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1969
Publisher:
Brill
Language:
english
Pages:
140
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Lactora (Lectoure) n° Ji2

ROBERT DUTHOY

THE TAUROBOLIUM
ITS EVOLUTION
AND TERMINOLOGY

W ITH A F R O N T ISP IE C E A N D O N E M A P

LE ID E N
E . J. B R IL L
1969

CONTENTS
Abbreviations-Bibliography..........................................................

ix

In tro d u c tio n ...................................................................................

i

P art I: The Sources......................................................................

5
5

A. The In scrip tio n s..................................................................
B. The Literary T e x ts ..............................................................

54

Part II: Analysis of the In scrip tion s.....................................

57

I. The Non-verbal T e r m s ......................................................
II. The V e r b ...............................................................................

57
77

Part H I: The Evolution of the Taurobolium........................

87

In tro d u c tio n ...............................................................................

87

I. The Successive Phases of the Taurobolium . . . .
92
a. Taurobolium fa c c r e ......................................................
92
b. Taurobolium accipere / tr a d e r e .................................
95
c. Taurobolium percipere / tauroboluUx.........................101
d. The Unclassified In s c rip tio n s ................................. i l l
II. An Explanation of the Evolution.................................112
III. The Origin of the Taurobolium..................................... 122
C on clu sio n ....................................................................................... 126
Index of Corresponding Inscriptions......................................... 128

A B B R E V IA T IO N S A N D B IB L IO G R A P H Y
AE
A JA
A llard
Allm er
A nrich

Arch. Zeit.
A rq. P ott.
Ath- MitL
B a iley
B ayet
BCTH
Beaujeu

Bloch. Document

L 'A n n ie Epigraphique. Revue des publications ip igraphiques relativ; es u l ’antiquiti romaine.
American Journal o f Archaeology.
1*. A llard. Julien I’ A postal. I, Paris 1906, 30-35.
A. Allm er-P.Dissard. Inscriptions antiques du musee
de Lyon. I. L yo n 1888. 15-47.
G . Anrich, Das antike Mysterienu*sen in seinem
E injluss a u f das Christentum, (k itiin gec 1894.
54-57; 161.
Archaeologische Zeitung
O Arqucuktgv P vtIukm£>.
Mitteilungen (Us Deutschen Archdologischen Institute
(Athen. Abt.).
C . B ailey. Phases in the Religion o f Ancient Rome.
Berkeley 1932. 201*203.
J. B a ye t, Histoire politique el psychologique de la
religion romaine, Paris 1957.
Bulletin Archiologique du C om ili dcs Travaux Historiques.
J. Beaujeu, La religion romaine a Vapogie i t I'em­
pire, 1, La politique religieu.se des Antonins. Paris
>^55 . »°3 *. io 5 : 3 1 3_3 1^
H. Bloch. A S e w Document o f the Last Pagan Revival
in the West in Harvard Theological Review. 38 (1945),
199-244

B loch. Revival

Boissier
Bom er

Bonner

B ouyer
Briem
Carcopino

H . B loch. The Pagan Revival in the West at the End
o f the Fourth Century in The Conflict between Paga­
nism and Christianity in the Fourth Century. Essays
edited by A . Momigliano, O xford 1963, 193-218.
G . Boissier, L a religion romaine d‘ Auguste aux
Antonins. T. Paris 1874, 412-4x7.
F . Burner, Untersuchungen uber die Religion der
Shlaven in Griechenland und Rom. Vierter TeU:
F.piiegamena in Akademie der Wissenschafien und
der Literatur. Abhandlung der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse 10 (1963), 35; 38: 40 43; 44.
C . Bonner. Some Phases o f Religious Feeling in Later
Paganism in Harvard Theological Review. 30 (>937 )#
119-140.
L . Bouyer. L e saint dans les religions a mystires in
Revue des sciences religieuvs, 27 (1953). I -16.
O . E . Briem . Les socittls secretes de mystires, Paris

*94 *• 313-314-

J. Caroopino. Aspects mystiques de la Rome palenne.
Paris 1941.

X

A BB R E V IA T IO N S AND BIBLIO G RA PH Y

CE
Cesano
C IL
CIM RM

Clemen. Ckrisl.
Clemen. Mysl.
CKA1
Crazannes

Cum ont, Anahita
Cum ont, A ttis 1895
Cum ont. A tiis 1901
Cum oni. Bellone
Cum ont, Criobolium
Cum ont, Mithra
Cum ont, RO
Cum ont, R P h
D e Boissieu
D e Boze

Dcfradas
D e I-abriolle
Derchain

Dessau

F . Buecheler - E. T-ornmatzsch, Carmina Latina
Epigraphica, Lipsiae, I, 1^95; 11, 1897; i l l , 1926.
L . Cesano, Criobolium in R u gg II, 2. Spolcto 1910,
1275-1278.
Corpus Inscriptianum T-alinarum.
M. J. Vermaseren, Corpus lm criptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae. TTagao Com itis
I. 1956; IT. i960.
C . Clemen, Der E influss des Christentums a u f andere
Religionen. L eipzig 1933, 25-27.
C. Clemen, Der Einfluss der Mysterienreligionen auf
das attest* Christentum. Giessen 1913.
Comptes-Rendus de VA cadimie des Inscriptions et
Belles Lettres.
Chaudruc de Crazannes, Dissertatiun sur la taurvbvte
et sur les inscriptions tauroboliques de la ville de
Lectoure in Mimoires de la sociiti royale des antiquaires de France 13 (1S37). 121-180.
F . Cum ont, L e taurobole ft le culte d ’Anahita in RA
12 (188S), 132-136.
F . Cum ont, A ttis in Ru^g T. R om a 1895, 763-766.
F . Cum ont, A ttis in R E II. S tu ttg a rt 1901. 22472252; Suppl. 1, Stuttgart 1903. 225.
F'. Cum ont. Le taurobole el le culte de Bellone in Revue
d’histoire et de literature religieusss o (1901), 97-110.
F . Cum ont. Criobolium in R E IV . S tu ttg a rt 1901,
1718-1719.
F . Cum ont, Les mystires de Mithra, Bruxelles
1900. 71.
F , Cum ont, Les religions orientales dans le paganisme ramain. Paris 1929*.
F . Cum ont, notice on Esperandicu. Lectoure in
Revue de Rhilologie 17 (*893), 194-197.
J. D e Boissieu, Inscriptions antiques de Lyon, L yon
1846. 21-39.
D e B oze. Explication d ’une inscription antique ou
soul decrites les parhcuiaritis des sacrifices appeles
tauroboles in Memoires de literature, tires des
rigistres de I'AcadSmie royale des Inscriptions et
Belles Lettres. II. Paris 17 17 , 475-509J. D cfradas, L e symbolUfne- du taureau in L ‘ Infor­
mation litUraire 12 (i960), 204-212.
P . D c T-alniolle, L a reaction paienne, Paris 1934*.
349, passim.
P h . Derchain, Siegfried et le taurobole in Annales de
I'Insiilut de Philologie et d'Histoire orientales de
I’ University de Bruxelles 15 (1958-60). 83-87.
H. Dessau, Inscriptions Latinae Seleciae, Berolini
1954- 55 *

A BB R E V IA T IO N S AND B IBL IO G R A P H Y

D ey
Diels
Dieierich
D rcxler
Dussaud
D u th o y , Beneventum

D uthoy, Note
D u th oy. Zadar
EE
Hisele

Esp^randieu, Lectoure
Esp& aadieu. Recueil

Fabre

F arn cy
G arcia y Bellido
Geffcken

Goehlcr
Gordon
G raillot
Grenier
Gressmarm
Gruppe
Hepding
Hoefer

XI

J. D ev, n ctX iffsw ils , M onster 1937, 65-86.
H . Diels, Sibyllinische Blatter, Berlin 189c. 69-70.
A. D icterich. E ine MUhraslilurgie, L eip zig 1923*, 53.
W . D rexler. Meier in Roscher 11. L eip zig 1894-97.
2854-2931.
R. Dussaud. Introduction a I'histoire des religions.
Paris 1914. 232-235.
R . D uthov, La Minerva Berecyntia des inscriptions
tauroboliques de Ben&ent (C T L I X . 1538-1542) in
I.’A ntiquiti Classique 35 (1966), 548-561.
R . D a t boy. Note sur Vinscription T. L. A jr. 356 =
A .E . 1917-18 no. 17 in Laiomus 25 (1966), 567-569.
R . D u th o y. Traces archlologiques de tauriboles a
Zadar ? in luilomus 27 (1968). 622-629.

Ephemeri3 EpigruphitM.
Th. Eisclc, Die phrygische Kulte und ihre Bedeulung
fu r die grieckisch-romische Welt in S e v e Jakrbiicher
fu r das Klassische Altertum, Geschichle und deutsche
Liter ulur und fu r Pddagogik 23 (1909). 620-637.
E . Esperandicu. Inscriptions antiques de Lectoure,
A uch-Paris 1892, 15-63; 94-128.
E . Esperandieu. Recueil gdntral des bas-reliefs,
statues et busies de la Gaule romaine, Paris-Bruxelles
1907-1928.
P . F abre. U n aulel du culte phrygien au M usle du
luilran in Mdlanges d ’ arcJUologie et d’kiiSoire de
I’Ecole franchise de Rome 40 {1923). 3-18.
R . F a m cy , La religion de Vempereur Julien et le
mysticisme de son temps, Paris 1934.
A . G arcia y Rcllido. I-es religions orientales dans
I'Espagne romaine, Leiden 1967.
J. Geffcken. Der Ausgang des griechisch-rimuchen
Heidentums, Heidelberg 1929* 6; 24; 25-29; 159;
252; 297.
II. Goehler, De Matrix Magnae apud Romanos Cultu.
Lipsiae 1886. 52-59.
A . E . Gordon, Album o f Dated I-atin Inscriptions,
3 voL ! 3 voL o f P lates • Ind., B erkeley 1958-1965.
H . G raillot, Ls culte de Cybile, P aris 19*2, 150-187.
A- Grenier. Les religions itrusque et romaine. Paris
1948, 210-211.
H. Gressmann. D ie orientalischen Religionen im
keUenistisch-r&mischen Z d ia ller. Berlin-Leiprig 1930.
O . G ruppe. Griechiscke Mythologie und Religionsgesckickte, 11, Miinchen 1906, 1552-1554.
H . H cpding. Attis, seine Mythen und sein Kult,
Giessen 1903. 196-201.
O. Hoefer, Meter in Roscher, II. 2, Leipzig 18^4-97,
2848-2854.

xn

A BB R E V IA T IO N S AND B IBLIO G RA PH Y

IG
IG R R

TLAfr

IL A lg . I
iL G a u l.

Narb.

LLTun
JH S
Jullian
K aibel
K a u tz
K oerte
L agrange. Attis
L agrange, Christ.
L am brechts, Attis
Lam brechts. Fites

L am brechts, Grens
Lam brcchts, Ililaricn
Lam lwcchts, Myst.
L atte
Lavergne
Lebeguc
L e GaD
L oisy
Mai ten

Jnscriptiones Graec-ae.
I*. C a g n a t-J . T outain - 1*. Jouguet -G . L afaye, I nscripticmes graecae ad res romanas pertinentes, I, 111,
IV . Paris 1906-1927.
R . C a g n a t-A . M criin -L . Chateiain. Inscriptions
latines d’ Afrique, Tripolitaine. Tunisie. Maroc, Piiris
1923.
St. Gscll. Inscriptions latines de VAlgfrie. I, In­
scriptions de la Proconsulate, Paris 1922.
E . ‘E spcrandicu, Inscriptions latines de Gaule, Paris
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A . Merbn, Inscriptions latines de la Tunisie. Paris
Journal o f Hellenic Studies.
C . Jullian. Inscriptions romaines de Bordeaux, I,
Bordeaux 1893. 33*37
G . K aibel, Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta, Berlin 1878 = HiWcshetm 1965.
N . K au tx-J. Schm iedel, De taurobolio. lip s ia e 1738.
A . K oerie, Kleinasiatische Studien, 111 c, DelicJitasch m Athen. M itt. 23 (1898). 97 ‘ io 5 M. J. Lagrange, A ttis rtssuscite in Revue Biblique
36 (1927). 5«>i -566.
M. J. L agrange, A ttis et le Christianisme in Revue
Biblique 16 (1919). 419-480
P. L am brechts. A ttis. van herdersknaap tot god,
Brussel 1962.
P . Lam brechts. Les fetes ,,phrygiennes” de Cybile et
d"Attis in Bulletin de FTnstitut historique beige de
Rome 27 (1952). 141-170.
P. la m b re ch ts. Op de grens van heidendom en
Christendom. Brussel ' 955 P . T-amlmschts, Attis en het feest der Hilaricn,
A m sterdam 1967.
P . T-ambrcchts. Over griekse et: oosterse mysttriegodsdiensten. de zgn. Adonismysteries, Brussel 1954.
K . L atte, Rnrmsche Religionsgeschichte. Miinchen
i960. 353- 356 .
A . T jtw rg w i, J?*vue de Gaseogne 23 (1895). 5^7. nirtf
a bou t vires excipere.
G . T-cbcguc. Note sur les '.auroboles et le christianisme
in Revue Historique 37 (1888). 315-318.
J. L e G all. Inscription criobolique dicouverte &
Utique in Karthago 9 (1958). 119-127.
A. L oisy, Les mystires patens et le m y stire ckrStien,
Paris 1930*. 112-120.
L . Maiten. Der Stier in Kult und mythischem B ild in
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaeologischen Tnstituts
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A BBREVIA TIO N S AND BIBL IO G R A P H Y

XIT1

J. M arquardt, Le culte chei les Romains. I. Paris
1889.
M arquardt, Staatsverw. J. M arquardt, Rumische Staalsverwaltung, III,
Leipzig 1878, 87-89.
C. H . Moore, The duration o f the Efficacy o f the
Moore, Duration
Taurobolium in Classical Philology 19 (1924), 363365.
( 3. H . Moore, On the Origin of the Taurobdium in
Moore, Origin
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 17 (1906),
43 *4 ^MMnoires de la Soci&e national* des Antiquaires de
M SA F
France.
M . P . Nilsson. Geschichte der griechische Religion, II.
Nilsson
Miinchcn 1961s, 651-654.
is'ulisie itegli Scavi Ui Aniichitd.
N SA
W . FHttmlJcrgCT, Orientis graecae inscriptiones
O G 1S
selectae, L eip zig 1903-1905
Hildesheim i960.
H . Oppcrm ann. Taurobolia in R E I X . Stuttgart
Oppermann
1934, 16-21.
R Pettazzon i. I m isten. Saggio di una teoria stoncoPettazzoni
religiosa, Bologna 1924. 107-108; 131-134.
PIJW
Poetae Latinae Minores, ed. Baehrens
I’reiler
L . P rcllcr-T I. Jordan. Rrmtische Mythologie. Berlin
18831. 390-394K . Pruemm. Religionsgeschichtliches Handbuch fur
Pruemm
den Raum der Altchrisilichen Umwelt, Rome 1954*.
262-263.
A. R ap p. Attis in Roscher, I, L eip zig 1884-1890.
R app, Attis
716-727.
A. R app. Kybele in Roscher. II, L eip zig 1S90-1897.
R ap p, Kybele
1638-1672.
RA
Revue Archiologique.
RE
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REA
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l ’aris 1888. 68-69; 96-97.
H iclianl
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T.. Richard. L'aiite! taurobolique dtt Pouzin in R E A
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Roscher
A usfuhrliches I-exicon der griechischen und rcmiscken
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D e Ruggiero. Diziotiario epigrafico di Antichita
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A . Rum m ros, ITel taurobolium. doct. thesis, Leuven
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Marquardt. Culte

xrv
S a yon 5
Schepclern
Schutzc
Schwenn
SE G
Sem per
Show er man

A BB R E V IA T IO N S AND BIBLIO G RA PH Y

E . Saym is, L e taurobole in Revue d'Hisioire des
Religions it> (1887). 137-156.
W . Schepelem . Der Montanismus und die phrygische Kulte, Tubingen 1929, 105-122.
A . Schiitze, Mithras-Mysterien und Urchristentum,
S tu ttg a rt 1960*. 118.
E . Schwenn, Kybele in R E X I . S tu ttg a rt 1922,
2250-2258.
Supplemenlum Epigraphicum Graecum.
M Semper. Rassen und Religionen im A llen I'orderasien. H eidelberg 1930, 187; 258; 301; 307.
G. Showerman. The great Mother o f the Gods in
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1, j, 43 (1901), z3o-jfif

TA M
TU LL
T on tain
V an D ale

W ickert

W illoughby
W issowa
Zippel

Titu li A siae M inaris. Yindobonae. I, 1901; II . fasc.
i . 1920; fasc. 2 ,19 3 0 ; fasc. 3. 1943; TTI, fasc. r, 1941Tkesaurus Linguae Latiiuu, Lipsiae 1904 fi.
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II, Les cultes de I’empire romain, Paris 19 11, 84-91.
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el murmorions cum Romanis turn potissimum Graecis
iUustrandis inservtenles. Dissertatio I: D e origine et
ritibus sacri taurobolii. Amstclcxlami 1702, I-174.
L . W ickert. Benefit itber tine xiveite Reise zvr Vorbereilung von C I L 11 suppl. 3 in Sitib. Preuss. A had.
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H . R . W illoughby, Ragan Regeneration. Chicago
1929 - i960.
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M line hen 1912*. 322-327.
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Leip zig 1895. 4^8-520.

