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Rgnieszka Biskup
illustrated by Cynthia Martin and Barbara 5chulz


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Text © Capstone Press 2008
First published by Capstone Press in 2008
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First published in paperback in the United Kingdom by Capstone Global Library in 2011
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Biskup, Agnieszka.
States of matter. — (Graphic science)
A full catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
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More about states of matter and Max Rxiom
Find out more.


It's amazing how many
things we have around
us. Computers, TVs,
books, magazines,
furniture, you name it/



fep‘ ®





" i


But what's even more
amazing is that it's all
made of the same stuff.

Everything you see — every
chair, book, and speck of
dust — is made of matter.

But it's not just
objects. Everything
alive — every tree,
plant, and animal on
earth — is made of
matter too.

Matter can be hard or
soft, any colour, any
texture, or even invisible.
Even the air you breathe
is made of matter.

Every galaxy, star, and
planet in the universe
is made of matter.

And the tiny things that
you can only see under
a microscope are made
of matter too. Not even
size matters to matter.

Let's talk to a friend of mine
PIP. who knows all about matter.





Hi, Teresa/1 was hoping we could talk about
matter today. We know that everything is
made of matter/ but what is it exactly?

Well, Max, matter is
anything that has mass
and takes up space.

Mass is the amount of material
that makes up an object.

This little toy car
has a lot less mass
than my car outside

and your car has a lot more mass than you do. But at 87
kilograms, or \9Z pounds, you have more mass than me.



rThat s right. Let s explore
what matter is made of.

ET7 kQ

S“7 kQ
IQ<2 lbs




Atoms tend to stick
together and form
groups with other
atoms. These
groups are called
molecules. Let's
take a closer look.

All matter is made up of tiny
particles called atoms.

Imagine taking a
grain of salt and
cutting it in half.

Then cut
it in half
again ...

and again

Eventually you'd
get down to one
molecule of salt.





yy j<3!


and again. ■

But if you could
look closely at
that molecule,
you'd see its most
basic structure.

This is the smallest bit of salt
you could have. It's made up of
an atom of sodium and an atom
of chlorine joined together.



Atoms are the building blocks
of matter. Everything in
the universe is made up of
molecules with different
combinations of atoms.



Rtoms can be broken down into even smaller building blocks called neutrons,
protons, and electrons. The number of protons an atom has defines uuhat type of
atom it is. Hydrogen has one proton, helium has tuuo, and carbon has six.

Just like 26 letters combine to
make different words, about
qo types of atoms combine to
make different kinds of matter.

Water molecules
are made up of
two hydrogen
atoms stuck to
one oxygen atom,

Some molecules
are simple. Let's
check out some
water molecules.




Some molecules, like
those of proteins
and plastics, can be
incredibly complicated
They're made up of
thousands of atoms/

The funny thing is, atoms and
molecules are always moving. How
fast they move helps determine
the physical form you see them in





Scientists use the periodic table of the elements
to classify elements based on their properties
and atomic weight. There are more than 100 types
of atoms. But about a dozen have only been made
in laboratories. They aren't seen in nature.



The physical form of matter
depends on the energy of
the atoms and molecules.

Matter can exist in three
states. It can be a solid/
a liquid, or a gas.

For example, water
can exist as solid ice,
as liquid water, and as
a gas, such as steam.


What's unusual about
water is that sometimes
you can see all three
states at the same time/• ;
^ '"WMUujUj,,

In addition to solids, liquids,
and gases, other forms of
matter exist. Plasma is a
form of matter created
when a gas is super hot.

Even though matter
can change its
physical state,
it hasn't really
changed at all. The
molecules that make
it up are still exactly
the same uuhether
it's a solid, liquid,
or gas. LUater is

It's so hot that the electrons
are torn free from the atoms,
and the plasma is able to
conduct electricity. Lightning
is made of plasma.

The sun and
stars are also
made of plasma.

still uuater, and uuill
behave like mater,
uuhether it's ice,
liquid, or steam.

