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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. blank page How to be a GENIUS Written by John Woodward Consultants Dr. David Hardman and Phil Chambers Illustrated by Serge Seidlitz and Andy Smith (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. CONTENTS 6 Your amazing brain MEET YOUR BRAIN HOW MEMORY WORKS 10 Mapping the brain 60 How you think 12 Left brain, right brain 62 What is memory? 14 Taking sides 64 Improve your memory 16 Nerves and neurons 66 Do you remember? 18 Brain waves 68 Paying attention 20 What is a genius? 70 Making associations 72 Albert Einstein COME TO YOUR SENSES PROBLEM SOLVING 24 Brain and eyes 76 How you learn 26 Tricky pictures 78 Mastering mazes 28 How you see 80 Puzzling patterns 30 Simple illusions 82 Intelligence types 32 Impossible illusions 84 George Washington Carve er 34 How you hear 86 Logic 36 Sounds like? 88 Illogical thinking 38 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozartt 90 Brainteasers 40 Taste and smell 92 Thinking inside the box 42 Sensitive senses 94 Mathematical thinking 44 How you feel and touch 96 Think of a number 46 Touch and tell tel 98 The magic of math 48 Tricking the e mind 100 Spatial awareness areness 50 Magic tricks 102 Seeing in 2-D 52 2 Sensing your body 104 Thinking in 3-D 54 Body illusions 106 Invention 56 Intuition io 108 Wernher vo on Braun 4 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. A WAY WITH WORDS YOUR BRAIN AND YOU 112 Learning to speak 138 Sense of self 114 Having a word 140 Personality types 116 Using language 142 What about you? 118 Words aloud 144 What makes you tick? 120 Reading and writing 146 Mary Anning 122 Jean Franςois Champollion 148 The unconscious 150 Dreams 152 Emotions 154 Mahatma Gandhi 156 Fear 158 Reading emotions 160 Body talk 162 Good and bad habits 164 Winning and losing THE CREATIVE MIND THE EVOLVING BRAIN 126 What is creativity? 168 How we got our brains 128 Are you a creative spark? 170 Charles Darwin 130 Boost your creativity 172 How the brain ; grows 132 Creative exercises 174 Brain surgery 134 Leonardo da Vinci 176 Animal intelligence 178 Train your pet 180 Can machines think? 182 Program your friend 184 Glossary 186 Answers 190 Index 5 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Do you remembe remember? Put your brain’s memory sk skills to the e test. Study the picture shown n inside this boy’s busy head forr 45 seconds, then cover it up and try ry to answer the following questions. No peeking! 1. Where W does he like to sing? 2. Name ame three sports that we see the boy do doing. 3. One picture e shows show us inside his body. Which part rt do we see? 4. What color is the terrifyi terrifying monster he e is scared of? 5. Who iss the love of his life? lif 6. What food does the boy really, really hate? 7. How many candles andles are there on the birthday cak cake? 8 Name three different 8. animals that we see. 9. What is the delicious ou smell that we see the boy ssniff? 10. What injury makes m him cry? How did you do? Turn to page 186 to ﬁnd out. Emo t Fear, ions an and o ger, joy, lov th seem er emoti e, o resp like auto ns might onse mati c me s, bu our b n t emo rains to c we can u tal tions ontro se if we l want our . Aut actomat i You ivit c r br y even ain is It al when y always con so kee ou are active, p t tem rolling s you a asleep . p y live e ou ra and dige ture, b r heart by b r stio eath e n. ing, at, The brain is the most astonishing part of your body. Its billions of cells control everything you think and do, including on re your actions, senses, emotions, ti ses a in, als p e en ra n memory, and language. The more rc your s your b he sig you e t P l of nto in ows e, you use it, the better it works. Al red i akes d all tast wi ich t d an ell, This book is all about how to wh y sen ar, sm ld. the e, he e wor get your brain cells buzzing and, e h to s feel t d maybe, become a genius. an B Perfect pair This puzzle tests your spatial awareness—your sense of space. Which two pieces on the far right will ﬁt together to create this hexagon shape? A E C D F 6 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Check the puzzle answers on page 186. g lvin ng s so ki lway ng in is a cti Th brain conne n when n w y r e You ems b s—ev your o s n f ea bl pro ent id part o huma r t y l e o diff are n ce. On y n is. e e i h t er h exp n do t ca A human bra brain rain is the most complex ex structure str tru ruct cture re on EEarth. art rth. rt Memory Every event or fact that grabs your attention may be stored in your memory—an amazingly efﬁcient library of information that never runs out of space. Lang Your b uage ability rain gives y under to commu ou the nicate stand using comp and spe lex learn ech. You c ideas an als by rea o din were writte g words th n long at ago. Mo Yo ve o ur m so rgan brain en an you izes trig t de ra yo g ha fﬁci ction ur m ers a pp en nd o s thi ens t. Mo are s veme nk wit s m ing ho t of o nts, ab ut y this oth ou t it ou . Feel lost? Life is full of puzzling problems—such as how to get to the middle of this tricky maze. It’s your a-maze-ing brain that helps you ﬁnd the answers. 7 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Fish Bird Human Origin of genius Compared to other animals, the human brain has a much bigger cerebrum (shown in orange above). This is what makes uss intelligent, because we use the cerebrum for consscious thought. Meninges Mening Me es s Th hese ese layers lay ers cu cushion n the th brain ag br aga aga ainst shock. B Your bra ain is the most complex organ in your body—a a spongy pink mass made up of billions of micro oscopic nerve cells linked togethe er in an electron nic network. Each part has its own n job, but it is the biggest part, the cerebrum, that is responssible for your thoughts and actions. Pituitary glan nd mun f Perga Galen o n named Galen of reek surgeo t people This releases chemicals calle ed hormones into your blood. The ey control many functions, includin ng growth and body development. AG the ﬁrs was one of Pergamun in was an ra b e that th ntrolled to suspect and that it co an g or t n ta impor Galen lived d emotions. an s ie or mem , in what is 9 and 200 CE between 12 treated the , where he . now Turkey of gladiators gory injuries Hy ypothala amus Thiis is the part of your brain tha at regulates ssleep, hunger, and body tempe erature. Thal lamus The thalam mus relays sensoryy signals from your your body to your ce cerebrum, rebrum where they are decoded and analyzed. Your Yo ur bra raiin is rain i 77 per ppercent errcentt w erc water. wat wate water aater terr. Brain stem Connected to the spinal cord, the brain stem links the rest of the body to the brain and controls heartbeat and breathing. 