r in g
u p a bahy [ b rin g a baby u p ] on co w ’s m ilk / b u rp a

ÎF W t t D » ,
a d v e r s it y

baby / c a lm a crying baby

'gam e

n.

; I S i ê : 5ffi# : [

adversities]

n.

{+ S j i S > : ... W h at tim e w ill the game e n d [ fin ­

' d ra p e

is h ] ? /T h e game w e n t into extra innings. /O o\( is a
game that docs not in te r e s t me,

/A

«. [ -Srft-s ] i t , ïîî

a c r o b a t ic s

soccer game

n. [ S ]

t i l î ;t $ }Î

liR

la s ts 90 minutes,

f i li n g s

f t : w e n t f r t A K - ® ® go 4 '«

ft:

a b le

adj.
< ® )iS ) : ••■ “ T hey made no attempt to help me, "

— “ I'm w e ll able to believe it. "

n.

i u m m Æ m

~ s ] " , ’'[-s]"^PBSijÎ.

iè o

I I ’m b e t t e r able

than I was to imderstand w hy that happens. I She is re­
garded as the candidate b e s t able to bring the country
together, /be w h o lly able to do...

G
i.3 è i(

)

f t ; b e t t e r , b e s t ir t A ÎÇ / if .® w e ll ‘f’ ,
He is efficient in (p e rfo rm in g ) his duties.
efTicicnt in perform ing his duties. ”

2 . « ilïE ilf B lW lE iîffl R B t , J t

I'H]

his duties.

2.
'fa c e

EM " H e is

ig “ H e is efficient in

]

n.

< H S S iS I •^ is l + ; : •■• a c a re w o rn
/ a ch inle s s / a r i / a c le a n s h a v e n face / a c lif f face /1 lo.st

in good [p o o r] health Sp“ in good h e a l t h * 'i n poor
health

<
Acts
Amos
I Chron.
2 Chron.
Col.
I Cor.
2 Cor.
Dan
Deut.
Eccles.
Ephes.
Esth.
Exod.
Ezek.
Ezra
Gal.
Gen.
Hab.
Hag.
Heb.
Has.
Isa.
James
Jer.
Job
Joel
John
I John
2 John
3 John
Jonah
Josh.
Jude
Judges
I Kings
2 Kings
Lam.
Lev.
Luke
Mai.
Mark
Matt.
Mic.

( A

. V

The Acts o f Apostles
Amos
The First Book o f the Chronicles
The Second Book o f the Chronicles
The Epistle o f Paul the Apostle lo the Colossians
The First Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to the
Corinthians
The Second Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to
the Corinthians
The Book o f Daniel
The Fifth Book o f M oses, called Deuter­
onomy
E cclesiastes, or the Preacher
T he E p istle o f P a u l the A p o stle to the
Ephesians
The Book o f Esther
The Second Book o f M o ses, called Exodus
The Book o f the Prophet Ezekiel
Ezra
The Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to the G a­
latians
The First Book o f M oses, called Genesis
Habakkuk
Haggai
The Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to the H e­
brews
Hosea
The Book o f the Prophet Isaiah
The General Epistle o f James
The Book o f the Prophet Jeremiah
The Book o f Job
Joel
The Gospel according to St. John
The Fir.u Epistle General o f John
The Second Epistle o f John
The Third Epistle o f John
Jonah
The Book o f Joshua
The General Epistle o f Jude
The Book o f Judges
The First Book o f the Kings
The Second Book o f the Kings
The Lamentations o f Jeremiah
The Third Book o f M oses, called Leviticus
The Gospel according to St. Luke
Malachi
The Gospel according to St. Mark
The Gospel according to St. M atthew
Micah

. )

Nah.
Neh.
Num.
Obad.
I Pet.
2 Pet.
Philem.
Philip.
Prov.
Ps.
Rev.
Rom.
Ruth
1 Sam.
2 Sam.
Song o f Sol.
I Thess.
2 Thess.
I Tim.
2 Tim.
Titus
Zech.
Zeph.

Nahum
The Book o f Nehemiah
The Fourth Book o f M oses, called Num­
bers
Obadiah
The First Epistle General o f Peter
The Second Epistle General o f Peter
The Epistle o f Paul to Philemon
The Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to the Philippians
The Proverbs
The Book o f Psalms
The Revelation o f St. John the Divine
The Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to the R o­
mans
The Book o f Ruth
The First Book o f Samuel
The SecorJ Book o f Samuel
The Song o f Solomon
The First Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to the
Thessalonians
The Second Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to
the Thessalonians
The First Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to
Timothy
The Second Epistle o f Paul the Apostle to
Timothy
The Epistle o f Paul to Titus
Zechariah
Zephaniak

A p o cr y p h a )
Baruch
B el and
Dragon

Baruch
The H isto ry o f the Destruction o f B e l and the

Dragon
Ecclus.

The Wisdom o f Jesus the Son o f S ira c h , o r
Ecclesia sticus

1. E sd ra s
I Esd.
//. E sd ra s
2 Esd.
Judith
Judith
The F ir s t Book o f the Maccabees
I Масс.
The Second Book o f the Maccabees
2 Масс.
У г. o f Man. ¡h e fra y e r o f M anasses
Th e R e st o f the C h a p te rs o f the B o o k o f
Rest o f
F.sther
Esther
Song o f
The Song o f the Three H o ly C hildren
Three Children

Susanna
Tobit
Wisd. o f

Sol.

The H isto ry o f Susanna
To b it
The Wisdom o f Solomon

^ ± bk3E( Shakespeare) i f
AWs W
Antony
AsYL
Caesar
Corio
Cymb
Errors
Hamlet
I Hen IV
2 Hen IV
Hen V
I Hen VI
2 Hen VI
3 Hen VI
Hen v m
John
Kinsmen
Lear
Love’s L L
Lucrece
Madteth

A ll’s Well That Ends Well
Antony and Cleopatra
A s You Like It
Julius Caesar
Coriolanus
Cymbeline
The Comedy o f Errors
Hamlet
I Henry IV
2 Henry IV
Henry V
I Henry VI
2 Henry VI
S Henry VI
Henry VIII
King John
The Two Noble Kinsmen
King l£ a r
L ove’s Labour's Lost
The Rape o f Lucrece
M acbeth

Measure
Merch V
Merry W
Mids N D
Much Ado
Othello
Pericles
Rich U
Rich IJI
Romeo
Shrew
Sonneu
Tempest
Timon
Titus
Troilus
Tw elN
Two Gent
Venus
Wintet^s

Measure fo r Measure
The Merchant o f Venice
The Merry IViv« o f Windsor
A Midsummer N ight's Dream
Much Ado about Nothing
Othello
Pericles
Richard 11
Richard III
Romeo and Juliet
The Taming o f the Shrew
Sonnets
The Tempest
Timon o f Athens
Titus Andronicus
Troilus and Cressida
Twelfth Night
The Two Gentlemen o f Verona
Venus and Adonis
The W inter’s Tale

abacus

n. lifij

<Sfjia + ): The abacus was e m p lo y e d in England until
late in the 12 th century, / u s e an abacus to calculate a sum
< ^iSI+ > : The calculations are done b y abacus, /reckon
o n an abacus I Com putations are performed o n the abacus
by m anipulating the counters on it.

ab a ft

adv. rtJltlig
<M«1> 1 The w ind was rig h t [s t r a ig h t ] abaft.

■a b a n d o n

n. » w .,

< * » i a - i « l + > : w ith c a r e fr e e [lig h t h e a r t e d ] aban­
don / S h e gave herself up to her g rief with c h ild lik e aban­
don. /w ith c o n s id e ra b le [ so m e ] abandon / w ith d e ­
lig h t fu l abandon / e r o tic abandon / w ith g le e fu l [ jo y ­
f u l, ctc. ] abandon / w ith g re a t abandon /w ith h e e d le s s
abandon /w ith in to x ic a te d abandon /speculate on the
market w ith r e c k le s s abandon / s e x u a l abandon / in to ta l
[ u t t e r ] abandon /w ith w ild abandon / y o u th fu l aban­
don
<ii'W I +> : sing in gay abandon I They tossed aw ay their
clothes In abandon. /pos,sessed by a spirit o f abandon I In
a burst o f abandon I started singing at the top o f my
voice. / act [ behave ] w ith abandon I She returned m y kiss­
es w ith w ild abandon. (T h e y were free to act w ith aban­
don and to experience life as it came.

'a b a n d o n

v. (1 )
< W « I I ) : The project was abandoned a lto g e th e r after
the earthquake. /T he search was c o m p le te ly abandoned. /
He c o o lly abandoned his child, / c r u e lly abandon... /be
[ feel ] e m o tio n a lly abandoned I carry subconscious anger
at having been e m o tio n a lly abandoned by one's mother /
M ost o f the.se NC50 projects are e v e n t u a lly abandoned. /
The U S has fo r m a lly [ o f f ic ia lly ] abandoned its N aval
base at Sub ic B a y in the Philippines. /T h is ill-advised at­
tempt was h a s t ily abandoned. / S u re ly you are not ju s t
[ s im p ly ] going to abandon her. /Fo rtu n ate ly, these p oli­
cies have been la r g e ly abandoned in recent years. /Such
principles should not be abandoned lig h t ly . /S u ch ideas
have lo n g been abandoned by most scientists. /T h e group
has p u b lic ly abandoned terrorist activities / r e lu c ta n t ly
abandon... / s h a m e le s s ly abandon... /be s u d d e n ly [ u n ­
e x p e c t e d ly ] abandoned
: abandon... a s unnecessary /abandoned b y God
[ the gods] I T he newborn baby had been abandoned b y the
roadside [ in a public toilet ] . / S h e cam e lo l^ n d o n to
study la w , but abandoned it fo r art. I H e abandoned her
fo r another wom an. I The old thatched cottages have been
abandoned fo r ug ly modem bungalows. /Peo p le who have
been abandoned or rejected in childhood tend to grow up
lacking confidence. /1 have abandoned my typew riter in
fa v o r o f a word processor.
: abandon ship
( 2 ) 6)c(T:,
: 1 had to abandon him to his fate, ¡abandon a
.ship to the waves IThey abandoned the city to the enemy. I
N ew Y o rk 's T im e 's Square has been abandoned to the sex
industry, ¡abandon oneself to drink [ the pursuit o f pleas­
u re] \abandon oneself to g rief [d e s p a ir, etc. ]
<+-self > : abandon oneself to daydreams

a b e u id o n e d

adj.
<*HSI>: be [f e e l] t o t a lly [ u t t e r l y ] abandoned

abandonm ent

n.
« 4 # ¡sic f t . St a*.
<
:
(a ) c o m p le te abandonment o f w orldly
duties and cares /R e m o val from office entails an im m e d i­
a t e abandonment o f duties and privileges to one's succes­
sor. / H e behaved with u t t e r abandonment.

abandonment o f cargo ¡abandonment of one's
rights I abandonment o f citizenship I the abandonment o f
old taboos I one's abandonment o f efforts lo im prove one's
lot I H is abandonment of our agreement upset me. I The
abandonment o f our farm to the creditors was painful. I
The abandonment o f the ship was orderly.

abase

v.
<WiJQ 1 > : Y o u should not abase you rself so d isg r a c e fu l­
ly. /abase oneself sh a m e fu lly /H e w illin g ly [ g l a d l y ]
abases him self before the boss.
: abase oneself b e fo r e a superior I abase oneself
b e fo r e G od. /There is ik> need for you to abase yourself
b y asking them to forgive you. /abase oneself for money
[ position ] /abase oneself o u t o f greed
<-i-«self>: There is no need lo abuse yourself (b e fo re
them ).

abash

v.

I ) : be g r e a tly [ s lig h t ly ] abashed / Y o u r kind ­
ness q u ite abashes me. /b e [ feel ] th o r o u g h ly [ c o m ­
p l e t e l y ] abashed
<+^1S]>: T he child stood abashed at the sight. /1 feel
abashed b e fo r e her [ in her com pany ] . /1 feel terribly
abashed in the com pany o f elegant wom en [ virile m e n ]. t
I stood abashed in the face o f his superior knowledge.

a b a te

v.