INTRODUCTION
When in the fourth century of our era the struggle between paga­
nism and Christianity was at its fiercest and it was gradual!}* be­
coming deas that the new religion would be victorious, the taurobo­
lium was one of the weapons the worshippers of the old gods made
use of. One has merely to consider the names of a few of the dedica­
tors from the second half of the fourth century to see that this is
so— Sexiilius AgcsOaus Aedesius. Quintus Clodius Flavianus, Vettxns
Agorius Praetextatus, Ceionius Kufius Volusianus. A passage in
St. Gregory of Nazianzus (Oratio c. Jul., 10, 52) seems even to
imply tliat the Emperor Julian himself received the taurobolium.
B ut before this stage the taurobolium had already been through a
long evolution. Indeed the word in its Greek form— -roupofJoXiov—
occurs in inscriptions as early as the first century B.C., while
xpio^oXiov is found in one that dates from about r35 B.C. The
total number of inscriptions that record a taurobolium or cruhnlium
is 133, and of these all but five, dated before A.D. t6o belong in the
context of the cult of Cvbele.
The taurobolium inscriptions have been found mainly in the
western provinces of the Roman Empire. Only the four oldest
inscriptions, which record taurobolia and criobolia in Asia Minor
(and do not, moreover, belong to the metroac cult), and two rather
late ones from Athens are from the East. The remaining 12S come
from all the western regions, but especially from Africa, Italy and.
above all, Gaul. Rome is the city that has produced the largest
number of inscriptions. It is strange that not one of them is earlier
than A.D. 295. Other cities in which large numbers of taurobolia
were celebrated were I-actora, Narbo, Ostia, Carthage, and Lugdunum— that is if we m ay judge by the relative quantity of in­
scriptions.
As well as these cpigraphical sources, varying greatly in date and
place oi origin, we also have a much smaller number of literary
texts, all of which were composed during the second half of the
fourth century and consequently refer to the last stage of the

evolution of the taurobolium. Moreover, with the exception of an
unhelpful passage in the Ilisloria Augusta, they were all written
b y Christian apologists who would naturally stress those aspects of
the horrible heathen habits that supported their arguments the
best. In previous studies of the taurobolium these factors have not
always been taken into account, and the explicitness of the literary
texts has led scholars to make far more use of them than of the
inscriptions.
Indeed this study is only the latest in a series that began in 1702
with the publication of Van D ale’s 174 page thesis on the origin,
nature, vires and terminology of the taurobolium. Scarcely thirty
years later K autz and Schmiedel published a shorter and rather
uninteresting study that remained the last word on the subject
until Chaudruc de Crazannes’ book with its detailed consideration
of the inscriptions from T.ectoure appeared in 1837. The last scholar
to investigate the problems of the taurobolium before Cumont set
his stamp on the whole subject was Sayous, whose conclusions and
interpretations have in many cases been shown to be correct by
further research.
F . Cumont and II. Graillot brought the taurobolium into the
centre of scholarly interest, and the picture they sketched of the
rite is the one generally accepted today and given in the m ajority
of the handbooks of religious history. Cumont was especially
interested in the origin of the rite; Graillot in the place it had in the
whole context of the cult of Cybele. These two scholars based their
investigations mainly upon the evidence provided b y Pnidentius,
and tried to find as much confirmation as possible of his description
in the various inscriptions. The taurobolium we find in their writings
is one that underwent almost no change either in form or intention.
Zippel paid more attention to the inscriptions, and even proposed
some form of evolution in the rite, but did not develop the idea in
any detail. The article written by Oppermann for R E is merely a
summary of the traditional interpretation, in spite of the fact
that Lagrange had meantime subjected it to a certain amount of
criticism. D cy's study of 1937 was even more critical and was, at
the same time, more or less the last important contribution to the
subject to appear in print. Rummens’ important thesis of 1942

3

was never published. He was the first to appreciate the great value
of the inscriptions, but although he did not hesitate to criticize the
traditional theories one could not say that he made use of all the
information that can be extracted from the sources.
In reading these various treatments of the subject one cannot
escape a feeling of incompleteness. Scholars have attached far too
much importance to the literary texts, and have not always treated
them in an adequately critical fashion. All too often they based
their investigations on assumptions about the oriental origins of
the idea of resurrection in the cult of Cvbele and of all the ceremonies
in the various oriental religions. T h ey could not always resist the
temptation to make comparisons and apply Christian terms to
pagan rites, or to take an expression such as in acternum renaius
that only occurs once and assert that this could have been used in
all UturuMium iusci iptious. These mistakes of method together
with disregard for the chronology of the sources naturally led to
the drawing of many mistaken conclusions.
In the present book we have tried to avoid these errors as much as
we could. The plan of the volume reflects the path our investigation
has followed. The first thing to do was collect all the sources, and
the result of this process was Part I in which all the documents
both literary^ and epigraphic have been assembled. The inscriptions,
with the description of any representations on the stone, have been
checked, so far as was possible, against the MS of the Cybele corpus
that M. J. Vermaseren has in preparation. The literary texts have
been taken over unaltered from the most satisfactory editions.
The purpose of this first part of the study Is merely to put all the
available sources in the reader’s hands so that he can immediately
check any statements in other chapters of the book.
The second part is an analysis of the inscriptions in which the
various elements of which they are composed are successively
considered. A distinction is drawn between the verbs and the other
data such as motive, intention, dedication, costs, and the name
given to the ceremony. And finally in Part TTI we have sketched
a picture of the taurobolium based on the results of this analysis.
Now that we have completed this study it is our pleasant duty
to express our thanks to all those who have helped us in carrying

it out. The first to be mentioned must of course be Professor
P. Lambreehts, Prorector of the Rijksuniversitcit in Ghent, who
suggested this subject to us and supervised the preparation of the
thesis out of which this book has grown. It was he who pointed
out the importance of a more detailed study of the terminology,
and it was in his course on the History of Religion that we first
saw the significance of a chronological arrangement of sources.
During all the time we have been working on this publication his
advice has always been made avaible to us. Responsibility for the
views expressed herein is, however, ours alone. Professor G. Sanders
has shown his interest in our researches ever since their beginning,
and, with his criticisms, suggestions and inexhaustible fund of
bibliographical information, has been of the very greatest assistance.
We have never sought his help in vain. We should also like to
thnnk D r W. Buchwald o f the Thesaurus Linguae Lalinae who so
kindly sent us his material for the article Taurobolium, and Brill's
classical editor, T. A. Edridge, who translated the present book from
the Dutch manuscript. And last but b y no means least we should
like to express our gratitude to M. J. Vcrmaseren for all he has
done for this book. He has not only helped in its preparation,
but has also provided many corrections and additions for Part I,
has permitted us to make use of the proofs of Garcfa y Bellido’s
volume in this series, has found a copy of Etienne's article that we
had looked for without result, anti has furnished the frontispiece
in this volume. W e are most grateful for his including our work in
this series.

PART I
TH E SO U RCES

A. T H E IN SCRIPTIO N S
A number of inscriptions that arc supposed b y some scholars
to reconl taurobolia have not been included. They axe C IL VI, 500;
C IL X III, 1827 and 2922; E E V III, 455, in which we find not the
slightest hint of a taurobolium. Those taurobolium altars that have
no inscription (i.e. C IL X II, 4324 add p. 845; C IL X III, 2529;
Esp&andieu, Recueil, I, 315; 317; 318 and II, 1070; 1399; 1582)
have also been excluded. L. Richard,1) who has studied this altar
in great detail, claims that there are still a large number of un­
published taurobolium altars in the former tres Galliae. CIL V III,
1407 — 14.907 does have the phrase occisis tau . . . , but this hardly
seems sufficient indication that it actually was a taurobolium
inscription.
ASIA MINOR

1. ILION
Caskey, New inscriptions from Troy in A J A 30 (*935), 5^^591 with
pUte.

I [’ I]Xtets xai a l roXeic at xotvtuvoucrat |
Gixrt®; xal too dcywvo? |
x a i rr,<: -avr(-fjpe<oc e tip ja a v | ’A y 4&rp Myjvo^IXou TXtea | ebcovt
TcpooxXyjm Trp&r; Ta Upa | x a l sk; tou; -posSpiou; avrov | scat
exyovom; ( i « o ^ roiv xotvwv | Up&v xa8‘ e x a c ro v evucutgv |
5 aytoviQETyjfTavTa tt^ xotvife | tw v -oXetov Twcvyj^jpeax; | C7kt ETTj
rpla
xal 91X0^^'wc | xal ayopavoprrjaavra uxo xa {isyaXa. J
[Ua//a0Yjvata
xal usYaXojtepcic | e^tTEXetfavra 3e xal
Taupo^tXia 51; | £x twv l&cuv a~o TtXetovcov Taupcov | TCGffapaxovra
em<Ty,{xo>^ re | x a l (AsyaXoujsp€>: xal aquae | ~rrtc 7tav7jYvpco>q apcTT^c
x) Richard 115. note 50. T he author was so kin d as to giv e m e a survey o f
th e inscribed altars known to him in G aol, and I h a ve consequently been
able tn add the follow ing m onum ents: Espcrandieu, RecutU, I, 320; I X .
6886: X V . 8783.

TMK SOCTKCHS

o

i o fv cx*v I x a i &jaz£zittz ^

-rffi sl^ -rijv 6cav. | r&epYeaku; t t Trfi

rJjv

7C0CNnQYUPlV- I

is t century B.C. (L. Robert, Lcs gladiaUurs dans VOrient grcc,
Paris 1940, 315 note 3)

2 . PERGAM ON
IG R K , IV , 294; A then. M itt. 29 ( i 9 ° 4 ). *52-153; O G IS. 764.

2 3 ------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------- xal
£mft£X7]]8]£L; x a l tou tw v dx; hte&b/erzo xaXXurra x a i Tzxpetari^aL^
Cfomav au ro lc

xaXXt<m)v {aet£&wxev £ - ’ avrijc Etc eraBXa tou;

t e cyrfiois] | x a i v£ou; e t; t e Stadpofxa; x a i to 65 Sta tcov firXwv

dhfoiva^. SguXojievo' 3£ f--------------------------- toi? re vo(u£op£vot5
25 x a r a r a xdtTpta | e r JaxoXo'jtfctv x a l ayayciv eu; avav£w<nv tx 8ta toi^
x a t p o & c E T i c w T ^ f i e v x y a p tv

t o [v

---------------------------------------------------

YUjivaawtpxt*1

-------------------------------------------------- - - -------------

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au]|T O U

aiiVTEX£G 0 £V 7 WV

tv

T 7JI

TQ^ £XXot$, ol$ xaxstvo^ <piXo$[ol;7}<ras---------------

- - - - ----------------------------- ------ -------------------- x a i srxff£iXaqz£vos |

27 rjottjaat xai ra xpto{J6Xta r r(c, twv I ? tj{&wv {israratSuL; rp o; aXX>jXou<;
gvsxev [---------------------------------- x al icapaarqatt; xpiiv w ; xaXXtarov

x e g p u c r w ] | { ic v o v r i x £ p a c a x a p i v ( ^ u ] x p a r ^ B c v r o ; u T t i

tw v

v iw v

a&rou x a l xaXXi£py)0£[vTo^------------------------------ ----------------------

2 9 --------Sievei;i€v 3e ra] | irri 7% Oixriac E14 &ra0Xa toIc te E^rrj^oic
xai v£oi^ E^

Sta5po{iac xal too? 5dc tw v o[«Xwv avwvas, etc.

c. 135 B .C .

3 . PERGAM ON
IG R R , IV . 494; 499; 500 passim.

494. i o s q q .
)joipo[ii]

tw

itpooxoiuoQ&m

Taupo^(6Xtov) XidaaTEvTwv

............|| (Jo&c
499.

c a ............

| Stw

£7tvnj6£vroc

. | vov Sijvaptov a '* BaX£ou ra u p o ^ (o X io v )............. |
too

t ................

| tw v tw

E o s p y s T T j / a p a x [ T T (p]

dva/OevTT>';.

[’E irl ’IJouX. M . .

| [7tpur]av£wc* \xprtjxara Ta | Jvypjaipa

dbtcrfEMhi..........| ------- jaXXou x a l ..............

11 [4>X?]wpou

B tyav(a[t

THE IN SCRIPTIO N S

ap x iip E 'x n ?] | . . . .to o

7

a x a i llepetfTioo . . .

vk6

A3Xou ’Iou jX£]ou

KouxApdrou $' &[itdcTOu S p a y jia i. . tic, raupafioXi?] lov, AaaOtvou^
5

Spa.yu.ccl

[ . . ei^

......................................]

| rcc& p w

to u

e 7ccru[& 7i<iofi£vo'.>,

.................................) 1 1ei^ Txupo{J(oXtov)......................................... | Tt>X(Xfou)
B o X 3 v j eiq [ ................................. 6X0] ixXijpov K X ..........................................

|

n . K X ......................................... | .......................................................................

500.a. 'AYocO[ijt Tux’Jt- 1 ’E m ] . . . c t o v o q ..........[•xpuTavew^] | ----- 'AX(Jiou 'Io'j[Xwtvoy?. . | dTtEtTuajdr^ zic, r i [-:aupo£6Xiov ?] || ----x l x r o u .. I — 8 rp*&pux

p£.

a xX ...|...

$ a ia ----- | . . . 0 0 9 . . . |

[K ]X (a u ftio o ) ........

b ........... |cav ........... ly p a o ........... |ypa(x[fwt]------- | Ipours............ | 4X5 X 9 ? . . . | £XX*j----| IlwXXicofvo^] . . . |p](v&c) Aeiofo ............

Taupo£6Xiov ?]

11XiBatnjOevrov ?]

----- | [itj (v&;)..................

c. A.D. 105

4.

P I N A R A (M inara)

Block of limestone m. 0,55 in height, m. 0,91 in breadth, and
m. 043 in thickness, broken at the top and on the rig h t
T A M IT 508 . J. A . O. Larsen. Tituli Asiae M inoris, IT. 508 in Classical
Philology 38 (1943). 1 7 7 -1**3: P a rt I. Introduction, Text and Commen­
tary. 246-255; P a rt II, Discussion.

[TTtvzpEcov 6

85j{i.o^ e?s{}A>iaev................ c a .