10 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Skull Forms a protective p casing around the brain Cerebrum The biggest part of the brain controls all our conscious actions and thoughts, analyzes sensory data, and stores memories. U ttoo 2 pints Up pints ts (1 litr litre litre) tre re) e) of o bloodd flows blood flows ws through thrrough thro ugh you your your bbrrrain bra aain in every eve ver ery ry minute. m minute inutee. Cor orpus s ca ccallo ll sum A band and of ner ervve er ve ﬁbe ﬁbers rs tha thatt link lin nk the the two si sides des of th the e cere cere reb re ebru brum Sub bara ra achn c oid space sp ce This is ﬁlle led d with sho ock-absorb or ing ﬂuid. ﬂuid. Blood sup ply The brain needs a c onstant su of oxygen pply to fuel its activities. This is de livered in the blood the body’s via circulatory system of arteries, ve ins, and c apillaries Around on . e ﬁfth of th e body’s entire quo ta of oxyg enated blood is re served for the brain. Cerebellum This complex folded structure helps control balance and movement. Parietal lobe Processes inform mation from the senses, especcially from the skin, muscles, and joints Th outer The T t b ain br T cerebrum is heavilly The folded in order to increase the total surface area, w which iss packed with brain cells. It iss divided into halves, th he left and right hemispheres, and ea ach consists of four lob bes tha at have different functiions. Frontal lobe Vital to thought, h h personallliity, speech, and emotion Temporal lobe Mostly concerned d with the recognition n of sound Occipittal lobe Receives nerve signalss from the eyes and interprrets visual information Spinal al cord cord d Cerebellum 11 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. LEFT EFT d el l ﬁ ch ua ea eft vis of l d ft de the el Le ht si ees ual ﬁ g s s Ri eye vi The cerebrum m is divided into o two halves, halve connected by a bridge of nerve rve ﬁbers. For some functions, ns, each half is wired to the opposite side of the body, but other skills and thought processes are controlled d by only one half of the brain. n n. BRA LEFT BRAIN IN SKILLS The left side de of your brain is responsible b for the more logical, rational a aspects of your thinking, as well ass yyour verbal skills. Language e Yo ability to express yourself Your in words is usually controlled by the frontal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere. ce Sci ientiﬁc t thought Logical scientiﬁc e iﬁc thinking is the job o of the left side s of the brain, altho ough most science also involvves being creative. Left op ptic tract Carries data from right vissual ﬁeld Rational thought Thinking and reacting acting in a rational way appears ears to be mostly a left-brain leftactivity. It allows you to analyze activ ze a problem to ﬁnd an answer. Mathematical them skills Studies es show that the left side of the brain is much better at dealing with b numbers than the right side, and it is responsible for mathematical skills. Writing skills Like spoken language, age, writing skills ski that involve organizing o ideas and expressing them in words are largely controlled by the left hemisphere. ds? Two min l activities involve both 12 ows brain This scan sh areas) in activity (redmisphere. the right he is Many menta e side that brain, but th o tw se e h sides of the T . ed may vary o most involv activity of tw in ra b e th w e o h T sh s c. n si sca to mu e listening t h g ri ir people whil the left is using one on the , indicating re o m ch u m re e h p hemis , while the ive approach alytical. it tu in re o am ore an n may be m other perso usician uses A trained misphere more. m he ft the le (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Left visua al cortex Processes da ata from right visual ﬁeld R L igh ey eft s t vis e vis se ide ual ua es of ﬁe l ﬁ th ea ld eld e ch rig ht RI RIGHT IG BRAIN RI IGHT BRAIN SKI ILLS S The e right side of your ou brain seems s to be the focus of you ur more creati t ve thou t ughts a and emotional, intuitive ressponses. It is also o important nt for spatial awareness. Spatial skills s Optic nerve Sends visual signals to brain Your ability to visualize and work with three-dimensional shapes is strongly linked to the right side of your brain. th Art Vissual art is related to spatial skills, an nd the right side of your brain is prrobably more active when you are drrawing, painting, or looking at art. Imaginatio agination Right optic tract Carries data a from left visual ﬁ ﬁeld Your creative imagination imag is mostlyy directed by the right hemisphere, dir although expressing that imagination n involves left-brain skills. s Insight h Those mom moments of insight when you connect nne two very different iideas probably ably come from fr the right half of your brain. Music c Right h visual co ortex Processes data a from left visual ﬁeld Like visual art, music involves olves a lot of right-brain activity—but trained ained musicians also use their left brains nss to master musical theory. ry. y. Right- han Cro ossed os d wires wi The he le left side s o of each eye is connected nnected to the left side of your brain, but ut it p picks up data a from the right side of your head—the —th right visual ﬁeld. —the ﬁ Each side of the brain processes ess im iimages from the oth her side of the head. Each side als also so controls the muscless of the opposite hand. ded wo The left b rld rain contr ols the rig hand, and ht since mos t people a right-han re ded, this s uggests that the le ft brain is usually dominant. So do left -handers use their right-brain skills more? Th ere is no p roof of this and many , left-hande rs have no trouble us ing langua ge and log ic. 13 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. BRAIN GAMES TAKING SIDES Most people are either left- or right-handed, but did you know that you can also have a dominant foot and a preferred eye? In both physical and mental tasks, the left and right sides of your brain are far from equal, and it is very rare for someone to be able to use both hands or feet equally well. Try the following tests to ﬁnd which side you are on on. Best foot forward The easiest way of ﬁnding which of your feet is dominant is to kicck a soccer ball, but you usually ta ake the ﬁrst step of a ﬂight of stairss with your stronger foot, too. You ur preferred foot may not be on the same side as your dominan nt hand—you y can be left-footed an nd right-handed or vice versa. Eye-motion Look straight at the nose of the girl in each of these pictures. In which one do you think she looks happier? Most people ﬁnd that she looks happier in the bottom image, which shows her smiling on the left side of the picture. This is because information from your left visual ﬁeld gets processed in your brain’s right hemisphere, which is also dominant for interpreting emotions. Tr oppo y doing t s switc ite hand hings wit hing h to the h normal the your , a suc f n o d r watc h on k with or that you h as pu ho your the oth er ar tting you ld brain m. r of do t ing t o learn n This forc h es ew w more ings the t connecti and crea ays wo s ides ons betw tes of yo e ur br en ain. 14 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Eye see you Trick your brain To o discove er which is your dominant eye, hold up your index ﬁnger tto eye level and look past it into the distance. Then close ea ach eye, one at a time. You will see that with your weaker eyye, your ﬁnger will appear to ju ump, whereas with your stronger eye, it will stay in place. Your sttronger eye ﬁgures out the position n of things, while the weaker eye help ps with depth perception. This exercise reveals how your brain sometimes tricks you into taking shortcuts. First, draw this upside-down picture of a face. Then turn the face the right way up and draw it again. When you compare the two pictures, you may be surprised to ﬁnd that the upside-down version is the most accurate. Havi Having ving one hand as strong str tro rong as the other er can give ve you an advantage adva vantag age in some sports. sport rtts. In baseball, rts baseb eball, for fo example, ex e, an ambidextrous ambidex ext xtr tro rous hitt hitter tter tt er can switch hands ds to strike str tri rike the ball fr fro from rom the bes best est side. es e. Handy test Ambidexterity is the ability to use both hands equally well. To see if you are ambidextrous try the exercise below. Take a pencil in your right hand and ask a friend to time you for 15 seconds. Starting top right, work your way along the line, putting as many dots as you can in the white circles. Then do the same on the other side with your left hand and compare the results. The left side of your brain assigns simple shapes to common objects—for example, an almond shape for an eye. So if you draw a face the right way up, you probably draw the features based on what you think they look like rather than what you see. When you look at a face upside down, however, the right side of your brain works harder to understand the unfamiliar image and you draw the shapes and lines you actually see. Left hand start Right hand start You will get the farthest along the line with your dominant hand, but you may surprise yourself by just how well you did with your weaker hand. If you found that you got just as far with each hand, you are probably ambidextrous. 