( V l i Q l ) ; H is anger has abated a g o o d d e a l [ a lit­
t l e ] . / H er rage hasn't abated a t all. /Dem and has abated
co n sid e r a b ly [ sh a rp ly ] . /T h e storm g r a d u a lly abat­
ed. / T h e ir fiiry has abated slig h tly [ s o m e w h a t ] , /T h e
weather abated su ffic ie n tly to perm it landing. / H is anger
[ ard o r] sw iftly abated.
< + ^ W > : H er affection was not abated b y his peccadil­
loes. /T h e hurricane has abated somewhat in its fViry.

a b a tem en t

n.
: These prices ad m it no abatement. / T h is m edi­
cine should e f f e c t [ c a u se ] some abatement o f the fever. /
m a k e (a n ) abatement
< » S W - ^ ia + > : The quarrelling continued with little
abatement, / n o i s e abatement /T here has been so m e
[ c o n s i d e r a b l e ] abatement in the fighting.
(+ if i* I) : abatement from the price asked / W e must w ail
for some abatement in ihe patient’s temperature, /abate­
ment o f a fever I abatement o f (a ) penalty

a b b r e v ia te

v.

<M UQ 1 > : The paper w ill have to be g r e a tly [ slig h tly ]
abbreviated before you publish it.
< + i> ifl) : W e abbreviate dozen a s dz. / ’'S w e e ts " is ab­
breviated from “ sweetmeats. ” I The course o f study for an
M . A . in engineering has been abbreviated from six years
lo five. /M athem atics is sometimes abbreviated to math
[ m a th s]. I Y oung M en's Christian Association is common­
ly abbreviated to Y . M . C. A .

a b b r e v i a t io n

n.
(ÿliffl+ > : 1 cannot d e c ip h e r the abbreviations. /T h e
mes.sages are in shorthand, u sin g abbreviations and sym ­
bols.
<+SAifl>: W h at does this abbreviation m e a n [ sta n d

fo r ] ?
: B ra is a co llo q u ia l abbreviation o f
brassière, / a c o m m o n [c o m m o n ly u s e d ] abbreviation /
Bod is an in e le g a n t abbreviation o f body. /Ping-pong is a
r e c o g n iz a b le abbreviation o f tlie game o f table tennis, / a
r e c o g n iz e d abbreviation / a sta n d a rd abbreviation / A c ­
ronym s are often u n ia te llig ib le abbreviations o f the
names o f organizations.

ABC

a b ility

(+ iV iiI) : C a n 't is an abbreviation for cannot. I W h ai is
the abbreviation for “ E s q u ire "? 1P K U is an abbreviation
for phenylketonuria. ! Is C A D an abbreviation for [ o f ]
som ething? /an abbreviation o f a speech
le a m [ k n o w ] one's ABCr [
j / te a c h
children their A B C
T h ey are only at the A B C o f their studies. /
classes in the A B C [A fiC '’s ] o f pamting /begm w it h the
A B C [ / lif e ’s ] o f a subject
: H e does not know even the A B C o f mathemat­
ics. I “ A n i4 5C o f [ t o ] Htiquette'*
<
: They are still at the A B C stage.

a b d ic a te

v.

( • J i a O : The K in g abdicated v o lu n ta rily , /abdicate
w illin g ly [ u n w illin g ly 1
<+
: The Queen abdicated in fa v o r o f her son.

a b d ic a tio n

n.

<
*-&
: a c o m p le te [ t o t a l ] abdication o f re­
sponsibility / K i n g E d w a r d ’s abdication / (a ) s h a m e fu l
abdication o f one's duties
<+
: the abdication o f the K in g [ Em p ero r] I ( th e )
abdication o f the throne I (a n ) abdication o f one's rights
r itioral d u ty ] I It was a total abdication o f responsibility on
your part.

abdom en

n. M.itiffi

co n tr a c t [ e x p a n d ] the [o n e ’s ] abdomen /
m a ss a g e the [ sb’s ] abdomen / p a l p a t e the [ sb’s j abdo­
men /T h e doctor p r e s se d [ f e l t ] the patient's abdomen
w ith her fingers, / r e l a x (th e muscles o f) the [o n e 's ] ab­
domen

(+3)111); The abdomen e x p a n d s and c o n tra cts during
breathing. / T h e abdomen s w e lls w ith m alnutrition.
( F i S i S ) ' * i a + > : have an e n larg ed abdomen / a protrud­
in g abdomen / a s w o lle n abdomen /Ih e u p p e r [ lo w e r ]
abdomen
(^(•1*1+) : The surgeon made an incision in the abdomen. I
He was shot in the abdomen. 11 felt a terrible pain in the
abdomen, /the w alls [flo o r ] o f the abdomen I Sw e llin g o f
the abdomen is typical o f m alnutrition, /sleep [ turn o ve r]
on one's abdomen
V.

< + ifi* l): They abducted him from his home. I H e was
abducted from a M oscow street com er and never seen
again, /b e abducted on [ i n ] the street [ a t a m eeting] I
The ch ild was abducted o n his w ay home from .school. /
A d o lf Eichm ann was abducted to Israel for trial.

a b d u c t io n

n.

(3!lig|+): p r e v e n t aWuc/ion(j)
(+S(|«I) : Abductions are in crea sin g .
: save sb from abduction
<+í^ia> : the abduction o f sb from his house \Abductions
o f politicians are on the increase here.

abeam

ra tion

(+i1‘ia ) : aberration(s) from the norm /aberrationis) in

ABC n

abduct

s p h e r ic a l aberration / a tem p ora ry aberration
< ^ iJD + ) ; correct for a b e rra tio n is) I m ak e corrections [ al­
low ances ] for a b erra tion(s) / a n increasing deg ree o f aber­

adv. i E « # ( w e i i f a A . « ! )

( ■l i J l ) ; The boat was sailing w ith the wind d irectly
abeam, / r i g h t abeam
abeam o f... I The rcscuc tx>ol come abeam of
the stricken vessel.

a b e r r a tio n

n.

O jW + ) : r e d u c e a b e rra tio n(s)
(+ S(ltil> : These a berrations in c r e a s e d [ d e c r e a s e d ] a.s
tim e went on.
; (a ) b e h a v io r a l aberratinn / T o an or­
thodox M arxist such ideas are ( represent ] a d a n g e r o u s
a berration. /Tests [ O b servation] showed a d istin c t aber­
ra tion in the data as temperature was increased, / (a ) g e ­
n e t ic aberration / ( a ) h o rm o n a l aberration /T here was
little [ n o t m u c h ] aberration from the norm, / a m a rk ed
aberration from norm al behavior / F a m ily tensions produce
m e n ta l oj>emi/ion^. / ( a ) m in o r [ m a j o r ] a b e rra tio n /
(a n ) o p tic a l aberration / I s religious experience an objec­
tive reality or sim ply a p sy c h o lo g ic a l aberration’’ / a s e ­
v e r e m e n ta l aberration / (a ) s lig h t aberration / ( a )

behavior [ perform aiu:«. ctc. ] I occasional ah*>rraiinns in
the intensity o f sun .spocs I A b erra tio ns in actuary tables
cause increases in insurar.ce rates. I It is very good, except
for the odd aberration in spelling, /a b e rra tio ns o f planetar>' motion
abet
V. a S fie ..* ,® ;« !« ]
{+ / I'iiJ) ; abetted b y luck /abet sb in a crim e \£ibet sb in
his fo lly
< )t ^ > : aid and abet I A iding and abetting a suicide is a
crim e.
ab eyance

n. + ih ;W S S :iiW )W *
h o ld ... in abeyance I keep... in abeyance I The
law is in abeyance. I The decision is being kept in
abeyance. I W e are holding disclosure o f our findings in
abeyance until all the facts have been considered, / fa ll in to
abeyance / It is in a state o f abeyance.

abhor

V. I « . « ; « . ®

(IliQ 1 ) : I a b so lu te ly abhor bad manners.
<+ iV W ) : W hat I abhor in him is his tendency to carp.
( + d o i n g ) ; I abhor w riting thank-you letters.
O t f d ! ): Nature abhors a [t h e ] vacuum .
a b h o rre n c e
«.
: H e h a s an abhorrence o f uncleanliness. / P o liti­
cians o f all parties are eager to p ro cla im their abhorrence
o f gender discrim ination. / W e must do something to sh o w
[ e x p r e s s ] our abhorrence fo r what is happening in Yug o ­
slavia.
(
:
I have an a b s o lu te [ a d e a d ly ] abhor­
rence o f laziness [ greasy food ] . / a fie r c e abhorrence o f
e vil / W e all have a grea t abhorrence o f this behavior, / a
j u s t if ie d abhorrence / a stro n g abhorrence /1 vie w the sit­
uation w ith to ta l [ u t t e r , the u tm o s t ] abhorrence, /an
u n w a rra n ted [ u n ju s t] abhorrence
(í^ ii^ + > : hold sb in abhorrence I hold hypocrisy in ab­
horrence /b e struck w ith abhorrence
(+ iM Jn ): an abhorrence o f [ f o r ] cruelty [b lo o d ] I
nature's abhorrence o f a vacuum / It is an abhorrence to
me. I Sm oking is an abhorrence to him.
a b h o rre n t

adj.

( M i s ) : It is u tte r ly abhorrent to me that a racist policy
should be adopted.
< + i(-i*l): be abhorrent from the principles o f law / H e is
abhorrent o f cxccss. /behavior abhorrent to common sense I
Such behavior is abhorrent to me. I That is abhorrent to
m y sense o f right and wrong.
a b id e

v. ( 1 )

(Wi«JI>: abide fa ith fu lly by one’s prom ise /T h e y are
gone, but what they wrote abides fo r e v e r [ f o r e v e r ] .
<+iHi9 ) : abide a t a place [ho u .se] /abide b y one's first
love I abide b y a promise [ an agreem ent, a judgem ent,
etc. ] \abide b y the decision o f the m ajority \abide b y the
law I abide b y the consequences o f one's derision I abide
b y a friend in his tim e o f need I W e must abide b y the con­
ditions o f the agreement I I 'l l abide b y your judgem ent. I
As long as you abide by the rules you can do what you
like, /abide in a place [h o u se ] /abide w ith ...

(2)
( M i a i ) : I a b so lu te ly [ j u s t , s i m p l y ] can 't abide
him . /M o st peopk: cannot abide solitude long.
<+ to d o ) ; 1 can 't abide to be kept w ailing.
(+ d o in g ) : I can’t abide having to w ait fo r people [ being
Ig n o re d ]. IT can 't abide h earing such nonsense.
a b ilit y

n.

iie .« 4 s
O jW + > : a d m ir e [ e n v y , r e s p e c t ] sb’s a b ility /T h e
dmg a f fe c ts the a b ility o f the liv e r to function
efficien tly, / a n a l y z e &b’s a b ility la b ilit ie s ] /a p p r e c i a t e
sb’s a b ility / H is condition b a ff le s the diagnostic a b ilitie s