2 0 ............8<Svra

Ttaevjifrjjpdov '^aoBo-. vlav x a v f^ fu p tv x a i e?auiXXov yeyov 4t]oc apiffTou; raiy AufxJUov I5ixq>c- x a [ i ro p ia a v ra yopTpfl-J
xv x[ai] Ijcto[us] x a i [6j?Xa i7cxap[x]co [xai Trepairspov avrci toutw]
5 axTjyrjv x fa i 8]6vra TXtoeikny [£]xi8o[aiv d $ xovTjyia x a i xpaxuvqy ]ia x a i ipyupixau; EmSooEic x[a]i r e [rjfiftJjQxivov x a i
Sovr[a] rhvapsOatv xuvf/yia x a l itpfo]xuv^*pa x a [ l Taupo^oXta]
x a i ip y u p ix a ; bpftoaeu; xpqiTOv x a [l rraXivj frrftioljvxyuz x a v ro la- xjqtl |yavTC[ov] 8ov[r]a [K]i>yve£[?at]s xuvyjyta x a [i <7ipoxuvyj->]
10 xpoxfuv^yjia x a i dpyupudjv errWofftv, x a l rcayra -ra ?[i? apyjpt-]
xJjvercflSjofftv[ejrp* Lzpa[Ktvaf]8oox[a]lTafii([oJuxai Aocra-tou[xai ip ylyp?xf)v

x]at ^ pioa[a];£ia x a [i T]a{u]p[ofjtJaxia* x a i [86v-

ra] Ko[pv»JS[a]X?[ij]m[v] xuvrjyt? x a i rpoxvjyjTjyia x a i Taupo^<S[Xia
xaigv

W £[o ]? S6v r[« ] 7r[ep ]at^p [o ]y «ifo]

15

x o ;v [^ y

x[u xX i)xtv

&H>Jy[ov

Oumov* x a l
Sojyf-raJ TXtrt?[u<rt]y [xjyvr^ ia x a l Tcpoxvvrjvia x a l T ic c?[iTO{ierpiai;]
x i l afryupucqv bziSotJiy |vav[^o]c x a l TersifxijQiivov * xal]
Sovra TeXfwpos&Jiv xuv^yia x a l spoxuvijyut ufavo?]
AiSgrpoy [x]al ap[Y]upoqjv sro&ocr.v 7cp&r[o]v x a l [T]E-rsifrrjj'fi£vov*]
T[e]Tsi{X73jievov £s rcpftjv x a l utto Ei&>tt£<:>v x a l B?[X]£oupe[cov x a l Ao-]

20 Sarw y x a l KaXuv&lwv x a l

urz6 t % K ap tac «po£Kro[Siaca’/ra]

(A»pia$a5 i-r^xoui: X' • Trps^svaavra rp t; ur^p t[% Adxco^ •] <86vra>
tov^ u£v rS v ^svoxpiriov [mil^Tl^jxacty ava ,e, ~[5gx Ss {3gu-]
Xsurat^ xal ap-/_otrra7au: xal rolr - a ' xoivjL; ?e?sXs[x6<nv apxdu;
ficjva •Se^ajisvov aaxvtoc Ta? ftisvyujjaei^ tS v It^x[>.7}-cov, Tac re
25 eySJotEUC S'.oixrjCjavTa xa0apok xal aSciipoSox^rw? [Kpoc tJjv tov <je-]
[ivoTaTou $ixato8orou xal tJjv tu v ^evoxpwwv 5[taXa-]
- jcod Suu aov [xal] (jteyocX&f'f*-»]y.ov tv Tote Oci[

Larsen translates as follows:
The demos of Pinara (?) honored..........who gave to the whole
people a festival with a banquet, and who personally ranked among
the best men of the Lycians and furnished the hipparch with
supplies and horses and arms and in addition a tent for his own
personal u se; and who gave to the people of Tlos a sum of money
for doghunts and preliminary doghunts and the distribution of
money and was honored; and who gave for the people of Pinara
doghunts and preliminary doghunts and bullfights and a distribu­
tion of money first once and, again a second time, all sorts of
animal fights; and who was personally present and gave to the
people of Cyaneae doghunts and preliminary doghunts and a
distribution of money, and everything needed for a distribution
of money at the sanctuaries of Kynaithos (?) and Tamios (?) and
Losatios(?), and a distribution of money and animal fights and
bullfights; and who gave to the people of Corydalla doghunts and
preliminary doghunts and bullfights and recently gave in addition
mone3* for public bimonthly sacrifices; and who recently gave to
the people of Tlos doghunts and preliminary doghunts and distribu­
tions of grain and a distribution of money and was honored; and

who gave to the people of Tehnessus doghunts and preliminary
doghunts in the month of D ystnis and a distribution of money for
the first time and was honored; who has been honored also earlier
b y the people of Sidyma anti of Balbura and of Lydae (?) and of
Calvnda and by Caria for having lent 300,000 drachmas without
interest; who thrice served as an ambassador in behalf of Lycia;
who gave to each of the four divisions of foreign judges five thousand
drachmas, and to all bouleutai and archostatai and former holders
of federal magistracies two hundred drachmas each ; who, without
hesitation, took upon himself the furnishing of bail for those
summoned to appear before the courts and, honestly and without
taking bribes, served as advocate before the court of the most
august cpistates and the panel of foreign judges selected by lot ;
and who has been just and high m in d e d ..........
First century B.C.

G R A E C 1A -A CH A 1A

5 . A T H E N A E (Athens)
The following description has been taken from II. Heydemann,
Die Anliken Marmot -Bildxcerke zu A then, Berlin 1874, no. 379.
H. 0.37; B. 0 45; T. 0.37; Pentelischer Marmor. Grobe Arbeit.
Hicr un i da bestossen.
Oben fehlen die vier an den Ecken liegenden 0,16 langen Lowen,
die alle nach vorhin gerichtet waren: in der Mitte zwischen ihnen
ist ein nmder (Dm 0,12) Marmorstumpf erhalten (dessen Bedeutung
nicht 7.\\ bestimmen is t: etwa Rest einer Figur ?) Oben und unten
ringsum eine Einfassungsleiste.
I. An der VorderseUe die Inschrift.
II.
Auf der Riickseitc sind zwei diagonal gekreuzte brennende
Fackeln angebracht; in dem dadurch gebildeten oberen dreieckigen Felde finden sich eine Oenochoe und eine Pfanne (patella),
im unteren ein Tvmpanon und ein Pedum. Kechts und links je ein
Palmenbaum.

IO

THF. SOUBCHS

III. Rechte NcbenseUe
In der Mitte thronen die zwei Gottinncn Demeter und Kybele,
in Vorderansicht: jene (links), in Schuhen gegurtetem Chiton und
Mantel, der das Ilintcrhaupt vcrhullt, halt die Rcchte im Schooss
und in der erhobenen Linken eine brennende Fackel, die auf dcm
linken Schenkel aufruht und um dercn Schaft sich eine Schlange
emporringelt: dicse (rcchts) in Schuhen gegurtetem Chiton und
unterw&rts bcm intclt, auf dem Haupt die Mauerkrone, auf der
Brust zwci langc Haarlocken, halt die Rechte mit einer Schalc auf
dem Schooss und in der im Ellenbogen erhobenen Linken ein
Tvmpanon (sic). Links steht ein Mann, in Vorderansicht mit
rechten Spielbein, das Gesicht n.r. gewandt, in kurzem Chiton
und um den Hals geknupftem Mantel, do- lang uber den Rucken
herabfallt; er halt in jeder Hantl eine brennende Fackel uber den
Rucken n.r. empor. Rechts steht eine Frau in Vordcransicht,
m it rechtcm Spielbein, in gegurtetem Chiton poderes und Mantel,
der die rcchte Schulter und B nist freilasst, sie hallt in jeder Hand
eine langc Fackel umgekehrt zur Erde. Oben eine Blumenschnur,
von drci Bukranien gelialten, mit herabhangenden Tanicnden und
je einem Hlngeleuchter, der mit drei Bandera befestigt ist.
IV. Linke Nebenseite
R cchts und links je ein Palmenbaum mit Fruchten: an dem
Baum links hangt eine Syrinx und ist ein Tympanon angelehnt;
am anderen liangen zwei Cymbeln. Zwischen bciden Baumen ist
oben baldachinartig eine Decke aufgespannt. Darunter sitzt auf
einem Thron Kybele, in Vorderansicht, in gegurtetem Chiton und
Mantel, der die linke Schulter und den Untcrkorper bedeckt, auf
dem Kopfe (das Gesicht ist wcggcstosscn) die Mauerkrone, auf
der Brust zwei herabfallende Haarlocken. Die Gottm halt in der
im Ellebogen erhobenen Linken ein Tympanon und legt die Rechte
auf die linke Schulter dcs links nebcn ihr stehenden Attis, der die
rechte Hand auf das umgekehrt zur Erde gesetzte Pedum stutzt (und
die Linke in die Scitc gcsetzt hat ?); e r ist in Schuhen kurzem langarmeligen Chiton und um den Hals geknupftem Mantel, der uber den
Rucken und linken Arm herabfallt, und hat auf dem Kopfe die
Phrygischc Mutze. Rcchts neben Kybele liegt n.r. ein Lowe,
den K opf zu ihr umwendend.

THE raSCREPTTOSTS

II

IG i n , 172; G erhard Conzc. AUischer TauroboJienalUtr in Arch. ZeUung
21
(1863), 74-4*0.

I

*0 Ttpovovot? eodquXXtx;, ft ttjv

fisydtXTjv rcXiov a'S^cov

’Ap/sXetoc Y£'/srr#Ttpa^sm t*I^
’ A v t ( 5o<7'.v -zzksrrrfi “ R ] s Taupe.{ioXo’j x * P lv £"<"*<»>.

B o>;j.ov acva^TTTjirac!; *'Atts6>

'P ^ ;.

5 O u t c s KexporctT/v crir/zZ TroXtv, o5t& ? ev " A p f E ’*

N a t e r a s i, {Jiorov fiu o rtx a v eu S w cy a jv

AvnWt y ^P xXsiSouxo^ £90 (SamX>}L$os "HpTjc;
'E*» A epvij X’ £Xayrv {iiMTTiTroXou^ $xt£ar.
A (a)£ouydc txz K 6pr;r paoiXP/jflXo:;, U p i o^xoiv

io

"Hpac xXetOpx oepciiv Jitofiov £6rfx£ 'P^r;

'ApycXs’.a):;, TsXrnji; truvdyjjiara xp-JTrri £ock££xc
Topjpo^oXou Ttpwrov Seupo r c ^ x io fiiv r ^

6. A T H E N A E (Athens)
The following description has been taken from H. Ileydemann,
Die Anliken Marmor Bildwerke zu A t hen, Berlin 1873, no. 380.
H. 0.37; B. 0.40; T. 0.36. Pent. Marmor. Sehr grobe Arbeit.
ObcrflSche hier imd da bestossen.
Oben fehlen die vier an den Ecken licgendcn 0,15 langen Lowen
die alle nach vom hin gerichtet warcn: in dcr Mitte /wischen ihnen
findet sich ein 0.07 tiefes Loch (Dm 0,12) — zum Einlassen eines
Weihgeschenks ? Oder zur Spende? Ringsum Ablauf und Gesims.
I. Aui der V orderseile die Inschrift.
IT. Auf der HintersciU sind zwei diagonal gekreuzte brennende
Fackeln angebracht: in dcm dadnrch gebildeten oberen dreieckigcn
Felde finden sich cine geriffelte Oenochoe und eine Pfanne (Patella),
im unteien ein Tympanon und ein Pedum. R ed its und links je ein
Palmenbaum mit Fruchten.
III.

JitchU NebensciU. Oben bestossen.

I n d e r M itte th r o n e n d ie z w e i G d t tin n c n D c m c t c r u n d K y b c l c ,

in Vorderansicht: jene (links), in Schuhen Chiton und Mantel,
der das Hinterhaupt verhullt, halt die Rechte mit Aehren (?)
auf dem Schooss und in dcr erhobenen Linken eine brennende
Fackel, die auf dem Linken Schenkel aufruht und um die sich eine

T2

TTTE SOURCES'

Schlangc emporringelt; diese (rechts) in Schuhen gegurtetem Chiton
und unterwarts bemantelt. auf dem Kopf die Mauerkrone, auf der
Brust zwei herabfallende Haarlockcn, halt die Rechte mit der Schale
auf dem Schooss und in der im Ellenbogen gehobenen linken Hand
das Tympanon. Zwischen beiden liegt der Lowe, in Vordcransicht.
Links steht ein Mann, in Vorderansicht, mit linkem Spielbein
das Gesicht n.r. gewandt, in kurzem gegurtetem Chiton Ilosen
und um den Hals geknuptfer Chlamys, die uber den Rucken her­
abfallt, er halt in jeder Hand eine brennende Fackel uber der Brust
n.r. empor; sein K opf ist weggestosscn. Rcchts steht auf einer
Basis cine Frau (Kore), in Vorderansicht, in Schuhen gegurtetem
Chiton und Mantel, der die rechte Schulter und die Brust freiiasst,
sie neigt ein wenig den K opf n.l. und halt in den gcsenkten Handcn
je eine lange brennende Fackel umgekehrt zur Erde.
Oben eine Fruchtschnur, von drei Bukranicn gehalten, mit zwei
kleinen Hangeleuchtcrn, die mit drei Bandern an je einem Feston
herabhangen.
IV. Linke Nebenscitc
Rechts und links je ein Palmenbaum mit Fruchten: an dem links
hangt eine Syrinx, am anderen hangcn Cymbeln. Zwischen beiden
Baumen ist oben baldachinartig cine Decke aufgespannt. Darunter
sitzt auf einem Thron (mit Fussbank) Kybele, in Vorderansicht,
in Aermelchiton und unterwarts bemantelt, auf dem Kopf die
Mauerkrone, auf der Brust zwei herabfallende Haarlocken, sie halt
in der im Ellenbogen erhobenen Linken das Tympanon und legt
die Rechte auf die linke Schulter des links nebcn ihr stehenden
Attis, welcher in Vorderansicht. mit rechtem Spielbein, den K opf zur
G ottm wendct und die Linke in die Seite setzt, wahrend die gesenkte
rechte Hand sich auf ein Tympanon und das umgekehrt auf die
Erde aufgesetzte Pedum aufstutzt. E r ist in Schuhen kurzem
langarmeligcn Chiton und um den Hals gcknupfter Chlamys.
die uber den Rucken und linken Arm herabfallt; auf dem Kopf
hat cr die Fln ygisd ic MQtze. Rechts nebcn Kybele liegt n. r. am
Boden der Lowe, zur Gottin umblickend.
IG HI. 173.

M cri rijv urar(eiav) 'Ovwpvou xai | Euo$lov> -po ei; KaX(avSwv)

T o u vta v |'A p x ^ v T O ? )‘ Epfio-j^vov^

eteXcoOtj

I ravpoJlAXiov ev "AOtj-

vau;, fijTcsp -apaX a^ ojv Mouacavtoc | 6 Xaft(7rp6rorro^)

tt'

TcXrrijc

auv lO/joa tov {Jtojiiv aval |6qxa.

27th May A.D . 387.
D A LM A TIA

7 . ASSERTA (Podgradje)
Vir tcgatus stans manu dextra asciam, sinistra cornu copiae
tenens, in sinistra latere patera.
In dextro praefericulum simpulum, culter, caput arietis.
C IL III. 9935 -

-

- [MatriJ M(agnae) - - / Q(uintus) Petr on ins / Philippus.
IT A L IA
R f.g io X I

8. COLONIA IU L IA A U G U ST A TAU R IN O RU M (Torino)
In sinistro latere patera, in dextro urceus.
C IL V. 6961.

Viribus I aeterai / taurobolio / Sempronia / Eutocia.

9 COLONIA IU L IA AU G U STA TAU R IN O RU M (Torino)
Columna marmorea malis litteris.
C I L V . 6962.

Viri[bjus I aetemi / taurobolio / P. Ulattius / Prise us.
R f.g io V ITI

10.

FORUM P O P IL 11 (near Carinola)

In sinistro latere urceus; in dextro patera.
C IL X , 4726-

Munatia / Reddita sa/ccrd(os) XVvir(alis) / taurobol(ium) /
fecit I X II kal(cndas) dec(embres) / Glabrione / II cons(ule).
20th November A.D. 186.

Laitvm
1 1 . ROMA (Rome)
Ara marmorea.; in latere dextro pin us, ex cuius ramis hinc syrinx,
illinc pedum pendent; in latere sinistra capita tauri et arietis,
tympana duo.
C I L VT, 497; Dessau. 4145-

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) T(daeae) / D(ominis) N(ostris) Constan/
tio et Maximia/no nob(ilissimis) Caes(aribu)s / V cons(ulibu)s
X V III k(alendas) Mai(as) / Tulius Italicus / v(ir) cl(arissimus) X V v ir s(acris) f(aciundis) tauro/bolium percepi felic(iter).
14th April A.D . 305.

12 . ROM A (Rome)
C I L V I. 498.