15 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Child prodigy Determination Born in Poland in 1867, Marie Curie was determined to be a scientist, even though such a career was not considered suitable for a woman in the 1800s. She fought poverty and prejudice to win two Nobel Prizes for her pioneering work on radioactivity. Some people just seem to be born geniuses. Garry Kasparov was only 13 when he won the Russian junior chess championship in 1976, and he became the youngest-ever world champion in 1985. He had a natural talent, but he worked hard to make the most of it. Encouragement Broad view Some geniuses do one thing extremely well, but others excel at many things. Thomas Jefferson—the main author of the U.S. Declaration of Independence in 1776—was a philosopher, archaeologist, architect, and inventor, as well as a politician who became president of the United States. American sistterrs Venus and Serena Williams are am mong the greatest of all tennis players. They showed amazing talent from a young age, but they owe a lot of their success to their h i parents, who coached and encouraged them to build on their skills. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Come to Your Senses (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Eye muscle One of six muscles that rotate the eye in its socket Choroid A network of blood vessels spreads through this middle layer of the eye. Retina The inner lining is a sheet of light-sensitive cells. We are visual creatures. We identify most things by sight and we think mainly in visual terms. So for most of us, sight is our dominant sense. This means that a lot of the information we commit to memory is in the form of visual images. But how do the brain and eyes work together to create these images? wo Pupil The opening P in the iris alllows llight into the eye. Image convertor Your eye is a ball of transparent jelly lined with light-sensitive cells. Light rays enter your eye through lenses that focus an upside-down image on the cells. These cells respond by generating tiny electrical signals that pass down a bundle of nerve ﬁbers to your brain. The cells exposed to parts of the image that are light generate bigger signals than cells exposed to dark parts, just like the pixels in a digital camera ra sensor. The cells turn the image into an electronic code that your brain can process. Lens The ellastic lens L cchanges sha ape to ﬁne-focus the image. ﬁ ew r vi m Cleareﬂected fro is focused Reﬂected light Visible objects reﬂect reﬂe ect light into o your eyes.. u see lens to Light ing yo anyth cornea and image. al by the lear optic ide c a ps form rojected u he eye. t p o is ck f This the ba n o n dow Iris Muscles in n the e iris change c the he si size ze of the centr tral al pupil. upil Cornea The “wind “ dow” at the front of the e eye e partly focuses tth the image. rol Automatic cont. The cornea at the 24 Dilated pupil Contracted pupil Each eye has two lenses hind this is another front forms one lens. Be nt jelly, suspended lens made of transpare cally change its ati by muscles that autom distant objects. or se clo shape to focus on ls the light entering The colored iris contro ly dilating (widening) the eye by automatical at the centre. or contracting the pupil (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Sclera The white of the eye forms a tough outer layer. Seeing Men The tal c con ells of imag vert th e ligh e retin sign t int a a l s visu . Th oe whi al cor ese pa lectric t c al ss e h x t upr ight urns th of the to the b me nta em into rain, l im age an . in c The cone cells in th olor e retina re different strength s of basic spond to as red, g color ree send to th n, and blue. The s s such ign e brain re present m als they dots of th ese color illions of s. The br the dots ain to create all the oth combines the spec e trum, as in this sim r colors of pliﬁed dia gram. Visual cortex The part of the brain that processes visual data Dark adaptation When you turn the light off in your room at night, you can’t see much. However, as the minutes tick by, you yo u ar are e ab able le to to se see e mo more re a and nd mor more e. This is because the sensory cells in your eyes can adapt to the low light level—but it takes time. If you turn the light back on, you get dazzled because your eyes have adapted to the dark. They must readapt to the light, but they do this much more quickly. Opt p ic nerve Bundle of nerve ﬁbers linked to the sensory cells S T e s he n ca hee im so ce lled t of age ry lls li is t to (ro he r ght- foc ce dim ds eti se us l (co li ) ar na. nsi ed ls ne gh e v So tive on a s) t, w ery m e ce de h tec ile sen of t lls t c oth siti he olo er ve r. s There There Ther erre are re aro around round 126 million sensory sen ensory ry cel cells ells ls in each ea eye— eye— 120 million ro rods ds and six million co cones. cones es. es Strange effects Bright lights and contrasting patterns can cause strange optical effects. For example, if you stare at something for a minute and then close your eyes, you see a negative afterimage. Each color is replaced by its opposite, so the yellow and red ﬂowers shown below appear blue and cyan. This is a side effect of the way your brain processes color. Blind spot The point where the optic nerve leaves the eye cannot detect light, but your brain invents information to ﬁll the gap. You can test this using the diagram above. Hold the book at arm’s length, close your right eye, and focus on the cross. Slowly move the book toward you. The center of the wheel will disappear when it falls on your blind spot— but your brain will ﬁll the gap with spokes of the wheel. 