a b la z e
o f m edical men. / c la im the a b ility to do... / c o n c e a l
one'a a b ility
a b ilitie s ] / T h e floods have c r ip p le d our
a b ility to send in reinforcem ents, / c u lt iv a t e o ne's natural
a b ilitie s / d e m o n s tra te one's a b ility /T h e virus d e s tro y s
the body’s a b ility to com bat infection, / d e v e lo p an a b ility
in ... I D uring the cour.se I hope to d e v e lo p m y a b ility to
com m unicate, / d is p a ra g e sb 's [o n e ’s ] a W / in « / d is p la y
one’s a b ility / 1 d o u b t hi.s a b ility to translate, / e n h a n c e
one's [s b 's ] a b ility / e s tim a te sb's a b ilitie s by his perform­
ance / T h e task e x c e e d s m y a b ilitie s, / e x e rc is e one's
a b ilitie s /1 .seem to have e x h a u s te d m y a b ility to create
anything new . / S h e e x h ib its considerable a b ility . / W e
are g a in in g the a b ility to control events on the other side o f
the w orld. /E vo lu tio n has g iv e n us the a b ility to su rvive in
m any environm ents. /Sh e h a s great a b ility [ a b ilitie s ] . I
M ultinationals h a v e the a b ility to deal in markets a ll around
the w orld. I H e h a s the a b ility to describe these horrors
without m aking them seem unreal. /T h e chem icals im p a ir
the body's a b ility to repair itself. / 1 want lo im p ro v e my
[ h e r] a b ility to com m unicate in English. /T h e substance
in c re a s e s the a b ility o f rats to withstand high tempera­
tures. / It is too soon to ju d g e his a b ilitie s. / H e la c k s
a b ility . 11 la c k the a b ility for the job . / I'v e lo s t the a b ility
to enjoy m yself [ to use m y left arm ] . /T h is country must
m a in ta in its a b ility to defend itself, / m a k e u s e o f sb's
[o n e’s ] a b ilitie s in French / m e a s u re sb’s [o n e ’s ] a b ility /
W hat a b ilitie s are n e e d e d [ r e q u ir e d ] for this jo b ? / Y o u
o v e r r a t e [o v e r e s t im a t e ] m y a b ility . /C lothes p o ssess
the a b ility to transform a person’s confidence, / p r o s titu te
one's a b ilitie s / H e has p ro v e d [ p r o v e n ] his a b ility to do
the job . I O nce you have p ro v e d you r a b ility , they may
em ploy you full-tim e, / r a t e student’s a b ilitie s on a .scale o f
10 / A good manager must be able to re c o g n iz e a b ility
when he sees it. / T h is has re d u c e d Europe’s a b ility to
compete. /Som e a b ilitie s are only r e v e a le d under stress. /
s h o w a b ility I s h o w an a b ility to put up w ith d ifficulties I
She s h o w e d considerable a b ility in the interviews, / s h o w
o ff one's a b ility / te s t one's a b ility against another person's /
D on't u n d e rra te [ u n d e re s tim a te ] his a b ility. / H e has
great a b ilitie s, but he doesn't u se them. I U s e your a b ilitie s
to help the poor.
< + ariS): This a b ility is d e c lin in g [d im in is h in g ], / A
ch ild 's verljal a b ility d e v e lo p s [g ro w s , in c re a s e s ]. I Your
a b ility w ill not d e v e lo p unless you practice regularly. /H er
a b ilitie s ofUy e m e rg e d much later. /Y o u r a b ility e x ce e d s
his. / Y o u r a b ility as a painter w ill only g ro w by constant
practice. /T heir a b ilitie s im p ro v e d steadily over the years. /
His a b ility m a n ife s te d itself in high scIkxjI [ at an early
ag e]. /Y o u r a b ility w ill p ro v e iLself.
• « « + > : a c a d e m ic a b ility / a d e q u a te [in a d e ­
q u a te , in s u ffic ie n t] a b ility to do sth [ for a task] / a d m in ­
is tr a tiv e a b ility / a ll- ro tm d a b ility / a r t is t ic [m t is ic a l.
etc. ] a b ility /H e has an a rtis t’s [ a w r it e r ’s , a p o e t’s ,
etc. ] a b ility to express himself, / a t h le t ic a b ility /students
o f a v e ra g e [ less than a v e r a g e , more than a v e ra g e ]
a b ility I A nybody w ith [ o f] a v e ra g e mental a b ility can see
Uiat. I H e shows more than a v e ra g e a b ility in this direc­
tion. / T h e y d on't even have the b a s ic a b ility to read and
w rite, / a man o f b r illia n t a b ility / T h e human body pos­
sesses a b u ilt- in [ an in b u ilt ] a b ility lo rem ove these sub­
stances. /show great b u s in e s s a b ility / H e displays c o n ­
s id e r a b le a b ility as a m usician. / B y c o n s u m m a te a b ility
and force o f character, he has acquired his present position. /
c r e a t iv e a b ility / c r it ic a l a b ility / D o you have d e c is io n ­
m a k in g a b ility '! / S h e has d is t in c t a b ility . / M y a b ility to
achieve this is d o u b tfu l [q u e s t io n a b le ]. / H e doesn't
have e n o u g h a b ility to do the work, /a man o f e x c e p ­
tio n a l a b ility / f in a n c ia l a b ility / H is fim d - ra is in g
a b ilitie s were prodigious. / H is tact and his g e n e ra l a b ility
in so many areas make him an invaluable com panion. /
show g re a t a b ility / A t this stage the baby has a g ro w in g
[ an in c re a s in g ] a b ility to look after itself. /"The team
showed an im p re s s iv e a b ility to recovcr. / in d iv id u a l
a b ility / (a n ) in h e r e n t a b ility / (a n ) in n a te a b ility /pos­
sess la n g u a g e a b ility / (a ) la t e n t a b ility /have le a d e r ­
s h ip a b ilitie s /the le a r n in g a b ilitie s o f children / lin g u is ­
t ic a b ility / (a ) m a rk e d a b ility / H e has a m a rv e lo u s
a b ility to interest readers, / m e n ta l a b ility /possess n a tu r a l

a b le
[ n a t iv e ] a b ility I develop one's n a tu r a l a b ilitie s l i t is
just a n a t u r a l a b ility — like being able to talk, / a man o f
n o [ lit t le ] a b ility / a student o f n o lit t le a b ility / o rg a n iz ­
in g [t e a c h in g , etc. ] a b ilit y / ( in ) o u ts ta n d in g u M iry /
o v e r a ll a b ility [a b ilitie s ] / H e has a p e c u lia r a b ility to
offend people. / H e has p o litic a l [ s o c ia l ] a b ility . / H e
has a p o o r a b ility to remember things. I students o f p o o r
a b ility [a b ilitie s] / (a ) p o te n tia l a b ility / p r a c tic a l a b ility /
It showed p ra is e w o rth y a b ility . /Com puters have a p ro ­
d ig io u s a b ility to store and process inform ation, / p r o fe s ­
s io n a l a b ility [ a b ilitie s ] /show p ro m is in g a b ility / W e
need a person o f p ro v e n a b ility , / a man o f r a r e a b ilitv 1
She has a r a r e a b ility to make people relax. I H e has the
r a r e a b ility o f being able to tell people the truth without
hurting their feelings, /develop one's re a d in g ( s p e a k ­
in g . w r it in g ] a b ility in En glish / S h e has r e a l a b ility , /a
scholar o f re c o g n iz e d a b ility / H e r a b ility to look after her­
self is now very much re d u c e d , / (a ) re m a rk a b le
[ s t r ik in g ] a b ility I The President has shown a truly r e ­
m a rk a b le a b ility to rebound from setbacks. / H e won his
w ay lo an executive chair by s h e e r a b ility , / a man o f
so m e a b ility /m en o f s u b s ta n tia l a b ility / S h e was a sci­
entist o f s u p re m e a b ility, / s u r p r is in g a b ility / S h e has an
u n c a n n y a b ility to know what 1 am thinking, / a scholar o f
u n d o u b te d
/ u n e x c e lle d [u n e q u a le d , u n p a r­
a lle le d ] a b ility / u n iq u e a b ility I She has a u n iq u e a b ili­
ty to be lough without being offensive, /an u n p le a s a n t
a b ility to distort the truth / H is a b ility is tm q u e s tio n e d . /
She had the u n s u s p e c te d a b ility o f being able to speak
S w ah ili, / a test to measure v e r b a l a b ility / W h y do nations
feel com pelled to continually increase their w a r- m a k in g
a b ilitie s';
<i>-iJI!+): 1 have doubts a b o u t your a b ility to do your
job . I I'm unsure a b o u t m y a b ility to attract women, / a c ­
c o rd in g to sb 's a b ility IT h e children are grouped a c c o rd ­
in g to ( th e ir) a b ility . / It is b e y o n d m y a b ility. I It is
probably b e y o n d their a b ilitie s to do anything about this
problem. / H is appointment is d u e to sheer a b ility . /T h ey
arc noted [a d m ire d , feared ] fo r their a b ility to work to­
gether. /These m isconceptions arose fro m his unfortunate
a b ility to deceive him self, /be wanting in a b ility I He is be­
hind the other students in a b ility . I 1 have confidence in
your a b ility ( a b ilitie s ] . I They are unsurpassed in their
a b ility to leam from the past, / a person o f a b ility I H e is a
man o f great a b ility and influence. I He has plenty o f a b ili­
ty. / I f you had an ounce o f a b ility you would have been
promoted. I W hat is their present level o f a b ility^ I He is
proud o f his a b ility to read the new,spap>cr in English. IT h e
country is reaching the limits o f its a b ility to pay its debts. I
W e w ill carry out the job to the best o f our a b ility [ a b ili­
tie s ]. I “ W ill you help u s ? " — “ Y e s ; to the be.st o f my
a b ility . " / T h a n k s to her a b ility , she has risen to a high
position in the com pany, /rise th ro u g h a b ility / H e coped
with the problem w it h a b ility. IT h e y dealt with [h a n d le d ]
the problem w it h a b ility and dispatch.
(+ i> ii9 ) : have considerable a b ility a s a m im ic / (a n )
a b ility a t [ in ] music [ g o lf ] 11 have little a b ility a t lan­
guages [h id in g m y feelings] . I Students who show a b ility
a t a particular subjcct should be given the opportunity to
develop that ab ility. /T he b<xly has a rem arkable a b ility fo r
recovery [ recovering from d am ag e], /o n e's a b ility In mu­
sic / H e has the a b ility o f ID men. I the a b ility o f good w rit­
ing to stir the imagination
(+ to do> : W ith ou t the a b ility to flatter, you w ill not be
successful in business. I The a b ility to remember names is
vital in business. I Y ou have the a b ility to transform this
com pany. I She lacks the a b ility to look at things objective­
ly. I She has the ability- to be happy under any circum ­
stances.
a b la z e
a d j., adv. « J<( W> ¡ * J t (
. W»B< W )
<■'118) ; The wooden house was q u ic k ly ablaze.
< + iM a) ; The house was ablaze w it h lights. IT h e moun­
tainsides are ablaze w ith autumn foliage.
<S f f i ) : T hey set the village ablaze.
a b le
( 1)
-W
<»I1S1> ! He is a m a z in g ly [a s t o n is h in g ly ] able lo cope
with d ifficu lt situations. / It was so heavy that I was b a r e ly

a b lu t io n

L

[ h a r d ly ] able to carry it. /1 was e a s ily [ q u ic k ly ] abU
to find her house. / 1 am not e n t ir e ly [ a lt o g e t h e r ] able
to agree w ith you. /W h e n lie was f in a lly u b lr to speak
again, his voice was a mere whisper. / H e isn’t fin a n c ia l­
ly able to support a fam ily yet. /1 am n o lo n g e r able to
w alk up the stairs. / Y o u are q u ite able to tell the d iffer­
ence between right and wrung. I 1 am q u ite able to take
care o f m yself. / S h e is s t ill able to cook her own meals. /
“ They made no attempt to help me. ’’ — “ I ’m w e ll able to
believe it. " I I ’m b e t t e r able than 1 was to understand w hy
that happens. I She is regarded as the candidate b e s t able to
bring the country together, /be w h o lly able to d o...
<+to d o ) ; I may not be able to get back before tom or­
row . I H e w ill probably be able to see you this evening. I It
was several weeks before 1 was able to accept what had hap­
pened. IU is a luxury for me to be able to stay in bed so
late.

(2 )
: H e is a c o n s iu n m a te ly able teacher. / S h e is an
e x tre m e ly able p olitician. / H e is h ig h ly [ a m a z in g ly ]
able.
<+
: She is obviously [ m an ifestly] able a s an execu­
tive [ a w r ite r ]. / H e is extrem ely able a t [ i n ] his work. I
He is able a t [ i n ] mathematics [acad em ic su b jects], /be
{¡ble w it h people [ one’s hands ]

a b lu tio n

n.