__ T l i n e ...........I Antonin[us] / v(ir) c(larissimus) pontif(ex) et
[quin]/decemvir sa(cris) f(aciundis) / taurobolio / confecto III
kal(endas) / Ma(ias) Fl(avio) .\nicio et / Nigriniano cons(ulibu)s /
aram feliciter / consecravit.
29th April A.D. 350.

13. ROMA (Rome)
CTT- VT. 499; Dessau. 4147.

Matri Deum Magnae / Idaee Summae Pa/renti Hermae et Attidi /
Menotyranno In\icto / Clodius Hermogenianus / Caesarius v(ir)
c(larissimus) procons(ul) Africae / praefec(tus) urbis Romae / X Vvir s(acris) f(aciundis) taurobolio / criobolioque perfecto / XIITI
kal(endas) Aug(ustas) diis animae / suae mentisque custodibus /
aram dica\it / D(omino) N(ostro) Gratiano Aug(usto) ter / et
[Fl(uvio)] Aequitio cons(ulibu)s.
19th July A.D. 374.

14. ROMA (Rome)
C I L VT. 501; Dessau. 4149.

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) / et Attidi Sancto / Mono-

tyranno / Q(uintus) Clodius Flavianus / v(ir) c(larissimus) pont(ifex)
maior / X V v ir s(acris) f(aciundis) septem/vir epulonum / pontifex
Dei soils I taurobolio criobo/lioque percepto / aram dicavit / nonis
Aprilibus I FI(aviis) Merobaudc II / et Satumino / cons(ulibu)s.
5th April A.D. 383.

15. ROMA (Rome)
In Jaevo latere ardentes faces duae decussatae, patera, urceus
pedum et cochlear.
CTT- V I. 502; Dessau, 4150.

................ u(xor) c(larissima) f(emina) / sacerdus maxima /
M(atris) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) taurobolio / criobolioque
repeti/to Diis Omnipotent!/bus M(atri) D(cum) et A tti / aram
dicavit I nonis Aprilibus / Fl(avio) Merobaudc / v(iio) c(larissimo)
iterum / et Fl(avio) Satumino / v(iro) c(larissimo] cons(ulibu)s.
Line 1 has also been supplemented as: v(iri) c(larissimi) f(ilia).
5th April A.D. 383.

16. ROMA (Rome)
C I L V I, 503; Dessau, 4 15 1 ; Gordon, 342.

Diis Omnipotentibus / Lucius Ragonius / Vcnustus v(ir) c(larissiraus) I augur publicus / p(opuli) r(omani) Q(uiritium) pontifex /
Vestalls maior / percepto taurobolio / criobolioque / X kal(endas)
Ion(ias) / D(omino) N(ostro) Valentiniano / Aug(usto) 1111 et /
Neoteric cons(ulibu)s aram consecravit.
23rd M ay A.D. 390.

17. ROMA (Rome)
Basis magna marmorea; in dextro latere pinus, a qua crotala
et fistulae compactac pendent ct subtus adslal aiics alligaLus,
in sinistro item pinus, a qua pedum et fistulae duae pendent, et
inferius stat taurus.
C I L V I, 504; Dessau, 4153; C IM R M no. 514; C E . 264.

1

Dis Magnis / Ulpius Egnatius Faventmns / v(ir) c(Iarissimus)
augur pub(licus) p(opuli r(omani) Q(uiritium) / pater et hicroceryx
D(ei) S(olis) I(nvicti) M(ithrae) / archibucolus Dei U beri / h iero
fanta Hecatae sa/cerdos Isidis percepto / taurobolio criobolioq(ue) /
idibus Augustis D(ominis) N(ostris) / Valente Aug(usto) V et
Valentinia/no Aug(usto) cons(ulibu)s feliciter / Vota Faventinus
bis deni / suscipit orbis / U t mactet repetcns aurata / fronts bicomes.
13th August A.D. 376.

18 . ROMA (Rome)
Ara marmorea; Cybele turrita in bigis sedens a leonibus vecta,
dextra spicas et milium, sinistra tympanum gerit. Stat contra
A ttis puer pinui innixus, braccatus et mitratus, dextra mento
subiecta, sinistra tympanum
ad p**des a tergo adstat
pedum. In pinu avis sedet.
Tn latere dextro incisae erant faces duae decussatae cum crotalis,
in sinistro fistulae ac tibiae, in parte postica j)inus visitur, de qua
pendent crotala, syrinx, vasa variae formiae, inter ramos eius
aviculne tres et gall us, adstant taurus et aries vittati et coronati.
CIT- VT, 505; Dessau. 4143.

M(atris) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) et Attinis / L(ucius) Cornelius
Scipio Oreitus / v(ir) c(larissimiis) augur taurobolium / sive criobolium fecit / die IIXI kal(endas) Mart(ias) / Tusco et Annulino
co(n)s(ulibu)s.
In the ' Provinzialmuseum’ at Bonn there is a fragment of an
inscription concerning the same person. The text is as follows:
- - Oreitu - - / - - bolium ---- / ----- m fecit.
See CLL V I, 30.781 ad CTT. VT, 505; J. K lein. Rdmisches Inschriftfragment aus N eopel in Bonner Jahrbucher 88 (1889), 245-246; H .
Lehner. D ie A niiken Sieindenkmahr (its Provinzialmttstums in Bonn,
B on n 1918, no. 1404.
2 6 th F f h n m r y A TV 295

19. ROMA (Rome)
Ara magna marmorc-a, in parte antica infra inscriptionem pileus

TH E IN SCRIPTIO N S

17

sacerdotalis sculptus e s t; in dextro latere tibiae; aliaque instrumcnta srmphoniaca coitus Mithraci; in sinistro faces.
C IL V I. 506; Dessau. 4144; Gordon. 308.

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) et Attidi / L(ucius) Cornelius Scipio
Orfitus v(ir) c(larissimus) / augur ex voto / taurobolio sive / criobolio
facto.
A.D. c. 295.

20 . ROMA (Rome)
c n . V I. 507; C lM K M no. 523.
D(ominis) N(ostris) Constantino et / Maximino Aug(ustis) III
co(n)s(uLbu)s / C(aius) Magius Donatus / Severianus v(ir) c(larissimus) I pater sacrorum / Invicti Mitbrae / Hierophantes / T.iberi
Patris et I Hecatarum [tjau/robolium feci(t) / XYTT k[a]l(endas)
Maias.
15th April A .D . 313.

21 . ROMA (Rome)
C I 1. V I . 508; Dessau, 4146.

Potentiss(imis) Diis [M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(deae) et At]/ti
M enotyranno---- / Serapias li(onesta) f(emina) sacr(ata) [Deum] /
Matris et Proserpinae / taurobolium criobol(ium) caemo / perceptum
per FL Aatoni/um Eustochium sac(erdotem) Phr>-g(em) /max(imum)
praesentb(us) et tradentib(us) / c(larissimis) v(iris) ex ampliss(imo)
et sanctiss(imo) / coll(egio) XVvir(orum) s(acris) f(aciundis) die
X III kal(endas) / Maias Cerealibus D(ominis) N(ostris) / Constantino
Max(imo) Aug(usto) V et / Licinio lun(iore) Caes(are) co(n)s(ulibu)s.
19th April A.D. 319.

22 . ROMA (Rome)
Ara grandis; in dextro latere Cybele turrita cum tympano a
leonibus vehitur; prope pinus stat subtus taurus; m sinistro latere
mitratus Artis bis cinctus, dextra fistulas et crotala, sinistra pedum
tenens. Superius est tympanum; a tergo ipsius stat pinus et sub

ea aries in parte a versa sunt tedae transversae, iituus, patera,
guttus sive urceus et simpuvhini.
C I L VT, 509; I G X T V . 1018; C 1M K M no. 524.

M-rj-rspi TTj tmcvtgjv ‘ Pet?) [6sup] -re yEvsOXcp
'A tts i 0' -jyurrcp xai ctjv'£y_o]vn to tow
Ttp Tcacnv itxipov; Oeuefpor^Jpa -xvrx ©uovn
Kpio(36Xau teXsttj; i][$* £ri rjxjpo^oXou
5 MootwcqXoi; tsXetmv [Isp&v ajvsfrfjxaTO {Scojiov
Aoipov ’AtioXXwvo; [to’jvo{x']e/cov ferrixXijv.
Petronius Apol[lod]orus v(ir) cflarissiraus) / pontif(ex) maior
XJVvir s]acr(is) fac(iundis) / pater sacr(orum) Dei In[vic]ti Mithrae
I taurobolio crio [boli]oq(ue) percepto / una cum Ruf(ina) Vo[lus]iana
c(larissima) f(cmina) con/iuge X V I kal(endas) Iuflias] D(ominis)
N(ostris) I Valentiniano et Val[ea]te Aug(ustis) I I I co(n)s(ulibu)s.
16th June A .D . 370.

23 . ROMA (Rome)
Ara marmorea grandis; in latere dextro pinus. e cuius truncis
pendent tibiae et tiara, item aries, in latere sinistro pinus itidem,
e cuius ramis pendent tympanum, fistula item taurus, a tergo item
faces patera et vasa.
C I L VT, 510; Dessau, 4152; CIM RM no. 520.

Dis I Magnis / Matri Deum et Attidi Se/xtilius Agesilaus Aedesius
I v(ir) c(larissimus) causarum non ignobi/lis Africani tribunalis
ora/tor et in consistorio / principum, item magiste/r libellor(um)
et cognition(um) / sacrarum magister epistu/lar(um) magister
memoriae / vicarius praefector(um) per / Hispanias vice s(acra)
c(ognoscens) pa/ter patrum Dei Solis Invi/cti Mithrae Hierofanta /
Hecatar(um) Dei I.iberi archi/bucolus taurobolio / criobolioq(ue)
in aeter/num renatus aram sacra, vit D(ominis) N(ostris) Valcn/tc
V et Valentiniano / Iun(iorc) Aug(ustis) cons(ulibu)s idib(us) /
Augustis.
13th Augustus A.D. 376.

24 . ROMA (Rome)
Magna ara mutilata. In quattor angulis superioribus tauri
cassi iacent; in sinistro latere aries ad pinum, in qua tympanum
est; a dextris ad pinum taurus, ex qua pedum, fistulae, mitra
pendent; a tergo faces lucentes transvcrsae decussatim.
C I L V I , 5 1 1 ; C D IR M no. 522; C K , 1529.

M(atri) D(oum) M(agnae) Idaeae et Attidi Menoturanno S(ancto)
I nobilis in causis forma celsusq(ue) Sabinus/ hie pater Invicti mystica
victor habet / sermo d u o s------ reservans / consimiles a u fert------- /
et vencranda movet Cibeles Triodeia signa / augentur mentis
simbola tauroboli / Ruf(ius) Caeoni(us) Cae(oni) Sabini f(ilius),
v(ir) c(larissimus), p(ontifex) m(aior) hierof(anta) d(eae) Hecat(ae)
aug(ur) I pub(licus) p(opuli) r(omani) Q(uiritium) pater sacror(um)
Invicti MeLhrac(sic), tauroboliatus / M(atria) D(cmn) M(agnac)
Id(aeae) et A ttidis Minoturani et aram ITII id(us) Mart(ias)/Gratiano V etM erobaude consulibus dedicabit.
Antiqua generose domo cui regia Vestae
Pontifici felix sacrato militat igne
Idem augur triplicis cultor venerande Dianae
Persidiciq(ue) Mithrae antistes Babilonie templi
Tauroboli(que) simul magni dux mistici sacri.
12th March A .D . 377.

25 . ROMA (Rome)
Ara rudis ac male habita; supeme arietes quinquc, singuli
scilicet in singulis angulis atque unus in fronte mactati iacent;
in latere dextro stat arics sub pinu; a qua tympanum fistulae
compactae et crotala dependent; in sinistro taurus stat sub altera
pinu, a qua pedum et singulares fistulae duae suspensae sunt; a
tergo sunt faces transversae.
C I L VT, 5 12 ; Dessau. 4154.

[M(atri) D(cum) M(agnae) I(daeae) et Attidi Menotyranno Dis
Magnis c]t I [t]u[t]atoribus suis / Ceionius Rufius Volu[si]/anus
v(ir) c(larissimus) et inlustrfis] / ex vicario Asie et Ceio/ni Rufi

Volusiani v(iri) c(larissimi) / et inlustris c x prefecto [pre]/torio et
ex prefccto ur[bi] / et Cecine Lolliane clar[issil/me et inlustris femin[e]
I Deae Isidis sacerdotis fi[lius] / iterato viginti annis exp[le]/tis
taurobolii sui aram constitu[itj / et consccra.vit X kal(endas) Iun(ias)
D(omino) N(ostro) Va(len]/tiniano Aug(usto) I III et Neoterio
c{o(n)s(ulibu)s].
23rd May A.D. 390

26 . ROMA (Rome)
Cippus marmoreus, littenie male exaratae sunt, ut saepius
distingui non possint.
C I L V I . 1675: C IM K M no. 516.

Kamenii / Alfcnio Ceionio luliano / Kamenio v(iro) c(larissimo)
q(uaestori) k(andidato) praeton tri/umf(ali) VTIviro epulonum
mag(istro) / p(atri) s(a)c(rorum) Summi Invicti Mitrai icr(o)/fante
Accate arc(hi)b(ucolo) Dei Lib(eri) XV/viro s(acris) f(aciundis)
tauroboiiato D(eum) M(atris) / pontifici raaiori consula/ri pro\-indae
Numidiae / iustitiae eius provisioni/busq(ue) confotis omnibus /
diocescos / g e n t i li s ------ p ( ? ) m ( ? ) Restitutus comicu/
larius cum carticularis officii statuam / in dome sub acre posuerunt.
c. A .D . 380.

27 . ROMA (Rome)
Basis marmorea.
C I L V I. 1778; G ordon. 339; C D fR M no. +20.

Agorii I Vettio Agorio Praetextato viro clarissimo / pontifici
Vestae / pontifici Soti(s) / quin<lecem\riro / auguri / tauroboiiato /
curiali I neocoro / hierofantae / patri sacrorum / quacstori / candidato / praetori urbano / conrectori Tus/ciae et Umbriae / consulari /
Lusitm iae / proconsuli Achaiae / praefecto urbi / praefecto praet(orio) IT I Italiae et Ulyriui / consul! / designato / dcdicata kal(endis)
febr(uariis) / D(omino) N(ostro) Fl(a\io) Valentiniano Aug(usto)
III I et Eutropio cons(ulibu)s.
1st February A.D. 387.

TH E IN SCRIPTIO N S

21

28 . ROMA (Rome)
Basis magna marmorea.
C IL V I, 1779; Dessau.
T-ambredits, Crgns.

1259; C E ,

1 1 1 ; detailed

discussion in

a) Details the offices both secular and religious of Vettius
Agorius Praetextatus, and is the same as No. 27. The religious
offices oi his wife are also listed— for these see No. 29.
d) Gives Paulina’s eulogy of her husband. Verses 25-27 are as
follows:
te teste cunctis imbuor mysteriis
tu Dindymenes Atteosqu[e] antistitem
teletis honoras taurels consors pius.
c . A .D . 385.

29 . ROMA (Rome)
C IL V I . 1780.

Fabiae Aconiae Paulinae c(larissimae) f(eminae) / filiae Aconi[i]
Catullini v(iri) c(larissimi) ex praef(ecto) et consule ord(irarii) /
uxori Vetti Praetextati, v(iri) c(larissimi) praef(ecti) et consulis designati /
Sacratae apud Eleusinam Deo Iaccho Cereri et Corae / sacratae
apud Laemam Deo Libero et Cereri et Corae / sacratae apud
Aeginam Deabus, tauroboliatac, Lsiacae / hierophantriae Deae
Hecatae Graeco sacraneae Deae Cereris.
c . A .D . 3 70 .

30 . ROMA (Rome)
Cippus in cuius lateribus Cybele cum arbore pinei et Attis
cum capitibus bovum.
C IL V I , 30.780; IG R R I. 93; IG X IV . 1020.