25 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. BRAIN GAMES TRICKY PICTURES The optical illusions in this gallery all play tricks on what your eyes and brain think they are seeing. They stimulate the eyes in such a way that still images seem to move, colors change, and things appear where they shouldn’t. Is it straight? The horizontal lines in this illusion appear to be wavy, but they are all perfectly straight—use a ruler and see for yourself! Our brains interpret the lines as being wavy owing to the disjointed black-and-white lines running from top to bottom, which can also make some horizontal bands look closer than others. Did that move? The patterns in this picture appear to be moving, but not if you stare at any spot for a few seconds. This demonstrates what is called peripheral vision drift. Our brains perceive the colors and contrasts as moving when we are not looking directly at them, but the effect ends when we train our eyes on one spot. 26 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Ouch! If you move your eyes around d this pattern, called the Ouchi illusion, the circle in the middle seems to move or separate from the rectangular background, and even hovers in front of itt. This illusion is not fully understood, but it probably arises from the brain being unsure of where the ciircle ends when you are not looking directly at it. Jumping goldﬁsh Stare at the pink dot in the centre of the goldﬁsh’s head for 15 seconds and then look at the black dot in the empty bowl. You should see the goldﬁsh in its new home. This happens because an impression of the goldﬁsh, called an afterimage, is still left on the back of your eye. Seeing spots This picture is called a scintillating grid because when you look at it, dark spots seem to ﬂash (scintillate) in the intersections between the squares. The reason for this is yet to be explained, but if you tilt your head to either side, it seems to lessen the effect. Color contrasts Which of these green crosses is lighter? Most people would say the cross on the right. It might seem strange, but there is actually no difference between them. This illusion is known as simultaneous contrast, and it shows that the way we perceive colors is based on their surroundings. 27 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. HOW YOU SEE Binocular vision Each eye sees a slightly different image of the world. Try closing one eye and framing a distant object with your hands. Then open that eye and close the other. You will ﬁnd that your hands are framing a different view. The images below show the different views of the same setting seen by each eye. eye The left eye can see the palm trees behind the boat, while the right eye sees the ﬂowering trees. You might expect this to confuse your brain, but it combines the images to create a 3-D view. Your eyes turn visual images into o an electronic code that can be processed and stored in your brain. It is thiss mental processing that determines how w you see the world. Without it, you could not make sense of all the shapess and colors. Your brain also responds to some visual effects by translating them into other types of information. This enable es you to judge things like depth, shape, and distance. Perspective Parallax If you close one eye and look at a scene without moving your head, it looks ﬂat like a picture. But if you move your head from side to side, you get an impression of depth. This is because objects that are closer to your eye seem to move more than objects that are farther away, and your brain translates the difference into a perception of depth. This parallax effect is obvious if you look out of the side window of a moving car—nearby objects like these pillars zip past, but distant objects like the trees move hardly at all. A oth An ther way your brain jud ges distance is by decod ing perspective. This is the effect you ge t when you look up at a tall building and the walls seem to lean toward one another—eve n though you know they are vertical. Your brain makes an autom atic calculation based on this knowledge and turns it into a percepti on of height. 28 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. ive Aerial perspect another clue ws, your brain can use g vie In landscapes with lon describes the d aerial perspective, it lle Ca ce. to assess distan moisture or dust t objects is affected by way the color of distan in this picture, n in hilly regions, as see in the air. It is obvious n those closer tha er blu look paler and where the distant hills on, which has ronauts visited the Mo to the camera. When ast that distant ef ect made them think this eff no air, the absence of re. we than they actually hills were much closer nt n dififfere e t o t p u istance We use i g dis gin d u j ju f o s how way showiing . , h t p e d us and t it is to mportan iim Light and s ha de Objects are usually lit from above, casting sh a adows that vary according to their a shape. Your brain uses this to b judge shapes, enabling you to te e ll the difference between a ball an b d a ﬂat disk. The reaction is so T instinctive that it even works with 2-D images. Th hese shapes look like a dent su urrounded by bum ps, but if yo ou turn the page upside down, they look like a sin gle bump su urrounded by de nts. e sense llusions Optical ied in your memory hellps yoouu makplying ap or st by rmation use you Info so conf e blue e. But it can al of what you se sert mirage, th les. In this de ru e wrong of t th se in s ng ar ro the w sky. It appe e th t of rt pa ly layer of very ho “water” is real distorted by a is e ew m vi e su th as e u yo place becaus n’t be the sky, know that it ca er. at w of ol air. Since you po a n of the sky in it is a reﬂectio An average ave ver errage era ag person per errson can tell ers tel ell the difference diff fffer ffe ere ren ence between bet etwe wee een en 200 colors, colors co rs,s, all forming form fo rming part rt of the visible vi light lig ight spectrum spec ect cttru ctr rum from fro fr rom red reed to t violet. violet vi et.t. 29 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. BRAIN GAMES Big and sm all Psychologist Edward Bradf ord Titchener our judgment discovered th about the size at of something the size of othe is affected by r things around it. The red circ picture here an le ess in the d the one belo l w are the sa one here look me size, but th s biggerr beca e use it is surrou circles. Movie nded by smal makers use th ler is simple effe monsters appe ct to make ar mucch bigg er than they ac tually are. Wro The ng di M into üller-Ly recti think er ill on us in on th e lef g that th ion misl t is l This eads e mid on is t beyo becaus ger than dle sect he brain ion o e the nd th t h e f of le o e ngth line, pl open arr ne on th the line aying owh e and right ea dept with h. our p ds exten . d erce ption Some of the most effective optical illusions can be produced with simple lines and shapes. Such illusions play with our perceptions off angles, size, and shape, causing us to make unconsccious assumptions about what we see. Even when we e know how they work, the illusions are difﬁcult to shake off. 30 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Is it square? The concentric circles in this picture trick our brains into thinking that the image has depth. It also makes the perfectlyy straight p g lines of the blue square appear to bend inward. nes ed li s s o r C ion was s This illu erman ed by G r e v o disc ohann J ysicist h p o tr s a llner. drich Zö Karl Frie rallel r pa The fou pear lines ap l a c ti r ve cannot ts s cienti S . d e lt ti see why we explain they es when ht! tilted lin ig a tr ctly s are perfe A little bit t dotty Dots appear to join the crosses in this image, but the dots don’t actually exist—they’re simply gaps in the lines. Scientists disagree on an explanation. Do we see dots because the brain ﬁgures out the boundaries of shapes from little bits of information? Or do we see the illusio on before the brain has processed exactly whatt it is we are looking at? The ns. tching o i s e u o ill , str n s tw pective illusio e n i n a t d s o n r n o e o e in mage c se of p s a sec rs to b Twosimple i ive a senis createop appeahey are, This lines