<Stl1*l+): m a k e [p e r f o r m ] one’s a b lutions
< » S « I- € 1*l+> : one’s d a ily a b lutio ns /o ne’s m o rn in g
[ e v e n in g ] a b lutio ns / r it u a l ablution / s a c re d ablution

abnorm al

adj.
<M ia >: be h ig h ly abnormal
<♦ ih iS ) : It is abnormal f o r temperatures to be so high in
mid-Novem ber.

a b n o r m a lit y
n.
< % < a+ ): There is evidence that the treatment m ay c a u s e
abnorm a lities in the em bryo. / A light goes on if the equip­
ment d e te c ts an a hnorm ality. / d e v e lo p an abnorm ality /
The baby h a s no abnorm alities. I People w ho h a v e this
abnorm ality are at slightly greater risk o f developing heart
failure. /These symptoms in d ic a t e abnorm ality in the
functioning o f the system. / S h e has sh o w n no abnorm aliry
in intelligence or behavior.
I M any o f these athletes
s h o w e d cardiac ab nom utlities.
S t lia ): N o such a bnorm alities o c c u rre d in the second
group studied.
: (a n ) a n a to m ic a l abnorm ality / It is un­
clear whether this b e h a v io r a l abnorm ality is due to brain
damage, / (a ) c a r d ia c abnorm ality / (a ) c h ro m o s o m e
[c h r o m o s o m a l] abnorm ality / (a ) c o n g e n i t a l abnorm al­
iry I Not all o f these abnorm alities are c o n g e n ita l, / (a )
d is tre s s in g abnorm ality / (a n ) e m o tio n a l ahnorm a lity /
(a ) fa m ily abnorm ality / (a ) h e r e d ita r y [ (a n ) in h e r it ­
e d ] abnorm ality / (a ) h o rm o n a l abnorm ality /T h e abnor­
m a litie s in the alloy were im p e rc e p tib le to the naked eye. /
(a ) m a rk e d abnorm ality / (a ) m e ta b o lic [ n e u ro lo g i­
c a l, ctc. ] abnorm ality / a m in o r abnorm aliry / ( a ) n o ­
tic e a b le abnorm ality / M a n y patients here have s e v e re
p h y s ic a l or m e n ta l abnorm alities.
<♦ ^ i a ) : an abnorm aliry in the functioning o f the circula­
tory system I There is no abnorm ality in the fetus. I H is
heart murmur is due to an abnorm ality in the structure o f
his heart. I A n y abnorm ality in the functioning o f the en­
gine w ould be disastrous, /an abnorm ality o f the circulato­
ry system I A b norm a litie s o f the kidney are a common result
o f exposure to this substance. I T h is result ijidicates at least
some abnorm ality o f fuiK tiun.
a b o a rd
adv., prep. (t)!ft( sR ta.
I. : I.H iK s S E T ita .
‘l- ) ; « № i i l : i E ( * K
J:
< » ] ia ) : A ll aboard', / c lo s e [ h a r d ] aboard
<
) : 2.S0 pas.sengers were aboard the plane. I H e came
aboard up the gangplank. I com e [ g o ] aboard I come
[ go ] aboard ship I 50 officers and crew were aboard. I
W hen are you com ing [g o in g ] aboard the ship? I Ten extra
seamen were put [ brought, taken ] aboard at Liverp o o l. 11
haven’t yet fu lly taken aboard what has happened. I W e l­
come aboard \

^

a b o r tio n

abode
n.
<i(!i18+): They e s ta b lis h e d their abode here. / H e h a s
no fixed abode, / m a k e one’s abode somewhere /M arriage
is not sim ply a question o f s h a rin g the same abode. /H e
tfx ik ( u p ) his abode for the summer in a hut high in the
mountains. I She believes that the souls o f her dead rela­
tions have ta k e n u p their abode in those parrots. I Stronti­
um enters the biological chain and in tim e ta k e s u p its
abode in the human body.
< » # « • 4 « + ) : an a b a n d o n e d abode / a d e s o la te
abode /an [ one’s ] e te r n a l abode / It is hardly a t it abode
fo r a person o f her importance, / a person o f no fix e d
[ p e r m a n e n t] abode /a [ one’s ] lo n e ly abode / a lu x u ­
rio u s abode / H e is satisfied w ith his n e w abode, / a
p le a s a n t abode / a s h e lte re d abode
<^1Q+>: have no suitable place o f abode I O ne John
S m ith , o f no fixed abode, was charged w ith burglary. I the
right o f abode I have [ gain ] the right o f abode in a country
<■*■^UQ> ; H is abode a t the monastery was sim ple, /o ne’s
abode in the suburbs /an abode o f sw allow s 1 a pleasant
w o o d , the abode o f many tieautlful birds

a b o lish

V. 0 E jh ;« ;IS i
( W W I ) : T h ey hoped to a b olish private property a lto ­
g e th e r [c o m p le t e ly ]. / R a c ia l discrim ination has not yet
been e n t ir e ly [ t o ta lly ] abolished. /T h e system has
stopped functioning but has not yet been fo r m a lly abol­
ished. /a b o lish capital punishment o n c e ( a n d ) fo r a ll /
In the U S slavery was p e rm a n e n tly [ f o r e v e r ] aboli.\hed
in 186.S.
<+ ^ i J I ) : Can injustice be abolished fro m the face o f the
earth? / W h e n was the practice o f flogging abolished in
B rita in ? /C orporal punishment in schools has been abol­
ished th ro u g h o u t Britain.

a b o li t io n
n.
<ih«l+> : The proposals c a lle d fo r the abolition o f nuclear
weapons by the year 2tX)0 / s e e k [ u r g e ] the abolition o f...
O R « » •*«!+ > : W e seek the c o m p le te a b olitio n o f nu­
clear weapons, / fo rm a l a b olitio n / g r a d u a l a b olitio n /
im m e d ia te a b o litio n / p a r t ia l ab olition / t o ta l a b olitio n /
u ltim a te [ e v e n tu a l ] abolition / u n iv e r s a l ab olition
<iM*I+>: lobbyists working fo r [ t o w a r d ] the abolition
o f federal regulation o f... I lobby fo r the a b o litio n o f federal
control o n ... /certain l^ k e a n ideas that led [ contributed ]
to the a b olitio n o f slaveiy
< + í^i< l): a b olitio n o f unjust privileges t ab olition o f nu­
clear weapons I ( th e ) abolition o f the slave trade IT h e ab­
o litio n [ A b o litio n ] o f the m etropolitan county councils in
I^ n d o n was strongly opposed.

a b o m in a b le

adj.
The weather was a b s o lu te ly abominable. Ia n
a b s o lu te ly abominable road [m e a l]
It was abominable o f him to say that. / A n y
food that savors o f onions is abominable to him .

a b o m in a tio n

n.
(S (jifl+ ) : T he dog c o m m itte d an abomination on the
kitchen floor. / S h e h a s an abomination for bad manners.
: a g ro ss abomination / a h id e o u s abom­
ina tion / a m o n s tro u s abomination /an u t t e r abomination
< ii‘WI+> : They hold pork in abomination, /regard smok­
ing w it h abomination
< + iH * l): He has an abomination fo r im precise w riting. /
H e com m itteil the abomirmrion o f insulting his mother. /
L y in g lips are abomination to [ u n to ] the Ix>rd. I H e told
me that I was an abomination to the L o rd , and I would
bum in hell. I Open expressions o f sentiment are an abomi­
nation to him.
<J t t t ) : H is speech [T h e m e al] was an abomination.

abort

V.

:* ) « [ : + J t

<M id 1 ) ; A n unviabic fetus is usually s p o n ta n e o u s ly
aborted.
< + ii-«I) : The project aborted w ith o u t accon^lishm ent. /
The reconnaissance patrol aborted fro m its m ission behind
etiem y lines.
a b o r t io n
n.
<*(liai+>: A bortion is a llo w e d [p e r m it t e d ] in ca.ses o f

abound

a b sen ce

rape or incest, /attem pts to b a n [ o u t la w ] abortion on de­
mand / V io le m exercise m ay b rin g o n an abortion. /W h at
c a u s e d her abortion'? I factors that c a u s e d abortion o f the
(s p a c e ) m ission / A 1973 decision established a wom an’s
right to ch o o s e abortion. / M a n y priests secretly co n d o n e
contraception but not abortion. /A ttem pts to c o n tro l
[ r e g u la t e ] abortion have often been counterproductive. /
Doctors here are nw allow ed to d o [ p e rfo rm ] abonions. /
A 14-year old g irl who had been raped was d e n ie d an
abortion, / g e t an abortion /T h e doctor, who was a Catho­
lic , refused to g iv e her an abortion. /T h e doctor persuaded
her to [n o t to ] h a v e an abortion, / in d u c e (a n ) abortion
(a rtific ia lly ) / le g a liz e abortion / o p p o s e abortion / p e r ­
fo rm (a n ) abortion on m edical grounds / W e were unable
to p r e v e n t abortion o f the project. /W om en s e e k in g
a bortions often have to leave the country secretly, / u n d e r ­
g o an abortion
< + SO ia): A bortion is in c re a s in g [ d e c r e a s in g ] in this
country,
O K S W - iif f l+ ) : a c a re le s s [a n u n s a n ita ry ] abortion /
an e a r ly abortion /an Ille g a l abortion \A bortion is not i l ­
le g a l [ c r im in a l] in this country, / (a n ) in d u c e d abor­
tion /A b o rtio n is le g a l here, / a p re m a tu re abortion /a
s e c o n d - trim e s te r abortion / S p o n ta n e o u s abortion o f­
ten occurs in the ease o f an abnormal fetus.
< ^ ia i+ )! Catholics are a g a in s t abortion. I legislation
a g a in s t abortion /24 weeks is the legal lim it fo r abortion
here. / H e doesn’t approve o f abortion, /the right to a bor­
tion
<+ i f i S ) ; the abortion o f a developm ent project /a b o rtion
o n demand

abound

V.

<+ it 'K I) : T his garden abounds in flowers. I T he district
abounds in natural resources. I Such eases abound in m ili­
tary history. I 'llie stream abounds in fish. = Fish abound
in Ihe stream. / W e fed the swans that abound o n the river. /
The ship abounds w it h rats. I The Decameron abounds
w it h good stories.

about

II b e - t o

adj.

<+ to d o ) : The pciform ance is about to begin. 11 was just
about to call you. I I knew that something strange was
about lo happen.
T here’s a rum or about that they’re getting
divorced.

a b o u t-fa ce ,

<%)

ab ou t-tu rn

n.

< ^ iQ + ); He d id [ m a d e ] an about-face on his earlier
stand. I He d id [ m a d e ] an abrupt about-face and left the
room.
: She did a c o m p le te about-face and
took the opposite position.
<+í^i*I>: H e made [d id ] an about-turn o n the issue.

a b r a sio n

n.
<S)ilffl+): c a u s e (a n ) abrasion / W o o l re s is ts abrasion
poorly, / s u ffe r an abrasion
ia + ) : suffer m in o r cuts and a b ra sions / a
slig h t abrasion
< il'ia + ) ; It is coated with a resin lo protect it from abra­
sio n . /T h e moisture reduces resi.stance to abrasion.
( + ^ i a ) : an abrasion o f the skin i abrasion o f the skin I
abrasion o f rock surfaces by glaciers / T h is m ay produce a
scratch or abrasion o n the surface o f the retina.

abreast

adv.

|| get ( sS keep, stay) - o f ( f« )

T
I'hey marched in a colum n tw e n ty m e n
abreast. /T h e students walked tw o and th r e e abreast.
<+i>Wl>: get abreast o f what is happening in p olitics I
keep [ stay ] abreast o f progress [ developm ents ] in one’s
field

a b r id g e

v. liiS s flS Ja iW i'J- ':» !* * !
< W iS 1 ) : a c o n s id e ra b ly [ s o m e w h a t ] abridged ver­
sion /T h e schedule w ill have to be r u th le s s ly abridged to
fit the available time. /T h e president's powers to wage war
were s e v e re ly [s h a r p ly ] abridged by the new legislation.

W e w ill have to abridge Ihe lecture b y thirty
minutes or so. / T h e original film has been abridged for
T V . / T h is version is abridged from the original work. /
T he ballet was abridged to h a lf its original length.
a b r id g e m e n t
n. ) v iS :l^ '^ i(t x ii)^ W )B i$ 1
<Sfjii) +>; m a k e an abridgement o f a literary work
<+^i*l> : an abridgement ( o f M a lo ry’s K in g A rth u r) for
children L fo r radio j I abridgement o f one’s powers
[ rights]
a b ro a d
/1., adv.
í5l>HIR¡<l;l.lí^’l'
< ^ i* l+ ): letters for [ f r o m ] abroad / a student from
abroad Ia watch imported from abroad I after one’s return
from abroad I baleful intellectual infiuences from abroad I
pressure from abroad for changes in the law I Cocaine
comes in from abroad.
< + ^ ia ): Terrorists are abroad in our cities. I travel
abroad in Europe [ on the Continent ]
a b r o g a t io n
n. (SB í . í í r í i i
( rh e) nhroga'ion o f 'á Irc'My I ( th e ) abrogation
o f a lease I Further nuclear testing would require abrogation
o f the A B M treaty.
ab sco n d
I’, « a s
( I ' J i n i ) : She m y sterio u sly absconded beneath their
very noses. / T h e cashier s u d d e n ly absconded from the
bank.
< + ^ ia ): abscond from the U S to M exico I abscond
from one’s creditors / H e absconded w ith her money.
ab sence

n.