Mtjtp'. Osov
E l s Sexxttcvte avSpcuv, Oot^ou <TTe<pav7]9opo;
Kpr[ay.riv '

te

A e6vno$

00901 av^pe;

*2

i n n SOURCES

“O ? uev

xtz'

iw oXir^, tq 8’ &p‘ £9’

"OpYta (TJvp£^or/rs Osat Traajjujropi. *Peb}t
Kpioj&Xou TsXsrrf? xal raupopaXoio 9£aloTY]S
Atgiaai (uwmmJXou; fkouov fcceprCBecrocv.
Zippel, 518-519 proposes the change of at^iaci into Tjjxaat. ^ laoi
then mean 'm ystic object’, i.e. the vires.

yjMTziizoXoic, would

4th century A.D.

31 . ROMA (Rome)
C I L V I, 30.966; IG X I V . 1019.

5>jv£gXgv euajy£tov TsXstojv | avsOTjXi S a l i v a
jjtov

drfrjpaciov

|

A ojittoSiou

OuyxfT/jp

| ' A t t s i x a l 'P is ir ,
[JXYaX^TO (po^

op yia

AlJO-k I x a l (po^spa^ 'E xajTT}? vinczar ETrtinrnrji^vK).

D(omino) N(ostro) Gratiano Aug(usto IV )/et Fl(avio) Merobaude
co(n)s(ulibu)s.
A D. 377.

32 . ROMA (Rome)
Fragmenta basis magnae marmoreae.
C I L V I, 31.940; C IM R M no. 395 A .

Alfenio Ceio[nio Ijuliano / Kamenio v(iro) c(larissimo) [quaest(ori)
k(andidato) prajetori / triumfali VT[Iviro epujlonum / mag(istro)
numfmis) patrji sacrjorum / Summi Tnvicjti Mjithrae Iliero/phantae
Hec[ata]e archibucolo / Dei Liberi XV[vi]ro s(acris] f(aciundis)
taurobo/liato Deum M[atri]s pontifici / maiori con[sul]ari Numidiae /
iustitia eius e[t pro]visionibu[s] / confotis omnib(us) Diocejseos] /
s[ua]e I Ianuarianus [Nym]fidius eti — / promoti cum [c]ollegis /
officii I statna[m] in d[omo suaj / d[edica]verunt.
c. A.D. 380.

33 . ROMA (Rome)
The following description is taken over from P. Fabrc in Melanges
d’archeologie et d’histoire 40 (1923), 3-18.

m e,

D v.iur i i u ^ o

“J

L'autel a environ 0,75 m de large, 0,60 dc profondeur, et, dans

1’dtat oil a nous est parvenu, 0,57 m de haut. Sur le cote droit est
sculpts un arbre qu’a sa forme, a ses feuilles en aiguilles et a ses
fruits, on le reconnait ais^ment pour un pin.
A ses branches sont suspendus, a gauche une syringe a cinq
tuyaux, a droite un tympanum, et peat-etre un pedum. Au tronc
de l ’arbre est appuy&s la double flute; dans la partie infdrieure
dtait represents un taureau, dont on pent encore voir la t£te, le
cou et la croupe.
Du c6t£ gauche est repet£ le mcme arbre, aux branches duquel
on voit, cette fois, d ’un cdtd les cym bales, de l’autre le bonnet
phrygien, qui coiffe l’extrdmitd d'un rameau, et la sviinge, ici a
quatre tuyaux seulement. A u pied de l'arbre on distingue encore
malgrd plusieurs cassurcs de la pierre, la tete, le cou, et la croupe
d'un beJer. Ces deux reliefs sont ex6cutfe> sans <3£gance, mais avee
un certain soin. L a face postdrieure de l’autel est au contraire
sculptee tres sommairement et grossierement.
Dans les champs triangulaires circonscrits par deux torches
croisees en forme d ’X , on reconnait, en haut, une patfcre, a gauche
un pedum, a droite une aiguicre. Tout autour se deroule une longue
guirlande, evidemment une infula.
A E 1923, no. 29. T his inscription has often been discussed. See e .g .:
O. Marruchi in N S A 1922, 81-87;
Cum ont in C R A I 1923. 253;
P F ab rc in M&anges d’archiologie et d'histoire. 40 (1923), 3-18 and
in Rendiconti della R . Accademia N asionak dei L in e d V I, 1 (1925).
858; II. J . R o se in JH S 43 (1923), 194-196 and 45 (1925). 180-183; A .
Vogliani in Rendiconti della R. A cc-ademia Nasionale dei Lincei, V I,
1 (*925). 3-9; ITondrasin S E G I I , no. 518 ; M . J. L agran ge m Revue
Biblique 36 (1927). 5G1-566; M. G uarducci, Cristo e S. Pietto in un
documento precostar.tiniano della Necropoli Vaticana, K om a 1953. 66
and 60 n ote 167.
,rE p va voov Ttpr^tv {kov £"o y o v eoflX a T^poTtavra
r 4 [(ia ]X (o u -p x rr {S 6 j[v ] t o u t o oepco t o Ouua
* 0 $ A [tjo u ]? 7taXtvop<iov h z '

EupufJtrjv tkxXi Taupov

’'H y a y e x a l xpet&v (jujifJoXov z x m r j p f c .
'O x t w y a p X u x a ^ a v r o ; t n ‘ e tx o m v T jp su eovrac

Nuxtx $iacxsS<£<?ac a 36u; Shpce oao
................rpvj............ [v]6o?

Fabre proposes as translation: „Je portc comme offrande les
oeuvres, la pens<5c, l’action, la vie superietire, toutes les vert us de
l’&me de Gamalias, qni au Tout-Puissant Ressuscitd (de Deo), a
deux fois amene le taureau et le bdliex, gage du bonheur. II a, en
effet, disperse la nuit, et, pour vingt annees de paLx, r^tabli la
lumifcredu salut".
Rose suggests: ,,I present in this offering the works, thought,
action, excellence of life, and all the goodness of wise Ga . . . .lios;
for he dedicated and brought once more into the m ighty One, that
rose again the bull and the ram, that is the symbol of fair hap.
Yea, he scattered the darkness that had endured cight-andtw enty barren years, and made the light of salvation the shine
again” .
Lagrange, who opposed the translation of 7coXtvop<7ov b y ’rise
again’ gives the following version:
„Les oeuvres, la pensee, la conduite. la vie superieure, tout ce
qu'il v a de bicn dans l’ame de Gamalias, je (it is the altar that is
speaking) l’offre en sacrifice, lui qui, avanc£ en 4ge, a ajoute de
nouveau un fort taureau d’une seconde offrande et un better,
symbole de bonheur. Car aj'ant dissipe la nuit, 8 annees apres
vingt, a ne rien faire, il a une fois de plus fait brillcr la lumiere.”
4th century A.D . ?

34 . ROMA (Rome)
A E i«i53, no. 238; G hetti - F c m ia - J o n - Kirschbaum , Esploraxxoni sotto
la confessions di San Pietro in Vaticano tseguiie negli anni 1940-1949,
C ittn del V aticano. 1951. 14-15.

Diis Magnis / M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(deae) et / Attidi
Sancto Mcnotvranno / Alfenius Ceionius Iulianus / Kamenius
v(ir) c(larissimus) VTIvir epul(onum)/ pater et hieroceryx sacr(orum)
S(ummi) I(nvicti) / Mithrae hierofanta Haecatae / arch(i)bucolus
Dei I-iberi / aram tanmbolio criobolio/que perccpto dicabit / die
X IIII kal(endas) Aug(ustas) D(omino) N(ostro) Gratiano / Aug(usto)
III et Equitio cons(ulibu)s.
19th July A.D. 374.

35 . OSTIA
Duo fragments tabulae marmorcac.
C IL X I V , 40 and 4301; A E 1920, no. 92: N S A (1919), 74.

Taurob[olium factum M(atri) D(enm) M(agnae) I(deae) pro
salute] /Im[p(eratoris) Cacs(aris)]/M(ard) Aurel[i Antonini Aug(usti)
et] I I.(uci) Aureli [Commodi Caes(;irLs) et] / Faustina [Aug(ustae)
et cetero]/rum libe[ronun eorum, scnatui, XVvir(is) s(acris)
f(aciundis) equest(ri)] / ordin(i) ex[ercitui p(opuli) r(omani)] /
navigan[tibus]. . . r o ......... / decurio[nibus] coloni[ae Ostiensium] /
canno[phoris] dendroph[oris] / n a t ............atis ta u r o b ........... / in
[campo Matrlis Denm col[oniae Ostiensium] / ------- eorum ea[rumq(ue) - - A.D. 169 175.
On the back of this stone is the following inscription:

36 . OSTIA
Duo fragmenta eiusdcm tabulae marmoreae.
C IL X I V , 41 and 4302; Dessau. 4135.

Crinobotium (sic) factum [Matril/Dcum Magn(ae) Ideae pr[o salute]/
Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) L. A[eli Aureli] / C[ommodi Augusti] /
[tojtiusq(ue) dom[us divinae] / ----- miam / ----------- ux vl - - / [Combarijsio Hes[perione --] / [decurionum decret]o publ[ice?]
c. A.D. 169-175.

37 . OSTIA
Ara marmorca.
C IL X I V , 39: Dessau, 4 155; H . T hvlan dcr. Inscriptions i u Port
d’Qstie. L und 1952, no. B 303.

Aemilia / Serapias / taurobolium fecit / et aram taurobolatam /
posuit I per sacerdotes / Valerio Pancarpo / idib(us) Mais Anullino
II / et Frontone co(n)s(ulibus).
15th May A.D. 199.

35

THE SOURCES

3 8. OSTIA
C I L X I V , 42; Dessau, 526; 4141: tex t taken from a photo.

Tau[robolium factum Matri Deuml / Mag[nae Idcae pro salute
et victoria] / Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) C(aii) V jlb i Treboniani Galli
Pii]/Fel(ids) Aug(usti) et [Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) C(aii) Vibi Afini
Galli] I Veldum[niani Voljusiani P[ii Fel(icis)] / Aug(usti) tot[iu]sq(ue) domus divin(ae) eor(um) [et] / [senatus X V ] vir(orum) s(acris)
f(aciundis) equestr(is) ordin(is) [exercituum navalium] navigantium
Is....
A.D. 251-253.

39 . OSTLA
Fragment um tabulae marmoreae.
C I L X I V . 43.

Taurobolium factum / Matr(i) D(eum) Magn(ae) Idaeae pro /
salut(e) et redit(u) et victor(ia) imp(eratoris).

40 . OSTIA
Tabulae marmorcae cr. m. 0.03 fragmenta ut \idetur quattuor.
C I L X I V , 4303; te x t taken from a photo.

.................. oboliu[m factum] / [M(atri) D(eum)] M(agnae) I (deae)
pro salafte et] / [r]edit(u) et victo[ria]/--------./P it Felic(is) Aug(usti)
e t— /--------Aug(usti) nostri totpusque] / domus divinac sinatui (sic)
XV[virisj /sac(ris) fac(iundis) equestriordin[i]/erecitui (sic) p(opuli)
r(omani) matri[b(us) ?
A.D. 222- 235.
4 1 . OSTIA
Tabula marmorea, quae a tribus parti bus fracta est, a sinistra
integra esse videtur.
C I L X TV. 4304.

---- 1 -----rm Clodio f e ----- / M(atris) M(agnae) D(eum) col(oniae)

TH E IN SCR IPTIO N S

27

Ost(iensium) et I u ----- / eadem sacerdo[te XY]/viral(i) astante
lus — I Aureliu Bas - - /

42 . O STL\
Fragmenttim tabulae marmorcae utrumque inscriptac (m. 0,145 X
m. 0,095).
C I L X I V , 4305.

a I [pr]o sal[ute] / ........... /
b / - - u t e ---- I ----- n t ------- /

43 . O STIA
Tabula marraorea.
C I L X I V . 4300.

- - [pro saljute e t ---- / -----[r]edit[u] - -

44 . O STIA
Base of a statue.
A E 1945, no. 55; Epigraphies 3 (1941). 103-109.

Volusianus v(ir) c(larissimus) ex pra/efectis tauroboliatus d(edit)
d(edicavit).
c. A .D . 370.

45 . O STIA
A E 1948, no. 25; A tti della Pontificia Acoademia Romana di Archeologia, Memorie VT. 6 (1946). 197 -

Marca/rianus / v(ir) c(larissimus) taur(oboliatus) / M(atri) D(eum)
d(edicavit).

46 . LA V IN IU M (Pratica)
A E 1895. no. 120; E E I X . no. 5 8 7 ;Bullet. Comun. di Roma (1895), 146.

— ins M a x i-- / [sacerdos M(atris)] D(eum) M(agnae) I(deae)
L(aurentium) L(avinatium) e t ---- / [sacjerdotia taurob[olium] - / - it
V ITII III - - 1 - bres Aspro iteru[m et] / Aspro co(n)s(u!ibus).
A.D. 212.

28

THE SOURCES

47 . ANTIUM (Porto d’Anzio)
E E v n i . 648: CE. 654.

Inter avos proavosque tuos sancmmque parentem/
virtutum mentis et honoribus emicuisti/
Ornamentum ingens generis magniquc senatus/
sed raptus propere liquisti. sancte Kameni/
Aeternos fletus obiens iuvcnalibus annis/
Te dulcis coniunx lacrimis noctesque diesque/
Cum parvis deflet natis, solacia vitae/
Amisissc dolens casto viduata cubili/
Quae tamcn extremum munus; solacia Iuctus/
Omnibus obscquiis om ai decoratque sepulchrum/
Alfenio Ceionio Iulinno Kamenio v(iro) c(larissimo) quaestori
caudidalu / pretori triumfali, Y'llviro epulonum, patri sacrorum
Summi / Invicti Mitre, hierofante Aecatae, ardbucolo Dei Liberi,
X V viro I s(acris) f (aciundis) taurolx>liato Deum Matris, pontifici maiori, consulari / Numidiac et vicario Africae, qui v is it
annos X L I 1, m(enses) V7! , d(ies) X III / rec(essit) II nonas septemb(res), D(omino) N(ostro) Archadio et Fl(avio) Bautone v(iris)
c(larissimis) cons(ulibu)s.
4th September A.D. 385.

48 . GABTI (Castiglione)
C I L X I \ r, 2790; Dessau, 4118.

Matri Deum /Magnac Ideae/Pom pdus Rusonianus/co(n)s(ularis)
X V vir sacris / faciundis / taurobolium movit.
c. A.D. 204.
Pompeius Rusonianus was magister of the college of X V v in in
204 (cf. Acta ludttrum, E E V l l i , 282).

49 . FO R M IA E (Formia)
C IL X . 6075.

Imp(eratore) Gordiano II / Aug(usto) et Pompeiano co(n)-

THE IN SCRIPTIO N S

2 f)

s(ulibus) I H e lv ia S tep h a n is / sacerd os M (atris) M (agnae) I(d cae) /
tau ro bo liu m .

A.D. 241.
K e g io

I

50 . PU TE O LI (Poxzuoli)
C I L X . 1596.

L (icio ) Iulio Ur[soServiano] / co(n)s(ule) III non(is) 0 [ct(obribus)]
I etitium taurobolium / Veneris Caclestae et Panteliu[m ?] ] Herennia
Fortunata inperio deae / per Ti(tum) Claudium Felicem sacerd(otem)
I itenita est-

7th October A.D. 134.

51 . R U F R A E (near Presen zano)
C I L X , 4829.

Matri Deum Optimae Maxim(ae) / sacra taurobol[i] / l(ibens)
m(erito) f(ecit) Sabidia T(iti) f(ilia) Cornelia.
2nd century A.D.
R egio IV

52 . T E A T E M A R R U C IN O R U lf (Chieti)
CIT- I X . 3014; Dessau, 4137.

Pro salute / Imp(eratoris) Maxi[imin]i Aug(usti) et / M[aximi]
Caes(aris) / taurobolium mo/vit Petronius Ma/rcellus sacerd(os) /
de suo.
A.D. 235-238.

53 . T E A T E M ARRUCINORUM (ChieU)
C I L I X 3015; Dessau, 4138.

Crioboiium et / acmobolium movit / de suo Petronius Mar/cellus
sacerdos V I kal(endas) / dec(embres) IllU 'iris Primo et lusto.
26th November A.D. 235.

30

THE SOURCES
R e g io

II

54 . B EN EV EN TU M (Benevento)
CJLL I X . 1538; D u th o y. Minerva.