g nce. Th at the t ttom. T k a o blac he dist red line t the b t a e o e t h n t in o the hich e. in w r than me siz e a g s n he lo ct, t in fa 31 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. The water cycle 32 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. American illustrator Charles Allan Gilbert created this famous optical illusion. What do you ou see s in the picture? A pretty woman admiring herself lf in a mirror or a scary grinning skull? Deathly beauty The Dutch artist M. C. Escher was inspired by optical illusions. This picture shows a circuit of water that seems to ﬂow impossibly uphill before tumbling down to start its journey all over again. If you look closely, you can see that the technique used is the same as that in the Penrose triangle, below. BRAIN GAMES 33 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Face-to-face? This illusion was crreated by matthematician Roger Penrosse. All three straigh ht beam ms of the tria angle appear in fron nt and behind d one another at the same time, and they me eet at right an ngles to one anothe er. It would be imposssible fo or this object to exisst in 3--D. Tric cky triangle When the eyes and brain focus on an object, they separate it from its background, but it’s not clear which is the object in this illusion. Some people see a white vase on a black background, while others see two black people looking at each other on a white background. Like e Penro ose’s triangle e, this object cannott be created d in 3-D. You see tw wo diffe erent perrspectivves at once, yet it’s imposssible to ﬁt them m togetther. Th hree ro ound prongs at one end d become a rectang gular shape at the other. Nob body iss reallyy sure who ﬁrst creatted thiss illusion—it’’s a puzzle from m startt to ﬁnish! Tw wo or three e? Look at these pictures and objects. What do you see? Is there one image or two? Is the water really ﬂowing uphill? Illusions are not always as they seem at ﬁrst glance. The brain can ﬂip between two options as it tries to make sense of the impossible. ILLUSIONS MPOSSIBLE You u can see th his sha ape in n two ways— —as a small cube sitting g on th he inside of a bigger cube or as a sing gle larrge cu ube with a sm mall cube-ssize ch hunk missin ng from its bottom m corner. This de esign ﬁrst app peared d in a ﬂoor mosaic found in the anccient Roman ruin ns of Pompe eii, Italy. Cr razy y cu ube Can you hear something? From whispering voices to a phone ringing, yours ears pick up all sorts of sounds. Try the following activities and ﬁnd out how much information we process through our ears. What was that? Test your hearing ability by identifying these challenging sounds. You will need: ǩ3DSHU ǩ7DSH ǩ6FLVVRUV ǩ7KUHHHPSW\ERWWOHV ǩ8QFRRNHGULFH ǩ'ULHGEHDQV ǩ8QFRRNHGSDVWD ǩ(PSW\EDJ ǩ)ULHQGVWRSDUWLFLSDWH Yo cannot hear You hea ear any sounds ds in space. space e. This Th is bec because ecause sound needs need eds ds a medium med edium to travel tra tr ravvel through, thro rough, such as air or w water. ater er.r. Noisy bottles ([SHULPHQWZLWK high- and lowpitched sounds when you do this activity. You will need: ǩ7KUHHHPSW\ glass bottles ǩ3LWFKHURIZDWHU ep 1 Ste Fill each bottle with a diffferent amount of water, eaving one empty. If le you blow across the top of the empty bottle, it makes a low-pitched m ound. If you add a little so quid and then blow, the liq pitcch is higher—the more liquid, the higher the pitch. liquid ep 1 Ste Filll each bottle with a different material—the d uncooked rice, dried beans, and uncooked pasta. Let the participants hear each shaken bottle once. Then wrap them in paper before placing tthem in the bag. Step 2 If you tap the sides of the same bottles, you get the opposite effect: the empty bottle has the highest pitch, while the fullest bottle has the lowest pitch. Step 2 Ask your volunteerss to close their eyes and pick the bottles out, ey one by one. Can the identify what is inside the bottles by shaking them? How good is your sense of hearing? Throughout your life, your brain stores information it encounters, enabling you to identify the sounds you come across. There is less air when the bottle is half full, so the air vibrates faster, with higher pitch. When the bottle is empty, the vibration is slower and the pitch lower. But when you tap the bottle, it is the glass and water that are vibrating to create the sound. The greater the amount of water, the lower the pitch. 37 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang at th sister, Nanner e age of six, performing wi their ﬁrst trip i, and their father, Leopol th his d, to Paris, Fran ce, in 1762. during Child prodigy zart was the son of rn in Austria in 1756, Mo Bo , so he was in the right a professional musician He could read music family to learn his art. rds, and began playing before he could read wo at the age of ﬁve. His and composing music g ian, and when Wolfgan sister was also a music e rop Eu d un aro m k the was six, their father too prodigies. ld chi as off m the w to sho Some people seem to have a genius for music and can play it superbly when they are very young. A few are even able to compose complex orchestral music when they are only children— something that most people would ﬁnd impossible. The most celebrated of these musical geniuses is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of the greatest composers who ever lived. ent g taling n i s i m prov at drea Im riﬁc heme was ter usical t m a Mozart g n o tions ccordin up varia as playing. A perform im ew while h ss who saw h ise e improv n ld it u w o w e to a with h r, enager, e than an hou as a te ed r h o s li m for omp like this that even acc d. But to ill de l astoun such sk s were ﬁtting musica n ia ic s r mu fo y t t talen t a par him this ther was jus was to e g e o g t ideas hallen ic, e real c exciting mus h T . k l, tric a in er. se orig compo k a little long o o t which This portrait of Mozart at the age of around 26 shows his love for ﬁne clothing. young w, the ick pillohis skill at the th a n s . do Perche demonstrate tic audience Mozartto an aristocra organ Fun and games In 1787, Em Emper Emperor ero rorr Josep JJoseph eph II of Austr Austria tri ria made Moz Mozart ozart rt his court rt composer composer. er.r. Despite his musical genius, Mozart did not have a one-track mind. He enjoyed horse riding, dancing, and billiards. When he started earning serious money in Vienna, he bought a billiard table as well as a new piano. He was well known for his sense of humor, partly because he enjoyed practical jokes. He also liked showy clothes and was once decribed as appearing onstage “with his crimson pelisse and gold-laced cocked hat.” 38 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Cerebral cortex Analyzes and relates smells and tastes Olffactory bulb Ga athers scent signals and passes them to the brain Your senses of taste and smell are closely connected, and they both help you enjoy your food. But yourr sense e of smell is vital in other ways. It alerts you to danger and helps you recognize familiar places, things, and evven ven people. Your brain reacts surprisingly strongly to smelll, especially smells that you memorized long ago. Taste bud Most of the re Taste pore ceptor cells th at detect tast concentrated e are on the tongue in clusters ca taste buds. Th lled ere are around 10,000 of thes each containi e, ng 50 to 100 ba nana-shaped cells with tiny “taste hairs” at the top. Whe you eat, saliva n and dissolved food seep into each taste