1< was illness that c a u s e d her absence. / Y o u r
absence is e x c u s e d . /1 felt her absence deeply. /1 hardly
n o tic e his absence any longer. I Its absence w ill never be
n o tic e d . / W e r eg re t [T h e y l a m e n te d ] the absence o f
copying facilities, / t a k e a d v a n ta g e o f sb’s absence ( to
do sth )
<+
: H is absence w ill c a u s e little grief. {Absence o f
adequate m edical care has c a u s e d [ le d to ] an increased
death rate. /Absence m a k e s the heart grow fonder. / H is
absence m e a n s we all must work harder. / H e r absence has
th row n the schedule out
<
• S ia + ): There was a c o m p le te absence o f infor­
mation as to how the child met his death. I it shows a co m ­
p le t e absence o f logic, /a c o n s p ic u o u s absence / H e met
another wom an on one o f his e x t e n d e d absences from
home, /o n e’s fr e q u e n t ahsenceis) from work / i n f r e ­
q u e n t absence(s) /In t e r m itt e n t absence(s) /T h e w ives
o f sailors must be content with short meetings between lo n g
absences. I It was wonderful to smell the sea air after such a
lo n g absence from San Francisco. I She grew lonely during
his lo n g absences, / a m a rk ed absence o f good-w ill / o c c a s io n a l a M e » c e (s ) / (a ) p ro lo n g ed [ p r o t r a c t e d ] ab­
sence /return to one’s biithplace after a s e v e n -y e a r [ after
s e v e n y e a r s’ ] absence /return after a sh o rt absence /d u r­
ing a tem p o ra r y absence from one’s office / (a ) to ta l ab­
sence o f common sense I in Ihe t o ta l absence o f anybody
from the other side, negotiations were postponed, / (a n )
tm accoun tab le absence /Their absence was u naccoim tedfor. /in the unavoidable absence, owing to illness, o f... /
u n e x p la in e d absence / There was an u tter absence o f
honesty in what he said.
< íl-iá)+ ): A fte r an absence o f tw enty m inutes, he re­
turned. I She decided to return to teaching a f te r an 8-year
absence. I Champagne was conspicuous b y its absence. 1
T he F*rime M in ister’s husband was conspicuous b y his ab­
sence. /T h e stale was in confusion d u e to Ihe absence o f a
viable governm ent, / d u r in g the iifew ncf o f .. I W h o looks
after the children d u rin g your absence“; / A good many o f
Ihc degrees were conferred in the absence o f the recipients. I
D id anybody telephone in my absence"; I In m y absence,
the day-to-day running o f the department was in his hands. I
In the absence o f the president, the vice-president occupicd
the chair. I Speak no ill o f people in their ab.sence. I In the
absence o f proof 10 the contrary it cannot be refuted. I In
the absence o f accurate data, these discussions are meaning­
less. /ask for [ be granted ] leave o f absence I a report of
absence / o w i n g to one’s absence ( from school [ w o rk, the

A
=

' ab sen t

a b s te m io u s

m eeting] )
<+i> «l> : absence d u e to illness / a leacher’s absence
fro m class [ A h se n c e is) fro m class m ay result in expul­
sion. \absence fro m school I Business made frequent ab­
sence fro m home unavoidable. /Absence o f sludenLs fro m
cla.'is is not acceptablc. I an absence o f six years I absence
o f vu lg arity I a com plete absence o f order I H is absence o f
mind is proverbial. I She attributed his lapse to absence o f
mind. I The com plete absence o f sound was frightening. I
There was a total absence o f prejudice towards outsiders. I
The absence o f advertisem ents on the w alls is very sooth­
ing. /due to (o n e ’s ) absence o n business /absence w ith
[ w it h o u t ] perm ission /absence w ith o u t notice [ due t>otificatio n ]
<JK lfe ): Business made m y absence necessary.
'a b s e n t
V.
< + iH a ): I absented m yself fo r a few hours [ the after­
noon] /absent oneself fro m school t a m eeting]
<+ - s clf> : He
him self from school [w o r k ] yes­
terday.
^ ab sen t
adj.
(■ I'm )! I was only absent a m in u te o r tw o , /Sound is
c o m p le te ly absent. / Jo y is c o n s p ic u o u s ly absent from
her life , /be fr e q u e n t ly absent / H o w lo n g were you absenf? /be p u rp o s e ly absent /be r e p e a te d ly absent / D e c ­
oration is t o t a lly [ e n t ir e ly ] absent from the house, /be
u n a v o id a b ly absent / T h e directions are [H e is ] unexp la in a b ly absent, /be u n fo r t u n a t e ly absent /C h airs are
u s u a lly absent in traditional Japane.se houses, /be v o lu n ­
t a r ily absent
<+i)-i*l>: be absent a t ro ll ca ll / A t times he was absent
fo r a couple o f days. 11 was absent f o r the whole day. /
He was absent fro m church. I H ow long were you absent
fro m the house? I H e was absent fro m work without per­
mission. I H is name was absent fro m the list. I That infor­
mation is absent fro m the file . I Such intentions were en­
tirely absent fro m m y thoughts, /be absent o n business I
be absent o n vacation /be absent w ith o u t leave
a b s e n t e e is m
n. ir.7 ;:iV i*
<g(jia+) : T his tends to in c re a s e [ r e d u c e ] absenteeism.
< + id ilI): Absenteeism in c re a s e s [g o e s u p ] in such cir­
cumstances. / W e arc hoping that absenteeism w ill d e c lin e
[g o d o w n ].
< )K S ia - S y |l+ ) : c h r o n ic absenteeism / m a s s absentee­
ism
<íí■isI-^): increasing rates o f absenteeism la m ajor cause
o f absenteeism
< + iM S ): absenteeism fro m work [ fro m the shop flo o r]
a b s o lu t io n
n. ( ¡ E j C W ) S : . « ' , . « i i l : ( M
M ) « » ! ( « a W W lA W W S f f i'M ) aw <g()W+>: g iv e [ g r a n t ] absolution ( to a sin n er) /T h e
Pope g ra n te d him absolution, / o b ta in absolution /T h e
priest p ro n o u n c e d ab solution. / S h e r e c e iv e d absolution
from [ at the hands o f] posterity, / s e e k absolution
: (a ) b lis s fu l absolution / (a ) ju s t abso­
lu tio n / (a ) d m e ly ab.solution
! receive absolution fro m [ o f ] one’s sins
a b s o lv e

v. W SM i--M if

Ktil
<®l 1*1 1 > : H e was ( not ) e n t ir e ly absolved from
blam e, / p a r t ly absolve sb
< + iM fl): absolve sb fro m [ o f ] blam e IT h e report ab­
so lve s him fro m all responsibility for the accident. I The
court absolved me fro m [ o f ] all charges, /be absolved o f
all blam e for an accident I absolve sb o f his sins 11 absolve
you o f your sins.
a b s o rb

«;

V.

. -S® :» .'S :

—« i i * : * * ! » . * » : - »

< W » 1 > : He is c o m p le te ly absorbed in his thoughts. /
T he chem ical has not been c o m p le te ly absorbed. /Sh e
was d e e p ly absorbed in a detective story. / H e is e a g e r ly
absorbed in trying to solve the m ystery. /T h e m arket w ill
e a s ily [ r e a d il y ] absorb an increase in prtxiuction. / M in ­
erals and vitam ins are not alw ays f iU ly absorbed. 11 hadn’t
yet f u lly absorbed what this w ould mean. /T h e fluid is

absorbed g r a d u a lly [ r a p i d l y ] . /1 haven’t r e a lly ab­
sorbed Ihe shock yet. /Sh e s lo w ly absorbed this allega­
tion. /Sh e was th o ro u g h ly absorbed by m y account. / H e
was to o absorbed in his work to speak to me. /T h e ch il­
dren were t o ta lly absorbed. / M u sic u t t e r ly absorbs
her. / It doesn’t absorb water w e ll.
< + iM < I): The com pany wa.s absorbed b y a com petitor. /
absorb moisture fro m [o u t o f ] the air I Plants absorb en­
ergy fro m the sun. /Sh e is absorbed in her studies. I I ’m
getting [ becom ing, growing ] increasingly absorbed in this
re.search. I He was so absorbed in [ w i t h ] watching televi­
sion that he didn’t hear the door open. I be absorbed in
thought I be absorbed in one’s own thoughts. / The research
fa cility has been absorbed in to a new ly form ed depart­
ment. I A djacent districts were absorbed in to the city. I
A fter a few generations, they were absorbed in to the gen­
eral population. I These chem icals can be absorbed in to Ihe
body through the skin.
a b s o rb e n t
adj. « s i& m .- fiiK iftijM
: H h ig h ly nhsnrhent substance
a b s o r b in g
adj.
<l>JtiQ>: He gave a m o st absorbing account o f his adven­
tures. / a th o ro u g h ly absorbing story /1 found the work
u t t e r ly absorbing, / a v e r y [a n e x tr e m e ly , a d e e p ly ]
absorbing novel
It's an S F no vel, absorbing fo r [ t o ] (b o th )
young and old.
a b s o r p t io n
n,
V 'll'
< g t)^ + ): Cellulose can b lo c k zinc absorption, / e n ­
h a n c e [ im p ro v e ] absorption / It has gas~filled cells to
im p ro v e shock absorption. /These substances re d u c e the
absorption o f fat. / It tends to s p e e d u p [ s lo w d o w n ] fat
absorption.
< + ^ 18]>: A bsorption im p ro v e s [d e t e r io r a t e s , s lo w s
d o w n ] with time.
: c a lc iu m [ i r o n , m in e r a l. V ita m in
B ] a b w rp tio n / c o m p le te [ p a r t ia l] absorption I C o m ­
p le te [ The c o m p le te ] absorption o f light makes an ob­
ject appear black. /H e r absorption wa.s too d e e p to be dis­
turbed. / F o o d absorption takes place in the digestive sys­
tem. / g o o d [p o o r ] absorption o f iron / in f r a r e d absorp­
tion / in te s tin a l absorption o f calcium / s h o c k absorption /
He sat in s ile n t absorption / s k in absorption / H o w thoro u g h is the absorption of the liq u id ? /1 was impressed by
her to ta l absorption in her work. I to ta l [ p a r t ia l ] ab­
so rp tio n o f a substance / u t t e r absorption in a book
: He coniinued his work in [ w i t h ] utter absorptio n. /the process o f absorption
< + í^ w l): the absorptk>n b y students o f the lexical and
grammatical elements o f English /absoquion in one’s woilc I
a b w rp tio n in g o lf /absorption o f nutrients I absorption o f a
substance in to the body I absorption o f D D T th ro u g h the
skin I Sugar sometimes interferes with absorption o f fluid
fro m the stomach. I ( the) absorption o f water b y [ in t o ]
the eartli [ ground, s o il] I the atmosphere’s absorption o f
radiation from space \absorption o f the counterculture in to
the mainstream I Russia's absorption o f the B a ltic States I
(t h e ) absorption o f famisteads b y banks I (t h e ) absorp­
tion o f Texas in to the Union
a b s t a in
V.
< H i f l I ) : He c a r e fu lly abstained from comment. /
fir m ly abstain from smoking /1 abstained s c ru p u lo u s ly
[r e lig io u s ly ] from open criticism , / t o ta lly abstain from
drinking
abstain fro m alcohol [f is h , m eat, tobacco,
se x ] \abstain fro m luxuries \abstain fro m working on Ihe
Sabbath I Fo r religious reasons he abstains fro m eating
meat on F rid a y (s ). 11 abstained ( fro m vo tin g ) . /1 chose
to abstain o n that vote.
a b s t e m io u s
adj.
< » lia ) : Sin ce iny illness, I have grown e x tre m e ly ab­
stem ious.
< + <fia) : I have to be rather abstemious a b o u t alcohol. /
There is no need to be .so abstemious w ith the w h isky;
there is plenty more in the cellar.