A ttini sacrum / ct Mincrvae Berednt(iae) / Concordia col(oniae)
lib(erta) Ianuari[a] / c(y]mbal(istra) [l]oco secundo ob / criobolium
factum M(atri) De(um) / Ma(gnac) tradeatib(us) Scptimio / Primitivo augurc ct sac(crdotibus) / Servilia Varia et Terentia / Elisviana
saccrd(otc) XVvir(ali) / praeeunte Mamio Secundo / hacc iussu
Matris Deum / in ara taurobolica duo/dena cum vitula / crem(ata
or - -a\it ?) I sub die V idus Aprilis / Modesto II et Probo co(n)s(ulibus).
gth April A.D. 228.

55 . B EN E V E N TU M (Benevento)
In latere dextro patera.
C I L I X . 1539.

Attini sacr(um) / et Minervae / Paracentiae / Mummcia C(aii)
f(ilia) I Atticilla sacer/dos ob taurobo/lium.
c. A.D . 228.

56 . B EN E V E N TU M (Benevento)
C I L IX . 1540.

Attini sacr(um) et Miner/vae Parachintiae / L(ucius) Sontius
Pineius Iustia/nus eq(uitis) r(omani) adne(pos) vir prina'/palis
duumvir et munera/rius natalis coloniae om/nibus honoribus
perfunct(us) / et sacerdos Matri Deum M(agnae) I(«leae) / in primordio suo taurobo/lium a se factum tradcn/te simul Cosinia Celsina /
consacerdote sua / praeeunte Flavio Libe,'rali har(uspice) publ(ico)
|)rimario.
c. A.D. 228.

57 . BEN E V E N TU M (Benevento)
C I L IX . 1 541.

A ttini sacrum / ct Mincrvae / Paracentiae / Terentia Flaviana /

T H E I N SCRIPTION S

31

sacerdos secundo loco XV/viralis ob taur(obolium) tra/dfit]u(m) a
Servilia / Varia sac(erdote) prima.
c.

A.D. 228.

58 . BEN E V E N TU M (Bencvento)
C I L I X , 1542.

A ttini sac(rum) / et Minervae / Paraccntiae / Trebulana Ius/tina
[t]vm[p]anLs/tr(a) o[b taurjibol(ium) / tr[aditu]m a Ser/vi[l]ia [Vajria
sa[c(erdotc)] / [prima] X I k(alendas) Aug(ustas).
22nd July c. A .D . 228.

59 . BRUN D ISIU M (Brindisi)
CTI- I X , 6oyy.

L(ucius) Pacilius taur(oboliatns) / sac(erdos) Matr(ls) Magn(ae)
et I Suriae Deae et sac/ror(um) Isidis v(ixit) a(nnos) L X Y / et
L(ucins) PubKKus Auctus / pater eius v(ixit) a(nnos) T.XX et /
Publilia L. l(iberta) Nice mater / eius v(udt) a(nnos) C h(ic) s(iti)
s(unt).
A FR IC A P R O C O N SV LA R IS
B

yzacen a

60 . 1CACTAR (Maktar)
Basis alta m 1,3; lata 0,37.
C I L V I I I , 23.400; A E 1892, no. 18: 1898, no. 46; B C T H (1891).
529-534; (1896), 424, no. 177. Illustrated in R . C agn at, Cours d 'ip igrafhie laiine. Paris T914*, P*-

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) Aug(ustae) sac(rum) / pro
salute Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) M(arti) Aure/li Probi Pii Felicis
A u g ( u s ti) / to tiu 3 q u c d iv in a c d o m u 3 / Q (u in tu s ) A r d l i u s O p t a tia n u s

I eq(ues) r(omanus) sacerdos perfec/tis ritae sacris cer/norum crioboli et tau/roboli suffragio ordi/nis col(oniae) suae Mactaritan(ae) /
comprobatus antistes sum/'tibus suis tradentibus / Rannio Salvio
eq(uite) r(omano) pon/tifice et Claudio Fausto / sacerdotibus una

cum I universis dendroforis / et sacra tis utriusq(ue) sexus / v(otum)
s(olvit) l(ibens) a(nimo).
A.D. 276-284.

61 . M ACTAR (Maktar)
Basis alta m. 1,3; lata m. 04.
C I L V l l i , 23.401; Dessau. 4142; A E 1897. DO' 12«; M S A F (1897), 126.

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) Aug(ustae) sac(rum) / pro
salute Imp(eratorum) Caes(arum) C. Valeri Dioclc[tia]ni Pii
Fel(icis) /Aug(usti) et M. Aureli Valeri M[axi/'mianij <Pii> Pii Fel(icis)
Aug(usti) totiusq(ue) / divinac domus eorum / Q(uintus) Minthonius
Fortuna/tus sacerdos perfcctis / ritae sacris cemorum / crioboli et
tauroboH / suffragio ordinis col(oniae) / suae Mact(aritanae) comprobatus / antistes sumtibus su/is tradente Claudio Bo/no sacerdote
una cum / universis dendroforiis (sic) et sacra tis / utri usque sexus /
v(otum) s(oM t) l(ibens) a(nimo).
A.D. 285-293.

62 . M ACTAR (Maktar)
A E 1955. no. 49; B C T F I (1951-52), 196.

Matris toftiusque divi]/nae domus [eorum] / P(ublius) Valeri[us
- -] I - tianus [sacerdos] / perfectis rit[e sacris cer/noram] et cri[oboli
et tau/roboli----

63 . M ACTAR (Maktar)
IL A fr., no. 201; B C T H (1919). C C X X X V .

n --------[dia??]/nae li[bero patri???] / sacrum i / criobo[li].
The supplements that have been proposed do not really seem
convincing.
N v m id ia

64 . C AR TH AG O (Carthage)
In marginc labulae marmoreae crassae m. 0,07 quae statuam
sustinuisse videtur littcris ni. 0,015.
C I L VTTI, 24.536; IL T u n ., 960.

[sa]c(enlos?) tauroboliatus d(e)d(icavit).

65 . CAR TH AG O (Carthage)
A E 19*7. 18. no. 17. IL A fr.. 356.

Mat[ri Deum Magnae Idacae Aug(ustae) sac(rum)] / [p]ro salute
Imp(cratorum) Caesarum P. L[icini Valcriani] / [et P. licin i Galheni
Piorum Felicium Aug(ustonim) ]/ et P. Cornell Licin[i Nobilissimi
Caesar is ct] / Comclia[c Saloninae Sanctissimae August ae / et]
totiu[s divinae domus e o r u m ............].
A. Merlin, D cd ica ce a la m ir e des D ie u x Irouvte a Carthage in
B C T H (1917). 85-93. who considers the following text also belongs
to this inscription. The reasons for our not sharing this view may
be found in Duthoy, Note.
A.D. 255-259

66 . CARTHAGO

(C a rth a g e )

A E 1917-18, no. 17; IL A Ir.. no. 356; LLTun-, no. 1048; A . Merlin,
Dedicate a la mere des Dieux trouvii a Carthage in B C T H (19*7). 85-93;
CL. Saum agne in B C T H (1924). 188.

----------- d l ------ 1 ---------- em p u b l ic ------ /------------- entibus
---------------I --------- v(iro) c(larissimo)------------- / -------- ieroffa]n[to ------j -------------- ] i l i b ------ 1 -----ierof(a)nd — / — fdici cor a c c - 1 - - rtemio taurobolato - - / ----------------

67 . CARTH AGO (Carthage)
IL A fr., no. 355. B C T H (1919). CCXXX 1V;

CKA1

(1921). 334

Matri Deum Mag(nae) Idaeae sac (rum) / pro salute Imp(cratoris)
Caes(aris) L. Septimi Seven Pii Pertinac(is) / Aug(usti) Arabici
Adiab(enici) Parthic(i) Max(imi) p(atris) p(atriae) et / Imp(eratoris)
Caes(aris) M(arci) Aureli Antonini Aug(usti) Pii Felicis Princi/]>is
i[uven]tutis et [P. Septimi Gctac Nobilissimi Caes(aris)/------------- /
et Iuliae] Aug(ustae) Matris Aug(ustorum) [et castrorum totiusqjue
I divinae domus eorum . . . / - 5 lines - / Iulio Aspro procons(ule)
c(larissimo) v(iro) Claudio Iuliano leg(ato) prn/praet(ore) c(larissimo)
v(iro) t - A.D. 200-205 (I. Asper was proconsul of Africa either in 200-201
or 204-205).
3

68. UTICA
Bloc de beau calcaire, haut de 1,275 m, base 0,2 m ; largeur 0,5 i
0,595 m; profondeur 0,36 k 0,43; face droite: patere, oenochoc; face
gauche: t£te de M lier par^e d'infulae.
A E 1961, no. 201; J. L e G all, Inscription criobaiique decouverte a
Utique in Karthago 9 (1958), 119-127 (among other things he suggests
th a t the missing lines included th e name o f the emperor M axi minus).

Matri Magnae Idaeae sacr(um) / ....................... 4 l in e s ............/
Q. Latinius Victor et Q. Latini/us Egrcgius fil(ius) eius dendrofori /
cerno et criobolio de suo acceptis / aram pecunia sua fecerunt et
consa/craverunt tradente C. Raecio Aprile et / Pompeia Satbia
Fortunata eius sacer/dotibus M(atris) D(eum) M(agnae) T(daeae)
col(oniae) Utik(ae) astantibus / dendroforis et sacratis ministrante /
C. Rombio Felice dendroforo apparatorc / dedicata X kal(endas)
Iulias.
22nd June AJD. 235-238?

69 . T IIIB IL IS (Announa)
Ara alta m. 0,72; lata 0,41.
C I L V II I, 5524.

Terrae raatr[i] / Aerecurae Ma/tri Deum Mag/nae Ideae / Popilia
M. fil(ia) I Maxima tauro/bolium aram / posuit m ovit / fecit.
2nd century, A.D.

70 . T H IB IL IS (Announa)
Ara alta m. 0,55; lata m. 045.
A E 1895, no. 81; Ch. Vars in Recueil des notices et
moires de la
sociile archiologiqiu du dJpartement d* Constantine, 28 (1893). 652-655.

Terrae raatr[i] / Eraecurae M[a]/tri Magnae Id[e]/ae P. Sextilius /
C. filfius) Quir(ina tribu) Ho/noratus tauripolium et / creobolium /
m ovit et fecit / aramque po/[suit].
2nd century A .D .

71 . M IL E V (Mila)
Ara alta m. 0.55; lata 0,35.
CIT-, V m . 8203 — 19.981; Dessau, 4136.

M(atn) D(eum) M(agnac) I(deae) Sanctae / sacrum factum /
pro salute/ [I]mp(eratoris) Caes(aris) M(arci) Aureli Se/fveri Alexandri] Pii Fel(icis) Aug(usti) / [ct luliae Avitae Mamaeae / Aug(ustac)]
et domus eor(um) divinae / Qu[intiJ Claudii Basilicus / Nap (???)
ct Mnesius crioboQil/'um fecerunt et ipsi susc[c]/perunt per C(aium)
Aemilium Satur/ninum sacerdotem cx va/tidnatione archigall[i]./
L(ocus) d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ccurionum).
A.D. 222-235.

72 . D IA N A V E TE R A N O K U M (Zana)
A E 1931. no. 63; St. Gsell in C R A I (1931). 251-269.

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) A(ugustae) s(acrum| / pro
salu te......... J . . . . Hortc[n]/sia Fortunata sacerd[os] / tauribolium
et criobo[T]/ium motum sane it manda/nte M. Tullio Pudente
p[a]/tre.
A.D. 218-222 or 276-282 (Gsell).

73 . T IP A SA (Tifesh)
A u td ecome aux deux angles infdicurs.
IL A lg., I, 1983; S t. Gsell in B C T H (1896). 179. no. 60.

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) / Sanctissimac / pro salute et /
incolumitate D(omini) N(ostri) / Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) [M. Aureli
Severi / Alexandri] Pii Fd(ids) / Aug(usti) et [luliae Mamaeae] /
Aug(ustae) t(otius)q(ue) d(omus) d(i\*inao) oorum / P. Caecilius
F d ix I [sa]c(erdos) ex ordine ponit crio/[bol]ium et tauribo/[lium]. ..
didit.
A.D. 222-235.

XTtC S U U W JE S

H ISP A N IA
B

a e t ic a

74 . CO R D U BA (Cordova)
Now in the Archacological Museum in Cordova. W hite marble,
m. 0,85 high; m. 0,44 wide; m. 0,20 thick. On the left side a ram’s
head; on the right side patera and praeferUulutn.
C I L II , 5521; Dessau, 4139; E E , I I I . 15; F . F ita in M usco Espanol de
Antiguedades 4 (1875). 635 ss; G arcia y Bellido. 47-48. no. 3, whose
description has l>een tak en over.

E x iussu Matris Deum / pro salute imperii / tauribolium fecit
Publicius / Valerius Fortunatus Thalamas / suscepit crionis Porcia
Bassenia / sacerdote Aurelio Stephano / dcdicata VITT Kal(endas)
April(es) I Pio et Proculo co(n)s(ulibus).
25th March A .D . 238.
Mommsen in C IL : crionis — crionisbolium.

75 . CO R D U BA (Cordova)
A ltar with focus and two cornita. On Hie right side the head of a
sheep, almost in silhouette; on the left patera ansata. Height of the
altar m. 0,93; base 0.46 x 0.36; remainder 0.37 x 0.3. In the Archaeo­
logical Museum in Cordova.
G arcia y Bellido. 40-47. no. 1. PI. V ; J. de la Torre in B o ld in de
Sociedad Cordobcsa de- Arqueologia txcavaciones 4 (1021). 6 ss; L .
W ickcrt, 830.

Pro salute / Imp(erntoris) Domini N(ostri) [M. Aureli / Severi
Alexandri] Pii Felicis / Aug(usti) / taurolwlium fecit Publicius /
Fortunatus Talamas suscepit / chrionis Coelia lanuaria / adstante
Ulpio Hcliade sacerdo[te]. / Aram sacris suis d(e)d(icaverunt) /
Maximo et Urbano co(n)s(ulibus).
A.D. 234.

76 . CO R D U BA (Cordova)
G arcia y Bellido, 47, 110. 2; sam e bibliography as the preceding in­
scription. Present where-abouts unknown.

THE'

- Clodis - - 1 adstante Ul[pio / Heliade] saccrdote. Ar[am] / sacris
suis d(e)d(icavcrunt) Maximo et Urbano co(n)s(ulibus).
A.D. 234.
L

u s it a n ia

77 . OSSONOBA (Faro)
Altar, height m. 0.45, width 0.25.
W ickert. 834; G arcia y Bellido. 51-52. no. 9.

M(agnae) D[e]u[m] Matri / I - Agrius / Vo[cJa(tus] / sacerd(o)s
crinoboflium f(ecit)].
Instead of Vocalus perhaps Volamus (Garcia y Bellido).

78 . PAX IULLA (Beja)
A E 1956, no. 255; S. Lam brino, Les divtnitis orientals en Lustianie ct
Is sanctuaire de Panoias in Bulletin des itudes portugaises el de t'institui
franc-ais au Portugal 17 (1953}. 93-129, especially 101-102; Garcia y
Bellido, 50-51. no. 7 ; T-. de Vasconcelos. A m&i, dos deuses in Bralcria
20 (1953). 255 w ith ilL ; Idem in Arq. Port 30 {1938), 123.

M(atri) D(eum) s(acrnm) / duo Trinaei, pater ct / fil(ius), criobolati J natali suo, sacer(doiibus) / Lucio Antist(io) A vito / G(aio)
Antisti(o) Felicis/simo.

79 . E M E R IT A A U G U STA (Merida)
C IL II. 5260; Dessau, 4156; £ E , I I I , 2; G arcia y Bellido, 48-40, no. 4;
A Fernandez G uerra in Museo Espanol de Aniiguedades 4 (1875). 636;
Barron tes, Barr os emerilcnsss, M adrid 1880. 98.

M(atri) D(eum) s(acrum) / Val(eria) A vita / aram tauroboli / sui
natalici red/diti d(edit) d(edicavit) saccrdo/te Doccyrico Vale/riano
arc(h)igallo / Publicio Mystico.
T-itteris elegantibus, saeculi secundi exeuntis.
G A L L IA
A l p e s M a r it im a e

80 . VIN TIU M (Vence)
C IL X I I , 1.