Plasma may be the most
common form of matter in the
universe, but it's rare on earth.
Let's take a closer
look at the three
states of matter
we normally see.





Solids have a definite shape that
isn't easy to change. Rocks, ice,
and hunks of iron are all solids.


% V*










Changing a solid's shape
is difficult. Its molecules
are linked together and are
usually packed very closely.




The molecules in a solid barely move
at all. They just vibrate in place.


In a crystal of ice, the atoms
stick together in an organized
pattern. They're locked in place
and only twist or turn a little.


When you heat a solid, the molecules
start moving around more. As you
increase the heat, the organized pattern
of the molecules starts breaking apart

The molecules are still close together, but
they're not as tightly packed. They can slip
and slide over each other. They change states
from a solid to a flowing liquid by melting.





Lava, anyone? Even rocks melt at high
enough temperatures. Some rocks can
melt at the relatively louu temperature
of 70l-l to 816 degrees Celsius, or 1,300
to 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit.

Every solid has a temperature where
melting happens. This temperature
is called the melting point.

Ice has a relatively low melting
point. It melts at 0 degrees Celsius,
H or 32 degrees Fahrenheit.

The melting point of §
chocolate is higher.
It melts at just below
body temperature.

Metals normally
have much higher
melting points.

The melting point of lead
is around 327 degrees
Celsius, or 620 degrees

That's nothing/ The melting point
of iron is 1,538 degrees Celsius, or
2,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

I've got you both beat. You
could even melt a diamond/
But you would need the
temperature to be 3,550
degrees Celsius, or 6,422
degrees Fahrenheit/

Once the heat is removed,
the molecules slow down.
They start clumping together
again and reform into a solid.
That's called freezing

That's right. For many substances,
the melting point is also the freezing
point. It's the point at which a liquid
starts turning into a solid.

If you continue heating
a liquid, the molecules
start moving very
fast. Eventually, they
fly apart and the liquid
turns into a gas.

In a gas, molecules
are far apart. In fact,
a gas is made up of
mostly empty space.

That's why we can walk
through a gas like air
and not feel anything.

At the boiling point, the molecules in
a liquid get enough heat energy to
completely break free from each other
Bubbles of gas form in the liquid.

In a pot of boiling water, the
bubbles you see are made of
water gas, or water vapour.
They rise to the top and burst,
forming a cloud of steam.

Different substances have different boiling
points. Some oils boil at 204 degrees Celsius,
or 400 degrees Fahrenheit.


And iron boils at around
2,871 degrees Celsius, or
5,200 degrees Fahrenheit

And you can boil a diamond
too/ But a liquid's boiling
point can vary with changes
in pressure. Let's see how/


The volume of a solid always
stays the same. So does the
volume of a liquid. But where a
solid keeps it shape, a liquid will
flow to settle at the bottom of a
container, whatever its shape.
Gas, however, has no set shape or
volume of its own. It will expand
to fill any space available.


Pressure is the force applied
by a gas, liquid, or solid to
another gas, liquid, or solid.

At sea level, you have
the whole atmosphere
pressing down on you.

Molecules have a hard time escaping under all
this pressure. Here the boiling point of water is
100 degrees Celsius, or 212 degrees Fahrenheit.

But at 3,048 metres, or 10,000 feet,
above sea level, you have less of the
atmosphere weighing down on you.
At this height, the boiling
point of water is 40 degrees
Celsius, or 144 degrees
Fahrenheit. The molecules
can escape more easily.

In fact, water will boil at
room temperature if it's at
an extremely low pressure.

Removing the air from a vacuum
chamber lowers the air pressure. The
low pressure causes the water to boil,

Sometimes solids can turn
directly into a gas through a
process called sublimation.

Some performers use dry ice, or frozen
carbon dioxide, to make dramatic
clouds of gas on stage. Linder normal
conditions, the solid doesn't go through
a liguid stage at all.

That's why it's
called "dry" ice.

section y


Liquids slowly change to gases all the time,
even without being at the boiling point.