a b s t e n t io n
a b s te n tio n

n.
<?dW+>: Abstentions w ill be c o u n te d as votes against
[ in favor o f] the proposal. / N o abstentions arc p e r m itte d
[ a l l o w e d ] . / M y follow ers u rg ed abstention, but I
thought it my duty to vote.
<.*
; Abstentions don’t c o u n t.
/A b ste ntio ns in
yesterday’s vote n u m b e re d [ t o t a lle d ] upward o f 2 0 ^ .
< )K # i*l- ® iS I+ > ; to ta l [ p a r t i a l ] abstention from the
proceedings o f the legislature I T hey require to ta l absten
lio n fixjm sex [ alcohol ].
<i M a * ) : The b ill passed 140 to 2 8 , w ith 34 abstentions.
( . * - f t ■. abstention from vices such a.s drinking and
smoking /T h e number o f abstentions in yesterday’s election
was the highest in m em ory. /A bstention o f an increasing
number o f young people from exercising their vote is caus­
ing concern. /T h e party opted for abstention on the vote.

a b s tin e n c e

n. «8!;!
: N o govcm m eni has ever successfully e n fo rc e d
abstinence from alcohol, / p r a c t i c e abstinence
< + S ii* I): H o w long did this o bstinenie la s t [ c o n t in ­
u e ]?
< )KB1*l-i5W l+ > : a b s o lu t e [ c o m p l e t e ] abstinence /
C o m p le te [ T o t a l ] abstinence from alcohol is im possible
fo r me. /C ircu m stan ces e n f o r c e d m y abstinence from
drink, / f ir m abstinence / r e l i g i o u s abstinence / s e l f ­
e n fo r c e d abstinence / s e x u a l abstinence / s t r i c t a b sti­
nence /t e m p o r a r y abstinence / t o t a l abstinence from alco­
hol
<
; a pcritxl o f abstinence I A fter a month o f a b sti­
nence I felt much better.
: abstinence from meal [ tobacco, sex, etc. ] I
abstinence from unnecessary luxuries [co m fo rts] 1(a) pro­
tracted abstinence from soap and water

'a b str a c t

«.

: Philosophers d e a l In abstracts. / A n abstract o f
his speech was m a d e [ d is t r ib u t e d to the a u d ie n cc]. /
Abstracts o f the papcis w ill be p u b lis h e d in advancc. /1
r ea d the abstract in ihe Jo u rn a l o f p hysiolog y. /Please
su b m it an abstract by 22nd October.
: a c o n c is e [ s u c c i n c t ] abstract /a s c i­
e n t ific [ m e d i c a l , etc. ] abstract
: consider a subject in the abstract 1speak in the
abstract I R ig id precepts. how ever sound in the abstract,
are alw ays dangerous in real life.
: an abstract b y Picasso /an abstract o f a scien­
tific paper Ian abstract o f an o fficial report [ a congression­
al hearing] IT h e advertising agency m ails out m onthly ahstra c ts o f its accounts.

^ a b str a c t

V.

abstract alum inum from bauxite \ abstract a
w allet from sb’s pocket I Students have to leam how to ab­
stra ct inform ation from articles. I abstract a theory from
observed phenomena
< + - s e l f ) : abstract oneself from one’s surroundings

^ a b str a c t

adj.
( I 'J i f l ) : h ig h ly [ e x t r e m e ly ] abstract / a s e v e r e ly
[ r ig o ro u s ly ] abstract representation o f reality
<+ ^ ia > : H is thought is [ lectures a re ] abstract in the ex­
treme,

a b stra cted

adj.
<I'11SI>: He wa.s d e e p ly abstracted in thought,
looked to ta lly [ u t t e r l y ] abstracted.

a b str a c tio n

/Sh e

«.

< ® # i*l- € W l+ > : m a th e m a tic a l abstraction la m a th e ­
m a tic a l abstraction / The notion o f an expanding universe
is a m e a n in g le s s abstraction to most o f us, / a m ere
abstraction
<i>-ia+> : be lost in abstraction
( + ^ a i ) : the abstraction o f hydrogen from water \ Ihe
abstraction o f a theory from observed phenomena

absurd

adj.
<W « l> : a fa n ta s tic a lly absurd idea / A fa t, middle-aged
man dres.sed in a bonnet and diapers is a g r o t e s q u e ly ab­
su rd sight,
/ h i g h l y absurd / “ He thinks she's the

thief. “ — “ H o w a b surd V ' / T h e idea that one might defend
o ne's country by waging nuclear w ar is in h e r e n t ly ahsu rd . /I-aith is belief in the m a n ife s tly absurd [ in m an!fe s tly absurd suppositions]. / It is p a t e n t ly [p a lp a b ly ]
absurd to believe such things. / It is p e r f e c t ly [ s im p ly ]
a bsurd to suggest th at.... / Y o u r claim is q u ite [c o m ­
p le t e ly , t o t a lly , u t t e r ly ] absurd. /H um an life is u lt i­
m a te ly absurd.
<+
: It is absurd o f you to suggest that. /T h e whole
idea is absurd to the last degree.
: I know it sounds [ looks, seem s] a b surd , but. ..
a b s u r d it y
n.
(i<il*|+> : d e c la r e the a bsurdity o f,,, / p r o n o u n c e [ u t­
t e r ] an ab surd ity
a man who believes in monsters under
beds and other c h ild is h a b surd ities / a g la r in g a b surd ity /
a g ro te sq u e absurdity / (a ) m a n ife s t ab.surdity / (a ) p a lp a ­
b le absurdity / a p a te n t a b surd ity / (a ) r a n k ab surd ity /
s h e e r [ to ta l ] a b surd ity
< ^ Ü 0 ») : It is the heighl o f a b surd ity to say such things I
H e repeated him self to the point o f a bsurd ity. / T h is state­
ment reduces his argument to absurd ity.
(+ ifi*l> : Ihe absurd ity [a b su rd itie s] o f life Ithe a b surd i­
ty o f war I I ’m not sure that you are aware o f the ab surd ity
o f the situation,

a b tm d a n ce

n. AWs+TS: « « J iS r «

<?IJiSI+>: A n abundance o f insiances is c ite d . /M ex ico
h a s an abundance o f com fortable, cheap hotels. 1 T his
country h a s an abundance o f cultural assets. / S h e m a d e
[p r o v id e d ] an abundance o f food for us all. / A n abun­
dance o f sunlight was s e c u re d by introducing skylights. /
O ur apple tree y ie ld e d an abundance o f fruit this autumn.
: There N^-as food in co p io u s abundance. /
There is (a ) g re a t abundance o f.... / in im m e n s e
abundance / in la v is h abundance / m a t e r ia l abundance
: They have food [m o n e y ] in abundance. I The
tree yielded peach&s in abundance by the tenth year. I Coal
is found in abundance here. (T h is pottery occurs in abun­
dance on these mediaeval sites, / a year o f abundance /T h is
nation has been blessed w ith abundance. I N ew En g lan d .
w ith its abundance o f colleges and universities, is a good
place to study. I The point is illustrated w ith an abundance
o f apt examples.
: Abundance in m ineral resources does not neces­
sarily lead to m aterial abundance fo r the people o f a coun­
try. / W e have an abundance o f food [w e a lth , le isu re ].

a b im d a n t

adj.
<■']«!>: T hey are e x tre m e ly abundant on the east coast
o f N orth Am erica, / e n o rm o u s ly [ im m e a s u r a b ly , etc, ]
abundant /Sup p lies arc f a ir ly abundant, / in c r e d ib ly
abundatu / a m a rv e lo u s ly [ w o n d e r fu lly ] abundant land /
p ro fu s e ly abundant supplies o f water / u n u s u a lly abun­
dant
(+ ^ iS )> : The country is abundant in natural resources
[m in e ra ls, human resources, etc, ] , I T he forest is abun­
dant in insect life,

'a b u se

n, ( 1 ) » « If.« « :!« .!)

O liJll- f) : The new Adm inistration is determined to a tta c k
these abuses aggressively, / c h e c k abuses / It w ill take time
to c o r r e c t these abuses [ p u t these abuses r ig h t ], / W h o
is going to d e a l w it h these abuses if we do not? / e r a d i­
c a te abuses / e x p o s e [ re v e a l ] social abuses / g e t r id o f
abuses /C an anything be done to p r e v e n t these a b uses’. /
re fo rm abuses / ro o t u p abuses / W e w ill t a c k le these
abuses as soon as we take over the governm ent, / to le r a te
abuses
<+SI)ia> : Such political abuses p r e v a il in this country.
(i(íS i« l- ííi9 + > : an a la rm in g [ w o r r y in g ] abuse / c iv ­
ic abu.ses / d e e p - ro o te d abuses / e le c t io n abuses / E v e n
f la g r a n t abuses go unchecked in many districts, / a g la r ­
in g abuse / a g ro ss abuse /an in t o le r a b le abuse / a lo n g ­
s ta n d in g abuse /A b uses are r if e , / a s c a n d a lo u s abuse /
a s h a m e fu l abuse /reform s o c ia l abuses /an u n fo r g iv a ­
b le abuse / w id e - s p re a d a b u sé is)
< í I ‘iíl+> : w ink a t abuses /T here is little we can do lo pro­
tect ourselves fro m such abuses, /close o ne's eyes to

^
^
=

‘ab u se

a c c e le r a t o r

abuses I W ashington has turned a blind eye to these abuses
for too long. (T h is system leads to terrible a b u se (s).
: abuses in the govem m enl

( 2)
<S(pia+> : H e g a v e Ihe book a good deal o f abuse in his
review , / h e a p abuse on somebody [o n somebody’s head] /
h u r l abuse a t... / H e walked o ff, m u tte rin g [s h o u t in g ]
abuse, / s h r ie k [ s c re a m , y e l l ] ahu.se at sb /1 am not
going to t a k e any more abuse from you.
<+g()ta>: A ll Ihe abuse d e s c e n d e d [ la n d e d ] on me. /
The abuse fo u n d [ m is s e d ] its target. / T h e abuse w e n t
ho m e .
< JK S iS l'^ i» l+ ): fo u l abuse /C riticism I w ill accep t, but
not g ra tu ito u s [ p e rs o n a l ] abuse, / ill- n a tu r e d abuse /
tm k in d abuse / a torrent o f u n p r in ta b le abuse / v e r b a l
abuse / v ic io u s abuse
<í^^*)+> : a word [ a term , an expression] o f abuse I " Id i ­
o t’* is a com m on word o f abuse. I a torrcnl o f abuse I A
hail [ storm , etc. ] o f abuse follow ed. I He turned me out
w ith a stream o f abuse, /rew ard kindness w ith abuse I M y
suggestion met w it h abuse.

(3)
< S!)1S+ ): T he regim e continues to c o m m it human rights
abuses. / W e firm ly c o n d e m n these abuses o f basic human
freedoms. / W e are m o n ito rin g human rights abuses in the
area, / p r e v e n t the abuse o f pow er /1 have s u ffe re d men­
tal and physical abuse from m y husband for years. /T h e
w heels have to ta k e a lot o f abuse from the bad roads here.
; a lc o h o l and d ru g abuse / c h ild abuse /
Germ an cars hold up under a great deal o f d r iv e r abuse. /
d ru g abuse / a fo u l abuse o f one’s privileges / It is a g ro ss
abuse o f authority, / h u m a n rig h ts abuses / in h u m a n
abuse o f children / n a r c o tic s [ c o c a in e , etc. j abuse / A ll
p h y s ic a l abuse o f children produces feelings o f violence in
the child, / p s y c h o lo g ic a l and physical abuse o f chlltiren /
s e x u a l abu.se o f children / a s h a m e fu l abuse /subm it sb to
v ic io tis abuse
<i>ia+> : W e mu.st guard a g a in s t abuse o f the procedure. /
a victim o f physical abuse I T h e parents are guilty o f gross
neglect, abuse and cruelty. /T h e country cannot, w ith o u t
abuse o f the term , be de.scribed as a dem ocracy.
< + il"ia ): abuses b y the police /abuse o f one’s bixly I 1
resent his abuse o f our trust in him . I Hlectioneering is an
abuse o f his precious gifts [ his ta le n ts]. I (a n ) abuse o f
power [ au tho rity, p rivilege ] I abuse o f alcohol and other
drugs I Few fans knew about her abuse o f her daughter.