Idaeae Matri / Valeria Mar/ciana Vale/ria Carmo/syne et Cassj/ns
Pat emus / sacerdos tau/ripolium suo su/ptu celebraverunt
Suptv instead of sumptu.

G a l l ia N a r b o k e n s is

81 . CO LO N IA IU L IA A U G U STA A P O L L IN A R IS R E IO R U M
(Riez)
A ra marmorea cubo si mills, alta m. 1,58, longa i , lata 0,75 latere
dextro et sinistro caput bo vis vittatum , aux pinea, caput arietis.
c il

xn, 357.

Matri Deum / Magnae Q - - Idaeae / L(ucius) Decimus Pacatus /
et Coclia Secundina / eius ob sacrum / tauropojTJi.
2nd century A.D.

82 . CO LO N IA IU L IA A U G U STA A P O L L IN A R IS REIO RU M
(Riez)
A ra marmorea litteris bonis.
C I L x ii, 35X.

Matri / Deum ob / sacrum / v(otum) s(olvit) / M(arcus) Iul(ius) /
Hyacinthus / H U IIv ir aug(ustalis) / C(oloniae) I(uliae) Aug(ustae)
Afpollinaris). / L(ocus) d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ecurionum).
2nd century A.D.

83 . D E A AU G U STA VOCONTIORUM p ie )
C I L X I I . 1567, Dessau, 4140.

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) / sacr(um) trib(us) taur(is)
fecer(unt) / cum suis hostis et apparam(entis) / omnib(us) L(udus)
Dagid(ius) Marius pon/tif(ex) perpet(uus) civit(atis) Valent(iae) / et
Verullia Martina et / VeruHia Maria fil(ia) eorum / pro salute
Imp(eratorum) et Caes(arum) / Philipj»rum Aug(ustorum) et
Otaci/liae Severae Aug(ustae) Matris / Caes(arum) et castror(um)
praceun/tibus sacerdotibus Iuni[o] / Tito XV\ir(ali) Arausens(i) et /
Castricio Zosimione ci/vitat(is) Albens(is) et Blattio / Paterno
d v itatis Voc(ontiorum) / et Fabrido Orfito Liber(i) / Patris et
ceteris adsls/tentibus sacerdotibus / v(otum) s(olverunt) l(ibcntGs)
m(eritis) loco vires con/ditae die prid(ie) kal(endas) Oct(obrcs) /
Imp(eratore) Philippo Aug(usto) et Titi/ano co(n)s(ulibus).
30th September A.D. 245.

84 . D EA AU G U STA VOCONTIORUM (Die)
Caput bo vis e t caput arietis vittatum.
C IL X I I . 1568.

[Pro] sal(ute) imp(erii) / [taurobolium f]ec(it) At[ti]us Att[iani
f(ilius)] I de suo.

85 . DEA A U G U STA VOCONTIORUM (Die)
A ra; in medio caput bo vis vittatum et caput arietis. scccspita
aliaque instrumenta tauroboiica (secespita; culter, lituus, pedum,
tympanon et nescio quae alia land ac cochleari non absimQia).
CTT. XTT, 1569, Esperaadieu, Recucii, I, ao. 313.

D(eum) M(atri) / pro sal(ute) imper(ii) taur(obolium) fec(it)
T. Hel(ius) Mar/cdlin(us) et Val(eria) Decumilla ex voto / sacerd(ote)
A ttlo A niani fil(io).
86. DEA AU G U STA VOCONTIORUM (Die)
Tete de taureau (paree de infulae) et tete de belier; au dessous
devaient se trouver les instruments babituds du sacrifice.
A E 1889, no. 81; Ksperandieu, Recueil, I, no. 318; Revue fpigiaphique
du M idi d t la France (1888), 389.

Pro salute L. Sept(imi) Seven l*ii P[crtinacis Aug(usti)] et M.
Au[reli] / Antonini Aug(usti) [et P. Scpt(imi) Getae Cacsaris] et
Iul(i]/ae Aug(ustae) taurobol(ium) fec(it) r(es) p(ublica) Voc(ontiorum) Fl(avio) Talusio------------- / ------------------- Appiano I — V —
A .D . 198-209.

87 . A R A U SIO (Orange)
Ara.
c n . X I I . 1222.

Nura(inibiis) Aug(ustorum) / Matri D eum /pro salut(c) Imp (eratoris) I M(ard) Aur(eli) Commo/di Antonini Pii / Felicis / tauropolium I fecerunt / Sex(tus) Publidus / .............anus / ...................... iana.
A.D . 185-193.

T H E SO URCES'

88. V A SIO (Vaison)
C I L X l i . 13 11.

Tradltur: Matri Deornm / Magnanimae aen / domuei ranatauro /
poeium morio poli / um fecerunt Aul / Pompeius A vitian / et
Claudia Firmin / praeeunte Aul/tio Phroaimo saccrd.
F u it fere: Matri Deum / Magnate] I[d]aeae / [pro salute ?] /
domu.'s d]i[vijna[e] tauro/po[l]ium et [c]riopoli/um feccrunt Aul(us) /
Pompeius Avitian (us) / et Claudia Firmin (a) / praeeunte Aul(io) /
-----tio Phronimo sacerd(ote).

89 . A L B A H ELV IO R U M (Le Poussin)
T£te de taureau (Gallia).
A E 1952, no. 72; Gallia 8 (1950), 133 with illustration.

Matri M[a/g]nae Ida[eae / taur]oboliu[m / fcc(it)] L. Trofim(us).
T-. Richard kindly sent me his reading of this inscription before
it appeared in R E A 69 (1967). 255-265:
Matri D[eum Mag]/nae Ida[eac, tau]/roboliu[m fec(it) d(e) s(uo)"|
/M(arcus) Trofimjius].

90 . IN T E R NEMAUSUM E T SE X T A N TIU M (Caveirac)
A E 1910, no. 2 17 ; A E 1924. no. 26: 1L Gaul. N arb. no. 518; F .
M asauric. Lzs m usics archiologiqtus de Nim*s. 1904, 55; R E A 12 (1910),
304; B C T H (1923), 101-102.

Matri Deum Magfnae] / [Idaeae Phrygijae Palatinae / [taurobolia]
et criobolia/l_pro salute D(ominorum) N(ostrorum) Imp(eratorum)]
Caes(arurn) [M(arci) Tuli / Philippi PiiJ Fel(icis) Aug(usti) [et
M(arci) luli / Philippi Nobilissimi Caes(aris)] Aug(usti) [F(clicis)?
e]t Ota/[ciliae Severae Aug(ustae)] XVviris / ------ nemaus /
----------- uuiui/ — .........— sevir(is) aug(ustalibus)/ ----------- 1 1 1 / kal(endas) / ---------- prae/jeuntibus) sacerdotibus Au]relio / — [et]
— ............ [Imp] j [Pliilippo Aug(usto) et Tijtiano cons(ulibus).
A .D . 245.

91 . COLONIA V A L E N T IA (Valence)
A r a ; in medio bucranium vittatu m ; in parte sinistra nux pinea
inter praefericulum, pateram ansatam, libum, pileum Phrygium ;
in parte dextra caput arietis inter aspersorium et pedum ; in parte
aversa arbor (pinus).
C IL X II, 1744.

M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) l(daeae) taurobol(ium) / dendrophor(i)
Val(entini) / sua p(ecunia) f(ecerunt).

92 . COLON IA V A L E N T IA (Valencc)
Ara.
C I L XTT. 1745.

Pro salute aug(ustorum) / proque d(omo) d(ivina) / taurobolium
et c[rf)/obolium M(atri) D(eum) M(agnae) I(daeae) fecer(unt) /
C(aius) Valerius Ur(ba?/n]us sacerdos C(aius) [Fl(avius) Re/stit]utus
[tibicen ?]
CIL X II, 1745 (TTirschfcld): Taurobolium factum videtur esse
pro salute Severi, Antonini, Getae eorumque domus divinae.
c. A.D. 198-209.

93 . TEGN A (Tain)
Tn medio bucranium; in latere sinistro caput arietis mutilum,
in latere dextro secespita mutila.
C I L XTT. 17S2; L>essau. 4130.

........... 1 line . I -----domusq(ue) divi/nae Colon(iae) Copiae
Claud(iae} Aug(ustae) Lug(duncnsium) / taurobolium fecit 0 (uintus)
Aquius Antonia/nus pontif(ex) perpetuus / ex vaticinatione Pusoni
Iuliani archi/galli inchoatum X II Kal(endas) Mai (as) consum/matum
VTITT Kal(endas) Mai(as) L(ucio) Eggio Marullo / Cn(aio) Papirio
Aeliano co(n)s(ulibus) praeeunte Aelio / C(astren]s[e] sacerdote,
tibicine Albio / Verino.
A.D. 20th-23rd April 184.

94 . CO LO N IA IU L IA P A T E R N A CLA U D IA N A R B O M ARTI US
(Narbonne)
C I L X I I , 4321: Dessau. 4119.

Matri / Deum / taurobolium indictum / iussu ipsius cx stipe
conlata / celebrarunt publice Narbon(cnses).

95 . COLON IA IU L IA P A T E R N A C LA U D IA N A R B O M ARTIU S
(Narbonne)
In medio caput arietis et caput bo vis.
C I L X I I . 4322.

Matri Deum / taurobolium / quod fecit A xia / C. f(ilia) Paulina
sacerd (ote) / Q. Paquio Chresto.

96 . CO LO N IA IU L IA P A T E R N A C LA U D IA N A R B O M ARTIU S
(Narbonne)
In medio caput arietis et caput bo vis.
C I L X I I . 4323; Dessau, 4120.

Impcrio D(eum) M(atris) tanro/polium provinciae / Narbonensis /
factum per C(aium) Batonium / Primum flaminem aug(ustalem) /
pro salute Dominorum / Imp(eratorum) L(uci) Septimi Seven / Pii
Pertinacis Aug(usti) Ara/bici Adiabenici Parthi/ci Maximi et
M(arci) Aureli / Ant(onini) A u g (u s ti)-------A.D. 198-209.

97 . COLON IA IU L IA P A T E R N A C LA U D IA N A R B O M ARTIUS
(Narbonne)
Autel mutiM; pierre commune. T6te de taureau et t£te de belier
commemoratives d'un taurobole; au dess us, entre deux gateaux,
le bonnet pontifical. L ’inscri])tion difficilement restituable, contient
peut-etre aux deux demieres lignes, les noms des deux consuls
N u m m iiis A lb in u s e t F u lv n u s M a x iin u s , <le l'a n n c e 263 ( E s p c r a n d ic u ) .
C I L X I I , 4324; Espcrandieu, RtcueU. I, 568.

Lafont: Iunia Babin / I Iuno don de XIT / Numio Balbino /
Fulvio Aveilio cos.

Editor C I L : -------- bin --/ — L. Iunio ? — on — ex — /
------- numio ? Bab — C. F u — / - vio— ma — c o -------- /.
Allmcr: — I. Bin / k io n ic ---- omp X II / Numio ci - bi — ofu /
Iunio m ax cos.

A.D. 263?

98 . COLONIA 1U L IA P A T E R N A C LA U D IA N A R B O M ARTI US
(Narbonne)
In latere sinistro urceus ansatus; in latere dextro patera.
CIL XU, 4325.
Matri Deum / tauribolium impe[rio] accepit Liguria Thymele /
et [ar ?jam sacris posu[it].
3rd century ?

99 . COLONIA 1U L IA P A T E R N A C LA U D IA N A R B O M ARTIUS
(Narbonne)
In latere sinistro urceus; in Latere dextro patera; in medio caput
arietis et caput bovis.
CIL XU, 4326.
Q t ( ? r ? ? ) fecit -- Ursa / Marcianfifilia] sacer/dote / Iulio E[u-]
p rep e[tej.---------- 2 lin e s ---------3rd century A.D. ?

100. COLONTA TU LIA P A T E R N A C LA U D IA N A R B O M ARTIUS
(Narbonne)
A ra; in medio capita bovLs ct arietis; in latere sinistro patera;
in dextro urceus.
C IL

xn,

4327.

DM---------The ornamentation makes it probable that this is a tauroboliuminscription.

101. CO LO N IA IU L IA P A T E R N A CLAU D IA N A R B O M ARTIU S
(Narbonne)
In medio caput arietis et caput bo vis.
C 1I. X I I . 4328.

Matri deum / tauropolium / ------- 4 lines -----------

102. COLONIA TUT.IA P A T E R N A CLA U D IA N A R B O M ARTIU S
(Narbonne)
C I L X U , 4329.

Tauropolium provinciac.
A

q u it a n ia

103 . LACTO R A (Lectoure)
C I L X I l l , 504; Dessau. 4x21.

Matri Deum / Pomp(eia) Philumene / quae prima L[a]ctor[a]e/
taurobolium / fecit.
Before or on the 18th October A.D. 176.

104 . I.ACTO RA (Lectoure)
A ra marmorea m. 0,78 alta; 0,34 lata; in latere sinistro caput
bovis; in latere dextro caput arietis.
CTL XTTT. 505; Dessau, 4123.

Sacrum / M(atri) M(agnae) / Ant(onia) Prima / tauropo/lium
fec(it) I host(iis) suis / sacerdotib(us) Zm/inthio Procliani (liberto)
et I Pacio Agrippae (liberto) /[Pollione IT et Aprjo II co(n)s(ulibus)
X\r k(alendas) Novemb(res).
18th October A.D . 176.

105. LA C TO R A (Lcctourc)
C I I. XTTT, 500.

S(acrum) M(atri) D(eum) / Aurelia Oppidana / tauropolium fecit /
hostis suis sacerd(otibus) / Zminthio Proculiani (liberto) / et Pacio

Agrippae (iiberto) / Pollione II et Apro II / cons(ulibus) X V k(alendas) Nov(embres).
18th October A.D. 176.

106. LACTO R A (I-ectoure)
Ara marmorea litteris malis alta m. 0,69; lata 0,25.
C I L X l l l , 507; D«?ssau, 4122.

M(atri) Deum / Iul(ia) Valentina / et H ygia Sil[a]nae (serva) /
tauropolium fe/ccrunt X V k(alendas) Nov(embrcs) / Pol (Hone) ct
Apro co(n)s(ulibus) / sacerdotc Zmin/thio Proculiani (l'berto).
i8tb Octobcr A .D . 176.

107. LACTO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0,74; lata 0,25; in latere dextro caput
arietis; in latere sinistro caput bovis.
CTT- X l l l , 508.

Sacrum / M(atri) M(agnae) / Ad(ia) Nice / tauropo/lium fe/cit
hos/tis suis I sacerdot(e) Zmintio Procliani (Iiberto).
c. A.D. 176

108. LACTORA (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0,83; lata 0,95; in latere sinistro caput bovis;
in latere dextro caput arietis.
CTT- XTT 1. 509; Dessau, 4124.

Sacrum M(atri) M(agnae) / Marciana / Marciani f(ilia) / tauropoliurn I fecit hostis / suis sacerdo/te Zmintio Pro/culiani lib(erto).
c. A .D 176.

109 . LACTO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0,90; lata 0,47, iu latcic siiiLstro caput
bovis evanidum; in latere dextro patera ansata.
C IL X I I I , 5 1 1 ; D essau, 4126.

Pro salute Imp(eratoris) M(arci) / .Vntonini Gordiani / Pii Fel(icis)

46

T11E SO URCES

Aug(usti) et Sa/binae Tranquil/linae Aug(ustae) toti/usq(ue) domus
divi/nae proq(ue) statu / civitat(is) Lactor(atium) / tauropolium
fe/cit ordo T-act(oratiurn) / D(omino) N (astro) Gordiano / Aug(usto)
Tl et Pompeiano co(n)s(idibus) / V I idus Dec(embres) curantib(us)
I M(arco) Erotio Festo et M(arco) / Carinio Caro sacerd(otc) /
Traianio Nundinio.
8th December A.D. 24T.

110 . LA C TO R A (Lectoure)
A r a m a rm o r e a in la te r e s in is tr o g u t t u s ; in la t e r e d e x t r o p a t e r a

ansata.
cn . x m . 512.

S(acrum) M(atri) D(eum) / G(aius) Iulius Sccun/dus tauropo/lium
accepit / hostis suis / sacerd(ote) Tra ianio Nun/dinio, D(omino)
N(ostro) I Gordiano II / et Pomiano / co(n)s(ulibus) V I idus Dec(embres).
8th December A .D . 241.