bu d through a tin y pore. The ce react to chem lls icals in the fo od by sending nerve impuls es to the brai n. Taste hair Olfactory receptors Detect scent molecu mol molecules ecules les in the air Nerve ﬁber Taste receptor cell Nasal chamber Simple tastes SALTY Your taste buds can distinguish between only ﬁve taste sensations: salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umani (savory). This combination is too limited to account for all the different li tastes that you experience, and this is because your sense of smell also plays an important role in “tasting” your food. Infections such as colds and the ﬂu can make you temporarily lose your sense of smell— l and then you ﬁnd that you cannot taste much either. SOUR R Tongue SWEET BITT TER 40 UMANI (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Nerve ﬁbers Gather data from taste buds Scent si ignals The hum man sense of smell is poor compared to that of many animals, but it is much more reﬁned th than t you ur sense of taste, enabling you to detect thousands of sscents. Scent molecules are carried in the air, and when yo ou breatthe in, they are detected by two patches of recep ptor cellls located high up in your nasal cavity. Nerve ﬁ ﬁbers frrom these cells pass through the skull to the olfactorry bulb, where more nerve cells transfer th he coded d scent signals to the brain. Wee all hav W have ve our own unique smel smell ell identity. Th This is determined det eter erm rmined ed by fa fact factors cto tors rs such as genes genes, ess, diet diet, ett, and skin type. typee. tion tinctive reac limbic system at Inst the of rt pa is actory bulb The olf tem is an stem. The limbic sys the top of the brain role in nt rta po im an t plays area of the brain tha ents sc . This explains why memoryy and emotion m rmant do en ak s and aw ger powerful emotion an trigg cortex ca the to es ss pa o mation als es emoriess. Scent infor me tak this zed consciously, but t brain to be analy of the instinctive reaction. a lot longer than the Thalamus Receives taste signa als from the medulla and sends them to the cortex Medulla Receives taste signa als and relays them to the thalamus Brain n stem Professional senses Some people earn a living by their noses. They include the makers of perfumes and, not so obviously, wine tasters and tea blenders. The blenders of ﬁne teas, for example, m may “taste” the teas, but their taste buds can barely identify them. Theyy use th heir reﬁned sense of smell to decide w which combinations have the best ﬂa avor. 41 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. BRAIN GAMES SENSITIVE SEN SENSES ENSES Unlike the other senses, smell and taste function by detecting chemical substances. Our sense of smell enables us to distinguish up to 10,000 different scents, and there are people who have an extra-sensitive sense of smell and taste. Try these activities and ﬁnd out more about your senses of smell and taste. A blocked nose Can a blocked nose affect your sense of taste? Follow the steps below and ﬁnd out. You will need: ǩ6HOHFWLRQRIIRRGV with varying degrees of taste and ﬂavor ǩ*ODVVRIZDWHU ǩ7ZRIULHQGV In th the we wei weightless eig ightltles ess es enviro environment envi ronmen ent of space, e, food aro fo aromas romas as do don’t often oft ftten fte ten re rea reach eachh th the nose, e, so astronauts astr as trronauts tro ts miss mis iss out on a lot of food flavo fo flavors. vors rss. rs. Seeing is believing! You will need: How good are you at ǩ6HOHFWLRQRIȍDYRUHG identifying what you Jell-O are eating? ǩ6RPHSODWHVDQGVSRRQV ǩ%OLQGIROG ǩ7ZRIULHQGV ǩ3HQDQGSDSHU Step 1 Ask the ﬁrst volunteer to o sample the food, rinsing his or her mouth out with water in between tastes. Record the responses. Step 1 Step 2 Ask an adult to help you make the Jell-O. When they have set, place them on a plate. Put a blindfold on the ﬁrst person, making sure he or she does not see the Jell-O beforehand. Then ask your f i d to taste and friend d id identify if the h ﬂavors. Record the results. Step 2 Repeat Step 1 with the second volunteer, but this time ask your friend to hold his or her nose closed.. Who had a better sense of ta aste? When you can’t sme ell what you are eating, it is harrder to recognize food ﬂavors s. So if your nose is blocked be ecause you have a cold, for exa ample, food often tastes bla and. 42 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Smell S Try this test and ﬁnd out how good your sense of smell is. Step 1 For each item, put two samples of it in two different bowls. Mix the bowls around. Step 2 %OLQGIROG\RXUIULHQG and ask him or her to identify which two items smell the same. How good was your friend’s sense of smell? You will need: ǩ%OLQGIROG ǩ$WOHDVWVL[ERZOVDQG three items with strong smells such as a banana, coffee grounds, ﬂowers, or soap ǩ$IULHQG T The chemical factor You will need: Find out if saliva ǩ3DSHUWRZHO helps you when ǩ6HOHFWLRQRIGU\IRRGV it comes to such as cookies, cakes, tasting food. or crackers ǩ7ZRIULHQGV Our sense of smell is much more sensitive than our sense of taste—around 10,000 times more sensitive. It alerts us to danger by detecting poisonous odors and we can even identify whether food is ripe p or rotten byy smell alone. Step 3 Ask the second person to identify the ﬂavors. This volunteer should not be blindfolded. Record his or her answers, too. Step 1 Step 2 Pat the tongue of one of your volunteers dry with the paper towel so that no part of the tongue’s top side has saliva on it. The second person can taste the food as normal. Ask the two subjects to taste the dry food and then record their responses as t how to h much hﬂ ﬂavor th they can taste. Step 4 Compare the differences between the two experiments. Did the blindfolded person make any mistakes or take longer in identifying the ﬂavors? We are used to seeing foods in certain colors, and this helps identify their ﬂavors. Chemicals from food can reach your taste buds only if they have been dissolved in saliva. A child has around aro round 10,000 taste buds, buds ds,s, while wh an adult may have ve only 5,000. 43 3 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. H Your skin is the largest organ in your body. It ha as many functions, including acting as a protective e barrier against infection, but it also provides yo ou with vital information about your environment. It does this by using millions of sensory recepto or cells that detect different types of stimuli—from m the most delicate tap to the sharp shock of pain n. Free nerve endings Sense touch, pressure, pain, and tem mperature Thalamus Sensitive e skin Human skin has at leastt six types of sensory receptors. Some arre branched nerve endings, while others are nerve ﬁbers that end in tiny disks or cap psules that psules detect different types of pressure, vibration, stretching, temp perature change, and physical damag ge. Some nerve endings are wrapped aro ound the roots of hairs and sense their response to touch and air mo ovement. Merkell’s disk Responds to light touch and pre essure There There Ther re are re aro around round 18 million skin sensors rs altogether, alto tog oget ether er,r, constantly constanttly sending info information form rmation to the bra brain. rain. Hair i root sensors Detect hair movement Signal network Sensoryy signals from the skin are sent through the bran nching nerves of the peripheral nervous system to the spinal cord and then to the thalamus. The thalamus passes them on to the somatic ssensory cortex, which is located in the brain. The thalamus acts as a relay station, as it does forr all sensory information except smell. 