^ a b u se

V’. « m ( i» '.« ^ ) •Xini-.’if »S.Sv«:!«?*

( W ia I > : The books have been b a d ly abused and many
o f them are beyond repair, / f o u lly [ c r u e l ly ] abuse sb /
g ro s s ly abuse one’s o ffice I The law has been g ro s s ly
abused. / T h e phrase has been m u c h abused. / W e re you
p h y s ic a lly abused'! /abuse sb r o u n d ly /abuse sb se x u ­
a lly /T he exemption clause has been th o ro u g h ly abused. /
abuse sb v e r b a lly
: T he police were roundly abused fo r not having
solved the crim e.

a b u siv e

adj. i*l
< *lia> : M y husband is sometimes e x tre m e ly [ h ig h ly ]
abusive, / p h y s ic a lly [ v e r b a lly ] abusive / H is language
was v ic io u s ly [ c r u e lly ] abusive, /be w illf u lly abusive
<+it-iSl> : D on't be abusive a b o u t h im ./H e was reprimand­
ed by the judge for being abusive in court [ to w a rd s the w it­
n e ss]./ Sh e was extremely abusive to [ to w a rd s ] me.

abut
V. i M S . it t - » . « »
(♦ iV iil) : O ur garage abuts o n o ur house. I T h e building
abuts o n [ u p o n ] the road. I H is land abuts o n m ine. I the
streets abutting o n the park
ab u zz
adj.
W ,
<Min> : be a b s o lu te ly abuzz w ith rum or /T h e o ffice was
a ll abuzz w ith the news.
W a ll Street was abuzz o v e r the buyout. /T h e
university was abuzz w ith rumors o f his dismis.sal. I The
news m edia are abuzz w it h s illy rumors about it.

abyss

n.

(S(jia+ > : T h is sim ply d e e p e n e d Ihe abyss between the

tw o sides.
<+ aiisl> : He had disappeared into the abyss that s w a l­
lo w e d up so many explorers o f A frica. / A n abyss
y a w n e d beneath his feet. I The abyss y a w n s for those
who com m it such sins.
<
i*l +>: an a w fu l abyss o f disgrace /the b la c k
abyss o f the sea / a b o tto m le s s abyss I He fell into a b o t­
to m le s s abyss o f despair, /the d a r k abyss o f the past /
Eve n Freud could not fully plumb the d e e p [ p ro fo u n d ]
abyss o f human nature. I be condemned to the d e e p e s t
abyss o f H ell / a g a p in g [ y a w n in g ] abyss /the in fe r n a l
abyss /an u n b r id g e a b le abyss /an u n fa th o m e d aby.ss
< ^iSI+ > : They were engulfed in the abyss. /There is
nothing to stop a train plunging over the edge in to the
abyss. I From this euphoria 1 suddenly tumbled in to an
abyss o f despair. / A t the tim e o f the Cuban crisis we went
to the very edge o f the abyss.
(+ 5>isl) : an abyss o f ignorance I an abyss o f hopelessness
acad em e

n.
H h a n d o n acitdeme for the ouUide world / e n ­
t e r academe
FrcfK'h literary theory is presently enjoying a
vogue in Am erican academe, /enter the gm vcs o f acaden\e I spend one’s life in the groves [h a lls ] o f academe I
gain the approval o f academc

a c a d e m ic
adj.
( I 'j l s l ) : It is a p u r e ly academic question without practical
ram ifications. I That question is p u r e ly academic.
academ y

„.

>.,■<
: the 4 ir F o r c e Academy /an a rm e d
fo rc e s academy / a m ilit a r y academy / a state-funded m u ­
s ic academy /the N a v a l Academy / a r id in g academy /the
R o y a l Academy o f A rts Ithe R o y a l Academy o f M usic
an academy fo r young men and women /an
academy o f music

acced e
!•. | , / j « (T: . W (d ■.m A
( M is) 1 > : accede a m ic a b ly to a demand /accede g e n ia l­
ly [ h e a r t ily ] /1 g la d ly acceded to her request, /accede
g r u d g in g ly /accede u n c o n d itio n a lly / w illin g ly accede
to sb’s wishes
<+
: accede to sb’s request 11 acceded to her sugges­
tion that... {accede to a convention \accede to the throne I
accede to pow er I W e cannot accede to these terms, /a c ­
cede w ith o u t a struggle
a c c e le r a t e
r.
( I 'J i S I ) ; Production has accelerated s h a r p ly in the la.st
decade. /G row th is acceterating s te a d ily .
< + ifi8)> : The plane accelerated d o w n the runw ay [ fo r
ta k e o ff]. / G N P w ill rise in the first quarter and accelerate
to .S % in the second. /The shark accelerated through the
water to w a rd s us.
a c c e le r a t io n
n.
(a ii*)+ > : T his car h a s good acceleration, / in c re a s e
t a d v a n c e ] acceleration / s lo w ( d o w n ) [ s p e e d ( u p ) ]
acceleration
(JB S iS l- ^ iilI+ > : fa s t [ q u ic k , s lo w ] a c c e le ra tio n /Th is
car has g o o d ( e x c e lle n t ] acceleration, / lig h tn in g ac­
celeration /T h e new model has p o o r acceleration. /
sm o o th acceleration / s w ift acceleration
< í^ i*)+ ): It has a good rate o f acceleration. I T he Saturn
rockct has a phenomenal rate o f acceleration.
( + ^ 1#)) : the acceleration o f falling object /Acceleration
to 50 mph takes the car .S. 2 seconds.
a c c e le r a t o r
n. ( r t f
< S )W + ): D e p re s s the accelerator gently, / ja m d o w n
the accelerator / k e e p the accelerator d o w n / H is foot nev­
er le f t the accelerator / le t the accelerator u p /pu.sh
d o w n the accelerator / re le a s e [ le t u p ] the accelerator
and apply the brakes
(+ S(l«I> : I.c t the accelerator co m e u p [ r is e ].
(JK » iS l- € ia + ) : a lin e a r [a n e le c tr o m a g n e tic ] accel­
e ra to r/a n u c le a r accelerator /a p a r t ic le [ an e le c t r o n ]
accelerator / a p o w e rfu l accelerator
< il"ia + ): rem ove one’s foot fro m the accelerator /take

accent

a ccep ta n ce

one's foot o f f the accelerator /S\\c pressed down o n the ac­
celerator. I step o n the accelerator I He eased f let ] up
[ o f f ] o n the acceleratftr.

■a cc en t

n.

g ( Suiüift >f № JC

( ■ ) ) : [ •«■ (V - s ;

ifj Ml

<S(li*l+> : He wears an outrageous hairstyle and a f fc c ts a
I.iverp o ol accent. / S h e c u lt iv a t e s a Parisian accent. /Sh e
has d e v e lo p e d an A m erican accent, / try to d is g u is e
one’s accent / e x a g g e r a t e one’s accent / H e tried to g e t
rid o f his rural accent, / g i v e accent to ... / H e h a s a
.strong Am erican accent. /1 tried to h id e m y French ac
cent, / i m i t a t e sb’s accent / i n d i c a t e the accent.^ / k e e p
the accent on sim plicity / m is p l a c e an accent /1 can’t
p la c e his accent. / P u t [ P la c e ] the accent on the second
syllable. I p u t the accent on education / W e r e c o g n iz e d
her accent.^ at once. / “ A b b é " ta k e s an acute accent.
<+ Sl)ia> : H er Germ an accent has almost d isa p p e a r e d . /
The accent fa lls on the second syllable.
: The ” e " in abbé has an a c u t e accent on
it. /an a f fe c te d accent / H e speaks correctly but w ith a
ba d accent, / a bro ad accent I a b roa d Gloucestershire
accent / a c o c k n e y accent / a co u n tr y [ c it y ] accent /Sh e
still spoke w ith a d is c e r n ib le Germ an accent. / H is fain t
South A frican accent became more p r o n o u n c c d as the
evening wore on. / H e had a fa in tly f o r e ig n accent, /the
first [ s e c o n d ] accent / a fo reig n accent /speak bnglish
with a F ren ch accent / a g r a v e accent / Y o u should put a
h e a v ie r accent on the second syllable. I He still has a
h e a v y Sw edish accent. /Sh e told her story lo me in h o n ­
e y e d accents, / a ja rrin g accent / a m a rk ed Russian ac­
cent / a m o c k in g accent / H e has no n o tic e a b le accent. /
a N e w Y ork [ N e w c a s t le . etc. ] accent / a p e d a n tic ac­
cent / a p e r s u a s iv e accent / a p le a sa n t accent / a p rim a ­
ry [ s e c o n d a r y ] accent /a p r o n o u n c e d D u tch accent I
She speaks English with a p r o n o u n c e d accent, / a re ­
f in e d accent / a re g io n a l accent / a r u r a l accent /a
s lig h t accent 1 a s lig h t fo re ig n accent / H o w stro n g
should the accent on this syllabic b e? 1 She has a s tro n g
Gennan accent, /the te n d e r accents o f love / a t h ic k ac­
cent / S h e has an u n m is ta k a b le Polish accent, / a w e a k
accent
: From his accent, he is obviously British. I Judg­
ing from your accent you must be Chinese. /W h e n she
relaxes, she slips back in to the local accent. / H e still
speaks with the faint trace o f a foreign accent. I I could
hear a trace o f a Su ffo lk accent in his voice. /Pronounce
the word w ith the [a n ] accent on the last syllable. I speak
w ith a slight accent /speak w ith o u t (a n ) accent
The accent is o n the second syllable. I In the
new airport the accent is o n passenger com fort.

A c c e n t V.
< « ill t> : accent a word c o rre ctly [ in c o r r e c tly ] / H e
accented the first-person pronoun em p h a tic a lly , /speak in
h e a v ily [ slig h tly ] accented French
H er boyish good looks were accented b y
[ w it h ] a crew cut. /T h e word is accented on the first s y l­
lable. /accent a design w ith bright colors

accept

V.

.fe

1
:a « .
: fflWf : IS]
( ■ l i a i ) : I cannot a lt o g e th e r accept your theory. /
D o n't accept b lin d ly everything in print. /1 b ro a d ly ac­
cept what you say. /c a u t io u s l y accept sb's proposal / It is
c o m m o n ly accepted that she is the best .scholar in the
field. /1 cannot accept lhat c o m p le te ly , /accept ideas
c r e d u lo u sly /accept e a g e r ly
e n t h u s ia s t ic a lly ] /1
could not e a s ily [ r e a d ily ] accept that he should he given
the post /T h e y have fin a lly [ w ill e v e n t u a lly 1 com e to
accept that negotiations are the only route to peace. /T h e
invitation to appear before Congress has been fo rm a lly ac­
cepted. /1 fu lly accept it as true, / a g e n e r a lly accepted
practice [ moral code ] I This practice is g e n e r a lly accept­
ed. I It is now g en era lly accepted that this theory is true. /1
g la d ly accept your invitation. I T hey asked me lo help,
and I accepted g la d ly . / H e accepted m y apology g r a c e ­
fu lly . /Sh e accepted his suggestion g ra cio u sly . / H e r the­
ory has been g ra d u a lly accepted as Ihe lx;st explanation. /
He g ru d g in g ly accepted that it was his fault. / 'Ilie theory