111. LA C TO R A (Lectoure)
Stela marmorea m. 0,95 alta; 0,39 lata.
In latere sinistro patera ansata; in latere dextro guttus deletus.
C I L X I I I , 513.

S(acrum) M(atri) D(eum) / Iul(ia) Clementia/na tauropoli/um
accepit / hostis suis / sacerd(ote) Traia/nio Nundini/o, D(omino)
N(ostro) Gordi/ano II et Pom/peiano co(nls(ulibus) / VI idus Dec(embres).
8th December A.D . 241.

112 . LA C TO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0,84; lata 0,40; in latere sinistro guttus
evanidus. in latere dextro patera ansata.
CIT. XTTT, 514. Sec frontispiece, reproduced w ith the kind permission
o f Miss M ary Larricn (photo: Cine Baibe)).

S(acrum) M(atri) D(eum) / Iul(ia) Nice tau/ropolium ac/cepit

T H E IN SC R IPTIO N S

47

hostis I suis saccrd(ote) / Traianio / Nundinio, D(omino) N(ostro) /
Gordiano II ct / Pornj>eiano / co(n)s(ulibus) V I id(us) Dec(embres).
8th December A.D. 241.

113. LAC TO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0.8S; lata 0,40; in latere dextro patera
ansata; in latere sinistro caput bovis.
CLL X I I I , 515.

S(acram) M(atri) D(eum) / lunia Domi/tia tauro/poliuni ace/pit
hostis su/is sacerdote / Traianio Nu/ndimo D(omjno) N(ostro)
Gor/diano IT et Po/mpeiano co(n)s(ulibus) V I id(us) Dec(embres).
8th December A.D. 241.

114 . LACTO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0,75; lata 0,32; in sinistro latere patera.
C I L X l l l , 516.

S(acnm]) M(atri) D(eum) / Pomp(eia) Flora / tauropoliu/m accepit
h/ostis suis sa/cerdote Tra/ianio Nund/inio. D(omino) N(ostro)
Gor/diano II et Po/mpeiano co(n)s(ulibus) / V I id(us) Dec(embres).
8th December A.D. 241.

115. LACTORA (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0,75; lata 0,32; in sinistro latere patera.
C I L XITT. 517.

S(acrum) M(atri) D(eum) / Servilia Mo/desta taur/opolium ac/cepit
hostis s/uis sacerdote / Trainnio Nund/inio, D(omino) N(ostro)
Gordi/ano II et Pompe/iano co(n)s(ulibus) / V I id(us) Dec(embres).
8th December A.D. 241.

116 . LACTO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea, alta m. 0,84; lata 0,37.
C I L XITT, 518; D essau, 4128.

S(acrum) M(atri) D(eum)/Val(eria) Gemin/a tauropoli/um a[c]cepit

48

T H E SO URCES

I hostis suis sa/cerdote Tra/ianio Nund[in] /io, D(omino) N(ostro)
Gord/'iano II et Po/mpeiano co(n)s(ulibus) / V I id(us) Dec(cmbres).
8th December A.D. 241.

117. LA C TO R A (Lectoure)
A ra marmorea alta m. 0,95; lata 0,42; in latere sinistro patera an­
sata ; in latere dextro guttus fere deletus.
C I L X I I I . 519.

[S(acrum)] M(atri) D(eum) / Verin(ia) Seve/ra tauropo/lium
accep/it hostis su/is sacerdot/e Traianio N/undinio. D(omino)
N(ostro) / Gordiano II / et Pompeiano / co(n)s(ulibus) V I id(us)
Dec(embres).
Sth December A.D . 241.

118. LAC TO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0,96; lata 0,5; in sinistro latere caput
bo vis; in latere dextro caput arietis.
CTT- XILL, 520; Dessau. 4125.

Pro salute / et incolumi/tate domus / divinae r(es) p(ublica) /
Lactorat(ium) tau/ropoI(ium) fecit.
c. A.D. 176?

119 . LA C TO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea litteris malis, alta m. 0.69; lata 0,25; in latere
sinistro patera ; in latere dextro guttus.
c il

xrn.

521.

Sacr(um) / M(atri) M(agnae)/ Aprilis Repenti/ni fil(ius) et Satur/nina Taurini / fil(ia) tauropoli/um acctpcruul / s*u;eidotc / L. Accio
Rem(o?) hostiis / suis.

120. LAC TO R A (Lectoure)
Ara marmorea frondibus ornata.
C I L X I I I . 522.

Severus / Iulli fil(ius) / vires tauri / quo propri[e] / per tauropo/lium pub(lice) fac/tum feccrat / consacravit.

THE IN SCRIPTIO N S

49

121. LAC TO R A (Lectoure)
A ra marmorea alta m. 0,78; lata 0,38.
C I L x m . 523.

Sacrum / M(atri) M(agnae) / Scvcra Quar/ti f(ilia) tauropol(ium) /
fecit ho(s)tis / suis.

122. LA C TO R A (Lcctourc)
Ara marmorea alta m. 0,48; lata 0,21.
CTT. XTTT. 524.

M(atri) M(agnae)/Valentina / Valentis f(ilia) / tauropol(ium)
f(ecit) I hostis suis / et Valeria fil(ia).

123. LA C TO R A (Lectoure)
A ra marmorea litteris bonis; in latere sinistro gladius (?); in
latere dextro gladius (?); alta m. 0,85; lata 0,39.
CTT. XITT, 525; Dessau, 4129.

Viator / Sabini fil(ius) / vires tauri / quo proprie / per tauropolium
pub(lice) fact(um) / fecerat / consacravit.

124. B U R D IG A L A (Bordeaux)
In medio bucranium cum sertis; in latere sinistro caput arietis;
in latere dextro harpe et pileus.
C I L X I I I , 573; Dessau. 4157.

N atalid virib(us) / Valer(ia) Iullina / et Tul(ia) Sancta.

125. V E SU N N A (Perigueux)
Ara alta m. 1.52; lata 0,74, in latere sinistro capnt tauri infulis
oraati, ensis hamatus, trulla, urceus. In latere dextro pinus cui
a\is insidet ex arborc flagilla duo pendent, sub ea syrinx, apex
Phrygjus, pro tome Attidis collocata supra basim panno involutam,
quam altera basis sustinet; ad dextram Attidis taurus, genibus,
ut videtur, nixus; in postica caput arietis, tibiae duae, crotala duo.
4

5<>

T H E SOURCES

C I L X I I I . 11.042: Dessau, 9278; A E 1907. no. 138, Espdrandicu.
Rtcueil, IT, 1267; Revue M graphique (1906-1907). 198, tables
X I V - X V 11.

Numinib(us) Aug(ustorum) / ct Magnae Matri D(eum) /Aug(ustae)
L. Pompon(ius) Sext(i) / Pompon(i) Patem i / sacerd(otis) Arens(is)
fil(ius) Quir(ina tribu) / Pa tern us aram taurob(olicam) / posuit
dedicavit/que.
G a l l i a L u g d u .ve s s i s

126. CO LO N IA C O PIA CLALJDIA A U G U STA LUGDUNUM
(Lyon)
Ara; in latere dextro ensis ham atus; in latere sinistro caput
arietis in medio caput bo vis.
CLL X I I I , 17 5 1; Dessau, 4331.

Taurobolio Matris D(eum) M(agnae) Id(aeac) / quod factum
est ex impcrio Matris <D(eum)> / Deum / pro salute Imperatoris
Cacs(aris) T(iti) Aeli / TIadriani Antonini Aug(usti) Pii p(atris)
p(atriae) / lil>erorumque eius / et status coloniae Lagudun(ensium) /
L(ucius) Aemilius Carpus H U IIvir aug(ustalls) item / dendrophorus/vires excepit et a vaticano trans/tulit ara(m) et bucranium /suo
inpendio consacravit / sacerdote / Q(uinto) Samnio Secundo ab X V
viris / occabo et corona exornato / cui sanctissimus ordo Luguduncns
(ium) I perpetuitatem saccrd»ti decrevit / App(io) Annin Atilio
Bradua T(ito) Clod(io) V'ibio / Varo cons(ulibus). / L(ocus) d(atus)
d(ecreto) d(ecurionum) /.
In latere dextro:
Cuius mesonyctium / factum est V id(us) Dec(embres).
9th December 160.

127. COLONIA C O P IA C LA U D IA A U G U STA
(Lyon)

LUGDUNUM

Ara alta m. 2,05; lata 0,75.
In latere sinistro caput arietis et ensis ham atus; in latere dextro
caput bo vis infulatum.
C I L X I I I , 1752; Dessau. 4132.

TH E IN SCR IPTIO N S

51

...............2 lin e s ............. I Numinib(us) Aug(ustonim) totiusque /
domus divinae et situ C(oloniae) C(opiae) Cflaudiae) / Aug(ustae)
Lugud(unensium) / tauribolium fece/runt dendrophori T.uguduni
consistentes / XVT kal(endas) Iulias / im p-------- / Marco Sura
Septimiano / co(n)s(ulibus) ex vaticinatione / Pusoni Tuliani archi/
galli sacerdote / Aelio C astrense/ tibicine Fl(avio) Restituto /
honori omnium / Cl(audius) Silvanus Perpetuus / quinquennalis
inpen/dium huius arae remisit. / L(ocus) d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ecurionum).
16th June A.D. 190.

128 . COLON L \ C 0 P 1A CLA U D IA A U G U STA LUG DUNUM
(Lyon)
A ra; in latere sinistro ensis hamatus. caput bovis caput arietis;
in latere dextro idem.
C I L X l l l , 1753: D essau. 4133.

Pro salute Imp(eratoris) L(ud) Sep/timi Seven Pertina/cis
Aug(usti) et D(ecimi) Q odi / Septimi -\lbini Caes(aris) / domusq(ue)
divinae et sta/tu C(oloniae) C(opiae) C(laudiae) Aug(ustae) Lug(dunensium) taurobo/lium feccrunt Aufustia / Alexandria et
Sergia / Parthenope ex voto / praeeunte Aelio Castien/se sacerdote
tibicine Fl(avio) / Restituto. Inchoatum est / sacrum VTT idus
Mai (as), con/summatum V id(us) easdem / [I]mp(eratore) L(ucio)
Septimio Severo Pertinac(i) Aug(usto) / [D(ecimo) Clod(io) Sept(imio) Albino Caes(are)] / II co(n)s(ulibus). / [L(ocus)J d(atus)
[d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)].
g th -iith May A.D. 194.

129 . C O LO N IA C O PIA C L A U D IA AU G U STA LUGDUNUM
(Lyon)
A ra; in latere sinistro caput arietis et bovis; in latere dextro
ensis hamatus, caput bovis et caput arietis.
C I L x m . 1754.

[pro] salute Imp(eratoris) L(ud) Septimi / [Seve]/ri Pii Pertinacis

52

TH E SOURCES

Aug(usti) I et M(arci) Aureli Antonini Caes(aris) / Imp(eratoris)
destinati et / Iuliae Aug(ustae) matris castror(um) / totiusque
domus divinae / eorum et statu C(oloniac) C(opiae) C(laudiae)
Aug(ustae) Lug(dunensium) / taurobolium fccerunt / Scpticia
Valeriana et / Optatia Siora ex voto / praccunte Aclio Antho
sa/cerdote, sacerdotia Aemi/lia Secundilla tibicinc Fl(avio) /
Kestituto apparatore Vire/io TTermetionc. / Inchoatum est sacrum
I 1I I I nonas Maias, consumma/tum nonis eisdem / T(ito) Scxtio
Laterano L(ucio) Cuspio / Ru[f]ino co(n)s(ulibus)./ L(ocus) d(atus)
d(ecreto) d(ecurionum).
4th-7th May A.D. 197.

130. CO LO N IA CO PIA
(Lyon)

C L A U D IA AU GU STA

LUGDUNUM

Fragmentum litteris bonis saeculi tertii ineuntis.
C I L X H I . 1755.

---------i — l ------ per — I — p a r — / — 2 lines - / -------mp(eratoris) Caes(aris) / -----Perta — / P. Caes M A u — /-- Pii Fcli(ds)
—/-----t(hici) M(aximi) Ara(bici) —/------- taurob]oli[um— /.
c. A.D. 200.

131 . C O LO N IA COPLV C L A U D IA AU G U STA LUGDUNUM
(Lyon)
Ara quadrata; in medio caput bo\is detritum.
c n . x n i . 1756Taurobolium / Matris Deum Aug(ustae) / Billia T. Fil(ia) Veneria/
l(ocus) d(atus) d(ccrcto) d(ecurionum).
2nd century A .D .
B E L G IC A

132 . D IVO D U RU M (Metz)
Ara magna ex lapide calcario, difficilima lectu ; in latere sinistro

THE IN SCRIPTIO N S

53

patera ansata; in antico caput tauri; in latere dextro syrinx,
pedum, trulla; in postico caput arietis.
C IL X I I I , 1 1.352.

------2 lines — nia / ara(m) t(aurobolicam) ob natalic/ium [e]x
iussu ref(iciendam) c(uravit) / Annulino II et Fro/(n)tone co(n)s(ulibus).
A.D. 199.
W e have expanded with reficiendam rather than the reficicndum
oi other scholars, because we think that it is here the altar that is
being reierred to.
G ER M A N IA SU P E R IO R

133. VESU LU M (Vesoul)
C IL X l l l , 5451.

Miroucot:
Taurobol(io) Matris D(eum) / — 3 lines — / l(ocus) d(atus) d(ecreto)
d(ecurionum).
Coudret;
Taurobolio Matris D(eum) M(agnae) Id(eac) / — 1 line — / l(ocus)
d(atus) d(ecrcto) d(ecurionum).

B. TH E L IT E R A R Y T E X T S

1. Itdius Firmicus Matemus
c. A .D . 350: De errors projanarum religion urn led. K . Ziegler, Lipsiae
1907). X X V I I , 8.

Johannes quoquc filium dei agni nomine appellat, ut et ipse
propheticae pollicitationi respondeat. A it enim in evangelio:
'A lt e r o d ie v i d e t Io h a n n e s Ie su m v e n ie n te m ad se e t a it :
e c c c a g n u s d e i e c c e q u i a u f e r t p e c c a t a m n n d i.'P r o salute
hominum agni istius venerandus sanguis effunditur, ut sanctos suos
filius dei profusione prctiosi sanguinis redimat, ut qui Christi
sanguine iiberantur, maiestate prius inmortalis sanguinis consecrentur. Neminem aput idola profusus sanguis invcnit, et ne cruor
peeudum miseros homines aut decipiat aut perdat, polluit sanguis
iste non redemit, et per varios casus hominem premit in morte.
Miseri sunt qui profusione sacrilegi sanguinis / cruentantur. Tauribolium quid vei criobolium scelerata te sanguinis lal>e perfundit ?

2 . Anonymus
A .D . 394: Carmen contra paganos (ed. Bachrens, P L M , III. Lipsiae
1881, 286-292}, vss 57-62.

Quis tibi tauroboius vestem mu tare suasit,
Inflatus dives, subito mendicus ut esses ?
Obsitus et pannis, modica stipe Cactus epaeta
Sub terram missus, pollutus sanguine tauri,
Sordidus, infestus, vestes servare cruentas,
V iv c ro n u m sp cras v ig in ti m u n d u s in annos ?

See G. Manganaro, La reazione pagana a Roma n d 408-409 e U
Poeimito anonimo „ contra paganos’ ' in GiornaU italiano di fUolcgia
13 (i960), 210-224, who dates the poem in 409.

3 . Aelius Lampridius
F ourth cen tu ry: Vita IJeliogabali (ed. E . H ohl, Scriptores Historian
Augustae, Lipsiae 1955 = ediiio stereolypa ediiionis prioris 1927).
V II . 1.

T H E L IT E R A R Y T E X T S

55

Matris ctiam deum sacra accepit et tauroboiiatus est, ut typum
eripcrct et alia sacra quae penitus habentur condita.

4 . PrudttUius
c. A.D. 400: PerisUphanon (ed. Lavarenne. Coll. des univcrsrtes do
France, 1‘aris 1951), hymn X . 1006-1050.

Respomlit his Roman us: « Eccum, pracsto sum;
meus Lste sanguis