44 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Finger tip contro Some part l s of your s kin are m more sen uch sitive than others. If somethin g touches your leg, you can ce rtainly fee l it, but th sensation e is not very precise. By contra st, your ﬁn gertips are highly sen sit sense of to ive, giving you the uch that a llows you to feel tex tures and , in the ca of blind pe se ople, to re ad Braille . Sensory map Hair shaft Proje ects above skin surfface and reacts to to ouch and air moveme ent This odd-looking ﬁgure shows how your brain reacts to touch on various parts of your body. It looks strange because the size of each body part is related to the num mber of touch sensors that it has ratther than its physical size. Your han nds are shown much bigger than your feet because they are much more sensitive. Epidermis Outer layer of skin Thhe lea T The least leas le ea t sensit east sens en ittive ivvee iv part aart rt of rt of yo yoour ur bo ur boody dy dy is the is the mi miiddle ddle of ddle of your back. your ackk. Habituation Dermis Containss blood vessels, glands, and nerve endings Meissner’s corpu uscle A touch receptor found in sensitive e areas of skin Although your brain reacts strongly to new sensory information from your skin, it adapts to some constant or repetitive messages to make them less distracting. This effect happens with all the senses but is most easily tested using touch. If you put a pencil in the palm of your hand, for example, you get an instant sensation, but within seconds this wears off to leave just a low-key awareness. This is because some skin sensors soon stop sending signals, but others don’t. Pacinian corp puscle Sensitive to pressure and vibrations Feeling g pain Nerve endings throughoutt your skin register pain by reacting to cchemicals called prostaglandins and histam mines that are released from damaged ce ells. There are two types of pain responsses. One is short and sharp to make you u jerk your hand away from a candle ﬂame in a reﬂex action. The other is slower and d starts after the reﬂex, giving more persistent pain and warning us of possib ble long-term harm. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. 45 BRAIN GAMES TOUCH Grab bag +RZJRRGLV\RXUVHQVH of touch in helping you identify objects? AND TELL You will need: ǩ%R[ZLWKWZRKROHVFXWRXW RUDSLOORZFDVH ǩ6HOHFWLRQRILWHPVLQDOOVL]HVVXFK as a cup, spoon, ball, apple, sponge, rock, pinecone, and d feather ǩ6RFNVRUUXEEHUJORYHV ǩ$IULHQG Step 2 1RZDVN\RXUIULHQG 1 to o put socks or rubber gloves on his or her hands and touch the LWHPV+RZGRHVWKLV ch hange the success rate? Step 1 By covering your hands, itt is harde er to tell what you are touching. This iis because you are reducing the am mount of tactile informatio on being sent to your brain. Step 2 Have your friend place a hand inside the box DQGSLFNDQLWHP With eyes closed, ask your friend to feel the object and then sketch WKHVKDSHDQGGLPHQVLRQV RIWKHLWHP$VNKLPRU her to describe the texture of the object, too. We have different types of receptors under our skin. These enable us to ﬁnd out a lot about an object just by touch alone—whether an object is soft or hard, its shape, and how big it is. 46 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. ywhere else on the body. than an fingers Step 1 &RPSDUHWKHȌQLVKHG GUDZLQJZLWKWKHRULJLQDO LW LWHP+RZDFFXUDWH + W ZDV\RXUIULHQG" n o ur ǩ$IULHQG Step 3 e p t o rs i Artist at work! You will need: Can you judge the ǩ%R[ZLWKDKROH size, texture, and ǩ6RPHREMHFWVVXFK shape of an object by as a feather, apple, touch alone? Try this ERRNDQGZDOOHW activity and ﬁnd out. ǩ3HQFLODQGSDSHU c We have more touch re 3ODFHDIHZ LWHPVLQWKHE ER[ RUSLOORZFDVH H$VN your friend to o put his or her hands inside the boxx and try to identify the e objects IURPWRXFKDORQH <RXUHQWLUHERG\LVFRYHUHGZLWKWRXFKUHFHSWRUV VHQVLQJGLIIHUHQWW\SHVRIVHQVDWLRQVǟSUHVVXUH SDLQDQGWHPSHUDWXUH<RXFDQH[SORUH\RXU VHQVHRIWRXFKZLWKWKHIROORZLQJDFWLYLWLHV Sensitive e touch 7KLVDFWLYLW\G GHPRQVWUDWHV how some parts of your ERG\DUHPRUHVHQVLWLYH than others. You will need: ǩ$SDSHUFOLS Step 1 S 6WUDLJKWHQRXWWKHSDSHUFOLS7KHQ bend it so that the tips are around 0.5 in (1 cm) ap part. Step 2 Some animals have different ways of feeling. Cats, for examp le, use t heir w hiske rs. &ORVH\RXUH\H HVRUORRNDZD\7KHQUXQ the paper clip from the tip of your index ȌQJHUDORQJ\\RXUSDOPDQGXSWR\RXU forearm. Could you feel both the points of the paper clip on your forearm? Hot or cold? Follow the steps of this experiment and see how your thermal receptors detect changes in temperature. Your forearm m is not as sensitive as your ﬁngers, so it feels as if the points of the paper clip are together—or you might feel onlyy one point. You will need: ǩ7KUHHSODVWLFFXSV ǩ,FHFROGZDWHUZDUP ZDWHUDQGKRWZDWHUDW 104–122 °F (40–50 °C). Ask an adult to check the temperature with a thermometer. ǩ6WRSZDWFK The ﬁnger that has been placed in cold water perceives the water as warm, while the ﬁnger placed in hot water perceives it as cool. This is because the receptors are not d t ti the detecting th water t temperature. t t Instead, they are comparing it to the previous temperatures. Step 1 Fill each of the cups w with the FROGZDUPDQGKRWZ ZDWHUU Place a ﬁnger from yo our le eft hand in the cold water and da ﬁnger from your rightt hand in WKHKRWZDWHU/HDYHWKHȌQ QJHUV immersed in the wate er forr around a minute. Step 2 5HPRYHERWKȌQJHUVDQGGLS them in the cup of warm water. Does your body detect any changes in temperature? 47 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. e? Real or fak something that is l” ica ag “m ything An e laws of nature, seems to break th things disappear such as making ne’s mind. Some or reading someo ve in magic, just people really belie e ve in ghosts. Som as they may belie e ar ch as voodoo religious cults su t most of Bu ic. ag based on m magic is us recognize that ery, even some sort of trick it’s w ho if we can’t see is at th done—and part of the fun. Illusion A magician tosses a ball in the air twice while following it with his eyes. But he fakes a third toss, moving his eyes as if watching the ball, and to you, the ball appears to vanish. This illusion works because there is a slight delay in visual data reaching your brain. The brain compensates by inventing some data to ﬁll the gap—sometimes it’s incorrect. Crimin a l tric We assoc ks iate mag ic tricks artists, b with perfo ut conﬁd rmance ence tric use simil ksters an ar techniq d pickpock ues. If yo trick is d ets u can’t s one whe e e how a n y o you certa u are wa tching a inly won’t m recogniz distracts e it when agician, your atte someone ntion in th her partn es er steals your mon treet and his or ey. So wa tch out! 48 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. BRAIN GAMES ce d for r a l need: c You wil FDUGV The RI u trick ǩ'HFN U Can yo GSDSH into 3HQDQ e ǩ n o e som ORSH ǩ(QYH a QG LH U picking ard ǩ$I c c iﬁ c e p s ke their but ma appear n decisio ? m o rand Step 1 Secretly place the Queen of Diamonds so that it is the third card from the top in the deck of cards. Write down the name of the card on a piece of paper and put it in an envelope. We rely on our senses to tell us about our surroundings. However, our senses can be fooled, and we can easily miss a trick if our brains are concentrating on something else. Magicians distract their audiences to take attention away from what is really going on. Try these tricks to ﬁnd out if you, too, can fool the senses. Step 3 Ask your friend to point to two cards. If the ﬁrst two cards are chosen, remove them and go to Step 4. If the ﬁrst and third cards are chosen, remove the middle one. If the second and third cards are chosen, remove the ﬁrst one. Then ask your friend to choose another card—whichever one is chosen, make sure you remove the one that isn’t the Queen of Diamonds. Step 4 S A your friend to turn over the Ask rremaining card and then open the envelope to reveal how your amazing prediction came true. a Step 2 3UHWHQGWRVKXIȍHWKHFDUGV$VN your friend to deal out the top six cards into two rows of three. Watch to see where the Queen of Diamonds lands. Ask your friend to point to a row and conﬁdently take away the row that doesn’t have the Queen of Diamonds. If you perform in a conﬁdent manner, your friend will be convinced that you are doing what he or she has asked you to do. In fact, you are doing exactly what you need to do in order for the Queen of Diamonds to be picked. 