was accepted im m e d ia te ly . / B y passing this legislation
Parliam ent has im p lic it ly [ t a c it ly ] accepted that there are
cases in w hich assisted suicide is perm issible. /11 is in te rn a t io n a lly accepted as the best research laboratory. /T h e
word is o r d in a r ily accepted to m ean.... / H e accepted
p a s s iv e ly whatever his advisors suggested, /accept... p ro ­
v is io n a lly /1 have been badly treated, and I refuse to q u i­
e t ly accept it. / I f they suggest a m erger, we w ill accept
r e a d ily . / T h e y have still not r e a lly accepted that I am
qualified to do the job . / W e must r e lu c ta n t ly accept that
there is cu irently no cure for the disease. / H e accepted
s w ift ly . / T h e y accepted the pn>posal u n a n im o u s ly , /a c­
cept u n c r it ic a lly / a u n iv e r s a lly accepted practice I The
practice is u n iv e r s a lly accepted among doctors that ... /
accept a proposal v e r b a lly [ o r a lly ] / T h e y accepted this
offer w h o le h e a r te d ly . /T he necessity o f the W o rld Court
is w id e ly accepted, its judgm ents less so. /1 w illin g ly
accept that you did not intend to hurt me.
: It is accepted a m o n g specialists [ in specialist
c irc le s '. / S h e hasn't ye« been accepted a s a .student. 1
'I1»ey have accepted me as one o f ihe fam ily. 11 cannot ac­
cept you a s an unbiased observer. I Such subjective jud g ­
ments cannot be accepted a s evidence in court, I Please ac­
cept this a s an expression o f m y gratitude, I accept... as
true [ as a fact, a s ( th e ) tn ith ] \accept... a s an [ th e ] au­
thority 11 have at last come to accept him a s he is, /accept
a story a t face value I Paym ent can o nly be accepted a t this
bank [ in d o llars, th ro u g h our agent ] , I She was accepted
a t [ in t o ] Harvard, /1 accepted b y phone [ fa x ] , /be ac­
cepted fo r training [ a course, etc. ] 11 accept It fo r (a )
fact. I She accepted him fo r what he professed to be. I W e
must leam lo acce.pt the problem fo r what it is. /accept a
bribe fro m .sb 1 1 refu.se to accept such u-eatment fro m
you, 1N ever accept a gift fro m a stranger, /accept in full
[ in p art] \Accept what he says in good faith, I H e accepts
others in an easy-going way, 11 accepted In w riting, /H e
was accepted in to the club, IW e haven’t yet really accept­
ed her in to the fam ily, /1 accept your offer o n (t h e ) con­
dition that you sign a guarantee against default, / D o n 't ac­
cept such nonsense o u t o f hand, /'I'h e proposal w ill be ac­
cepted u p o n the follow ing conditions ( being met ) , /a c­
cept w ith alacrity I He accepted the present w ith hearty
thanks, I She accepted the proposal w ith jo y [ great satis­
fa c tio n ], IM y w ife and 1 accept w it h great plea.sure you:
kind invitation lo dinner, I The proposal was accepted w ith
little dissent,
1 I accepted the offer w it h reservations
[ w ith o u t reservation ], / T h is procedure is now accepted
w it h in the m edical profession, /accept... w ith o u t dissent
[ disagreement ]
(+ d o in g > : I refuse to accept being treated as a fool. I He
could not accept having his b ills paid for him.
<+th a t M 'S )) : W e have com e lo accept that their death
was an accident. I I cannot accept that his m otives were
pure. I I accept that you arc right [ that I shouldn’t have
done It ) .

a c c e p ta b le

adj.
Praise is a lw a y s acceptable. /Sm oking remains
c o m p le te ly acceptable here. /T h e proposals are f u lly ac­
ceptable to all parties. /Such behavior is h a r d ly [ s c a rc e ­
l y ] acceptable, / a h ig h ly acceptable g i f t / Is anim al v iv i­
section m o r a lly acceptable? /Perhaps you would find the
house m o re acceptable if it were painted white, / a m u tu ­
a lly acceptable sum /The proposal is not w on derfu l. but it
IS p e r f e c t ly [ q u it e ] acceptable, / a v e r y acceptable, i f
not b rillia n t, piecc o f research / s o c ia lly acceptable behav­
ior
<+
: It would be very acceptable a s a present. 1W e
agree that he is not acceptable a s prim e m inister. / T h e
g ift w ou ld be acceptable to anyone. I W o u ld it be ac­
ceptable to you if I paid you by ch c c k ? I Sh e w as re­
m oved from p ow er because she w as not acceptable to the
m ilitary.

a ccep ta n ce

n.

i N W.1 = 1 ts.

: »ft «,

(3 ()ia+ > : W e a s k your acceptance o f certain inconven­
iences during installation o f a computeri7ed system, /1 b e g
your acceptance o f this httle gift, /T h e prc.sent system does

—

a c c e p t a t io n

a c c e s s ib le

10

not c o m m a n d general acceptance. /N ew to n ’s theory o f
gravitation fo u n d immediate acceptance. I Such behavior
is fin d in g greater social acceptance. / H is theory has
g a in e d general acceptance. / S o far we have h a d 50 accept­
ances. / H is plan m e t w ith acceptance. / I t is doubtful
whether the reform ed spelling w ill o b ta in general accept­
ance. / p h o n e \ fa x ] one's acceptance / p r o c u r e accept­
ance for a plan /T h e view has not r e c e iv e d w ide accept­
ance. I D errida’s theories have not r e c e iv e d general ac­
ceptance here. I H o w m any acceptances have you re ­
c e iv e d ? / W e re fu se d acceptance o f the damaged gixxJs. /
The word has s e c u re d general acceptance. /T here are
many differcnl ways of s e e k in g acceptance from society. /
The p olicy w ill eventually w in acceptance.
<+9!liS>: The school’s acceptances at Harvard have
d ro p p e d [ f a lle n , r is e n ] . /Acceptance o f this method is
g ro w in g [ in c re a s in g ].
< )K e iS I- ^ i* l+ ): a b a n k [b a n k e r ’s ] acceptance /Л Тлат
b lin d acceptance o f w hatever they are told by the media is
terrifying. / T h e theory has received b ro a d acceptance. /
cun!> uiii«rr acceptance / c r it ic a l acceptance / c re d u lo u s
acceptance o f absurd theories / (a n ) e a sy - g o in g accept­
ance o f the eccentricities o f others /receive fu ll acceptance /
The theory has found g e n e ra l acceptance. I The usage has
not yet won g e n e ra l acceptance. /T h e theory gradually
won g r e a te r acceptance. /T here is g ro w in g acceptance
o f this interpretation. /T here was g ru d g in g acceptance o f
this suggestion, / (a ) h e a lt h y acceptance o f one’s own
weaknesses /T h e new w oid gained im m e d ia te accept­
ance. / In t e r n a t io n a l acceptance o f this regim e w ould be
regretuble. / m u tu a l acceptance o f each other’s foibles / in
the o r d in a r y acceptance o f the w ord / p a s s iv e acceptance
o f sb’s behavior / p u b lic acceptance o f deviant behavior /
w in ra p id acceptance /fin d (a ) re a d y acceptance / r e lu c ­
ta n t a c c e p ra n c e / re s ig n e d [ s t o ic , s t o ic a l] acceptance
o f one’s fate / I cannot give your theory m y to ta l accept­
ance. / a tr a d e acceptance / H is proposal received u n a n i­
m o u s [ u n c o n d it io n a l] acceptance, / im c r it ic a l accept­
ance o f sb’s statement / u n iv e r s a l acceptance o f sb’s theo­
ry / (a ) v e r b a l acceptance /There is now w id e [ w id e ­
s p re a d ] acceptance that changes arc necessary, / (a )
w r it t e n acceptance
<Л"1в+> : receive a letter o f acceptance from a university /
Som e periodicals pay o n acceptance, others on publica­
tion. / It takes tim e to come to (a n ) acceptance o f the per­
son one’s child marries.
<+ il- ia ) : The theory has won general acceptance am o n g
scholars in the field, /acceptance a t face value I acceptance
a t [ i n t o ] university [c o lle g e ] I H e was o veijo ycd by his
acceptance a t Harvard. /Acceptance b y the general public
w ill take tim e, /seek acceptance in to a group / H e was
oveijoyed at the acceptance o f his poem b y the newspaper. I
I seek no rew ard , but w ill be content w ith acceptance o f
m y proposal, ¡acceptance o f cruelty I Pu b lic acceptance o f
explicit sexual behavior in film s is increasing, ¡acceptance
o f responsibility /acceptance o u t o f hand / T h e procedure
has earned acceptance w it h most surgeons.

[ im p r o v e ] access / W ith control o f the rive r system , they
e n jo y e d access to the va.st markets o f China, / e n s u re
[g u a r a n t e e ] a c c e ss/¡i is d ifficu lt to g a in access to the
President. I H ow can we g a in access to these m arkets? / It
is d ifficu lt lo g e t access to him . / A n office in Shanghai
would g iv e us access to the Chinese market. / H e was
g ra n te d access to the Minister, / h a v e access to somebody in
pow er I D o you h a v e ready access to a com puter? I
Students must h a v e access to gixxl books. I The author has
h a d access lo C h u rch ill’s papers, w hich rcveal a different
story, / lim it access to certain books to bona fide scholars /
W e must not lo s e access to these markets. /T h e y n e e d ac­
cess to good educational facilities. /'ITirough devious means
he o b ta in e d access to lop secret inform ation. /B u ses o f­
f e r [ p r o v id e ] easy access to the airport. /Access is r e ­
s tr ic te d to people w ith spc^cial passes, / w in access to new
markets
(J)^ S 1 fl- S ijIl+ ); There was a ir , ro a d and r a il access to
the W est from Be rlin . / W e hope for b e t t e r access to your
markets, / c h e a p access /strictly c o n tro lle d access / I ’m
afiaid I don’t have d ir e c t access to the boss. 11 don’t have
d ir e c t access to the records. /T o day we have e a s ie r ac­
cess to government records. /T here should be e q u a l access
to a good education for all citizens. / S h e has e x c lu s iv e
access to R ussell’s papers, / fr e e access I A ll students have
tr e e access to the library, /have f u ll access to public re­
cords / g o o d access /M o vin g the headquarters to London
would give us g r e a te r [b r o a d e r , w id e r ] access to the
European inaiket. / g u a r a n te e d access /have im m e d ia te
access to a law yer / in s ta n t access / W e have le s s access
to information than befóte. / lim ite d [im lim it e d ] occ«.9l
There is o nly lim ite d acce.ss to the authorities, / m a rk e t
access /T h e o n ly access to the village is along a mountain
track, / o p e n access to public records / p u b lic access to
F B I records / q u ic k [ r a p id . s w ift ] access I Computers
g ive q u ic k and r e lia b le access to inform ation, / ra n d o m
access /have re a d y access to books [to a doctor, to fresh
w ater] /1 insist on r e g u la r , u n im p e d e d access lo my
client. /A ccess is r e s tric te d , / in a s u d d e n access o f an­
ger [fe a r , hope] / u n im p e d e d [u n r e s t r ic t e d ] access
( f t m * ) : freedom o f access IT h e villages are hard [d if f i­
cu lt] o f access. I T h is area is im possible o f access except
by mule, /people w ith access to money /T h e placc is
w it h in easy access o f M elbourne. /T h e m obile medical
team serves people in rural areas w ith o u t acce.ss to hospi­
tals. I I can 't w rite the article w ith o u t access to the facts.
(+ i> iil): The only access ( t o the in te rio r) is b y boat
( up the r iv e r ). /T here is access both fro m the garden and
fro m the road, /an access o f anger /access to inform ation
[ books] I have access to the President I have access to sb’s
ear I have access to raw m aterials I The problem is easy to
solve fo r anyone w ith access to a computer. I The only ac­
cess to the house is th ro u g h the wood. I W e need access
to water and electricity. I Hum an rights arguably include
not only basic p olitical rights but also access to food, shel­
te r. m edical care and education. I H e had access to security
secrets.

a c c e p t a t io n
n. C ie ](K )).ia n i.« .> !,:(« t.® ifW )i> i* ..* X
<aiW+> ! The word does not norm ally h a v e that accepta­
tion.
< iK e ia '^ i* l+ > : I care httle about society in the co m ­
m o n [ g e n e r a l. o r d in a r y . u s u a l ] acceptation o f the
term, /the c u r r e n t [m o d e m ] acceptation o f the word /
d iffe r e n t acceptations o f a word
T h is term is to be understcxxl in its usual
acceptation.
<+Л1Я> : the g eiieial acceptation o f a term [ w o rd ]

a c c e s s i b il i t y
n.
< a jiS + ): im p ro v e [ in c r e a s e ] a c ce ssib ility / 'I’he high
peaks that surround the region lim it accessib ility.
O K 8 i* )- ® iS + > : E a s y a c ce ssib ility is a m ajor advantage
o f the site.
<+ ^ y c ) : a c cessib ility to a computer

access
n.
(
А П ,( S 4
<8()1Я+>: a llo w [ p e r m it ] ( s b ) acce.ss to private pa­
pers I The new road a llo w s ' p e r m it s ] rapid acce.ss to the
airport, / b a r access to sb ( .sih] /T an ks b lo c k e d access to
W est Be rlin . /Access to the Pre.sideni is strictly c o n ­
t r o lle d . /T h e landslide c u t o ff access to the villag e. / d e ­
m a n d [ re q u e s t 1 access to a prisoner I T h ey are dem a n d - in g access to the Japanese market, / d e n y sb access
to ... I H e was d e n ie d access to the prisoner, / e a s e

a c