PI Molecules in a liquid are constantly
moving. Sometimes they hit each
other enough to give themselves
enough energy to escape.

This process is
called evaporation

When enough molecules escape a liquid,
they take their added energy with them
The result leaves the liquid and its
surrounding environment a little cooler.

That's why you feel cold
leaving a swimming pool.
Water evaporating on
your skin draws heat
from your body.

And that's why you sweat. Your
body cools itself off through
the evaporation of sweat.


And gases can turn back
into liquid too. This process
is called condensation. For
example, cold glasses get
little drops of water on them,


That's because water vapour
from the air turns back into liquid
water on the cold glass. The cold
glass removes energy from the
water vapour molecules, turning
them into liquid.

Water changes from gas to liquid
to solid in nature all the time.

For example, dew forms on plant
leaves when water changes from a
gas to a liquid. It happens because
the air cools during the night.

Some of the water
vapour in the air then
condenses into dew.

And the water cycle on earth
depends on all three states
of water. The water cycle is
the continuous exchange of
water between the sea, air,
clouds, rain, and snow.

The douds release mater back to
the earth as snom or rain, mhich
falls back into the ocean or runs
domn into lakes and streams.

LUater vapour in the air
gets cold, condenses into
liquid, and forms douds.

FIs the sun heats the earth,
some of the liquid mater
evaporates. Some of the solid
snom sublimates as mater
vapour into the air.

This cycle happens
all over the globe. We
couldn't live without it.

Whether something's a solid,
liquid, or a gas is important
to our daily lives.

We use steam to drive
machines for energy.

We couldn't use
solid ice cubes to
run these machines/






And I couldn't water
ski on solid ice ...

or ice skate on water vapour/

But right now, my favourite
state of matter is this
frozen ice cream cone.




There are different
states of matter all
around you. Get out
and enjoy them/





More than 2,000 years ago, the Greek philosopher Leucippus came
up with the idea that there was only one type of matter. He guessed
that if you could cut matter up over and over again, you'd eventually
get to a piece of matter you couldn't divide any further. His student
Democritus called these tiny indivisible pieces of matter "atoms".
Atoms are made up of even smaller particles called protons,
neutrons, and electrons. But protons and neutrons are made up
of even tinier particles called quarks. Some scientists think quarks
are as small as things get. Others scientsts aren't so sure. They
believe quarks themselves may be made up of even smaller things
called strings.
In the past few years, scientists have created two new forms of
matter.These atoms are Bose-Einstein condensates and fermionic
condensates.These exotic forms of matter can exist only under very
special and extreme conditions in a laboratory.
It may sound like science fiction, but antimatter does exist.
Scientists have created antimatter using huge, high-tech machines.
Antimatter particles are like mirror images of the particles that
make up our normal world. There are antimatter protons and
electrons, for example, called antiprotons and positrons. A particle
and its antiparticle are the same, except that they have opposite
electrical charges. But if they ever meet up, watch out! The particles
destroy each other and disappear in a burst of energy.

A gas can be cooled down to make it into a liquid or solid.
Oxygen is normally a gas, but at minus 183 degrees Celsius, or
297 degrees Fahrenheit, it becomes liquid. Oxygen will become
a solid at minus 219 degrees Celsius, or minus 362 degrees
Pure substances have defined freezing points. But you can change
the freezing point of a pure substance by adding an impurity,
such as salt, sugar, or alcohol. For example, when salt is added to
water, the freezing point of water drops by a few degrees. That's
why people put salt on icy streets and roads in the winter. The salt
makes it less likely the streets will ice over.


Real name: Maxuuell
Height: 1.86 m (6 ft 1
LDeight: 87 kg (13 st.
Eyes: Brouun Hair:

10 lb.)

Super capabilities: Super intelligence; able to shrink
to the size of an atom; sunglasses give X-ray vision;
lab coat allows for travel through time and space.

Origin: Since birth, Max Axiom seemed destined for
greatness. His mother, a marine biologist, taught her
son about the mysteries of the sea. His father, a nuclear
physicist and volunteer park warden, showed Max the
wonders of the earth and sky.
One day, while Max was hiking in the hills, a megacharged
lightning bolt struck him with blinding fury. When he awoke,
he discovered a new-found energy and set out to learn as
much about science as possible. He travelled the globe
studying every aspect of the subject. Then he was ready to
share his knowledge and new identity with the world. He had
become Max Axiom, Super Scientist.

atmosphere mixture of gases that surrounds the earth
atom element in its smallest form
condensation the act of turning from a gas into a liquid
electron tiny particle in an atom that travels around the nucleus
evaporation the act of turning from a liquid to a gas
gravity a force that pulls objects together. Gravity pulls objects
down toward the centre of the earth and the moon.
matter anything that has weight and takes up space
molecule smallest part of an element that can exist and still
keep the characteristics of the element
neutron one of the very small parts in an atom's nucleus
particle tiny piece of something
proton one of the very small parts in an atom's nucleus
sublimation the act of turning from a solid to a gas
vapour a gas made from something that is usually a liquid or
solid at normal temperatures
volume amount of space taken up by an object

Changing Materials (Material World series), Robert Snedden
(Heinemann Library, 2007)

Changing Materials (Understanding Science series), Penny
Johnson (Schofield and Sims, 2007)

Changing States: Solids, Liquids, and Gases (Do It Yourself
series), Bill Hurd (Heinemann Library, 2009)

Experiments with Water (Do It Yourself series), Chris Oxlade
(Heinemann Library, 2009)

Click on "Science" and then "Materials" for activities and
quizzes on topics such as "Changing state", "Solids, liquids
and gases", "Reversible and irreversible changes" and
"Solids and liquids"

air, 5,18
antimatter, 28
atomic weight, 11
atoms, 8, 9,10,11,12,13,
14, 28
types of, 11

make-up of, 8, 9,10,13
movement of, 11,12,14,15,

boiling points, 18,19, 20, 22

periodic table, 11
plasma, 13
pressure, 19, 20-21
protons, 9, 28

condensation, 23

neutrons, 9, 28

dry ice, 21
quarks, 28
electrons, 9,13, 28
energy, 12, 18, 22, 23, 26, 28
evaporation, 22-23
freezing points, 17, 29

solids, 12, 13, 14-15, 16, 17, 19,
20, 21, 26, 29
strings, 28
sublimation, 21, 25

gases, 12, 13, 18, 19,20, 21, 26

volume, 19

and condensation, 23, 24, 29
and evaporation, 22
Leucippus, 28
liquids, 12, 13,15, 19, 20,24,
26, 29
and boiling, 18,19
and evaporation, 22-23
and freezing, 17
mass, 6-7
melting points, 16,17

water, 12,13, 24
as gas, 12,18, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27
as liquid, 12,18, 20, 21, 23,
24,25, 29
as solid, 12,14, 16, 24, 25,
26, 27
chemical make-up of, 10
water cycle, 25
weight, 7

9781408214680 [1369606.inv)
Biskup, A gnieszka
The solid ruth about states o


, Super Scientist.

Using powers he acquired in a freak accident, Max teaches
science in ways never before seen in a classroom. Whether
he's shrinking to explore an atom or riding on a sound wave,
Max does what it takes to make science super cool.

<xr ei/toyxoe
p m/um joumy
t/kough m whip
OF fCMCtf >
Graphic Science titles;
f Rdventures in 50UND
# The Rttractive Story of MRGNETI5M
f Exploring ECOSYSTEMS
f The Explosive LUorld of VOLCRNOES
f The Illuminating UJorld of LIGHT
f R Journey into RDRPTRTION
f R Refreshing Look at RENEUJRBLE ENERGY


The Shocking LUorld of ELECTRICITY

f The Solid Truth about STRTES OF MRTTER
f Understanding GLOBRL UJRRMING
* The LUorld of FOOD CHRINS

ISBN 978-1-406-2146