50 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. The magic coin You will need: You need quick ǩ$FRLQ actions and plenty ǩ$IULHQG of practice to make this trick work. Step 1 In front of your friend, place the coin in the p palm of yyour left hand,, near the thumb. Step 3 Step 2 Ask your friend to say which hand the coin is under. Lift your hands to reveal the answer! Quickly turn over both hands, ﬂicking the coin from under the left hand to under the right hand. Because the coin was not seen to move, your friend is tricked into thinking that it is still under your left hand. he cup? : Where’s t You will need ke a m u yo LQ Can ǩ$FR nish? ǩ7DEOH something va try ǩ&KDLU You’ll need to s e ǩ3DSHU m ti this a few ǩ3ODVWLFFXS k before the tric ǩ$IULHQG ly. works perfect Step 4 Place the paper (which is still in the shape of the cup) back over the coin. Then smash your hand down on the paper to show that the cup has vanished. Say, “Oops, I’ve made the wrong thing disappear!” Only you know that you made the right object vanish after all. Step 1 Step 2 Place the coin on the table and the cup over the coin. Tell your friend you will make the coin disappear. Wrap the paper tightly around the cup so that you can see the shape of the cup underneath the paper. Step 3 Lift up the cup and the paper to show that the coin is still there. While you and your friend are still looking at the coin, move the paper and cup over the edge of the table and drop the cup out of the paper into your lap. Because you have directed all the attention to the coin, not the cup, your friend’s brain isn’t focusing on what is really happening. 51 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Balance Your inner ear contains three bony tubes that form loops called semicircular canals. Each tube ends in a bulge, or ampulla, containing sensors that detect the movement of ﬂuid in the loop—which depends on your body’s movement. Similar receptors called maculae detect how upright you are. Your brain uses these signals to correct your balance. We normally think that we have ﬁve senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. But we also feel things that do not seem related to a particular sense. They are like an awareness of your body. Most of these sensations affect your unconscious mind, but that doesn’t make them unimportant. Without your sense of balance, for example, you could not stand upright. Vestibular nerve Delivers balance sensor data to your brain s cknes nce n si tion of your bala o i t o M stimula g like a Intense methin s by so n cause sensor aster ride ca e o is mad roller-c ickness. This ars s e motion our eyes and y ing if t e ic s ﬂ wor on con r brain hing the horiz f u o y e c o giv t a e s W n . ke se ation inform e brain to ma . help s th d may enable ent, an m e v o the m Semicircular canals s Filled with ﬂuid that moves when your body moves Ampulla Contains sensors that detect body movement Macula Has sensors that detect whether you are upright Internal organs We are not usually aware of our internal organs, b we all but lll get sensations from our stomachs. Some are e vague feelings that mark the passage e of food, but hunger pangs are more useful. Digestive problems can cause pain, and other organs may also hurt if they are damage ed or diseased. A disorder releases chemica als that are detected by nerve endings and relayed to the brain as pain. 52 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Now ask your frriend to put one foot on a low step (or a pile of books or magazines) and d repeat the test. Step 2 Ask a friend to stretch an arm out straight. Then ask him or her to resist you as you press down on his or her wrist with two ﬁngers— your friend will be able to resist the force you are exerting on his or her h arm. Step 1 Hard to resist This test demonstrates one of the many ways the brain defends the body from possible harm—only in this case, there is no harm at all. 54 Sometimes your brain has a mind of its own. It can stop you from doing something that you want to do or make you feel things that are not actually there. Try the following experiments and witness for yourself the mysterious brain at work. With one hand, reach around to tap and rub your friend’s nose. Exactly copy yo our movements with your other han nd on your own nose. After a short time, you u should start to o feel that your friend’s nose iss yours. That’s one long g nose! Step 2 Blindfold yourrself and then stand behind a friend. Step 1 Pinocchio nose Ever wondered what it would be like to have a nose as long as Pinocchio’s? Try this and ﬁnd out. BODY ILLUSIONS Your brain uses you ur sense of touch to ﬁgure out where your nose is. When the sensations s from touching your frien nd’s nose interfere with th he messages from touchin ng yyour own nose,, yyourr brain begins to think yo our nose has grown to where your friend’s nose is! Th Ari The Aristotle risto t tl to tle illusion is one of the oldes oldest est known es wn body illusions. Her Here erre’s ere how it works: work wo rks ks: cross cro cr ross your finger fingers errs ers and to ttouch uch a small round ro object, obj bjec ect ctt, like ct, a pea pea, ea, and it will wi feel fee fe eel el like you are re ttouching to uching two wo peas! pea eas! BRAIN GAMES INTUITION We often believe things without having any idea why. You might get a feeling that you are being followed, or arrive at an inspired solution to a problem. We call this intuition, telepathy, or sometimes a “sixth sense.” These intuitive perceptions are probably the result of rapid unconscious mental processes— using either information gathered by your senses or data stored deep in your memory. Sixth sense Have you ever felt that something was wrong without understanding how you knew it? This “sixth sense” effect can be quite creepy, but it is probably created by your brain picking up some clue from your other senses and alerting your alarm response without giving you the full picture. What’s up? There’s something wrong! The house doesn’t feel right at all! Telepathy Apparent telepathy is probably caused by a combination of sensory awareness and shared experience. Twins often seem telepathic because they share a the same history and thought patterns. Female and male Women are usually thought to be more intuitive than men. But psychological tests show that this is not true, and men score just as well. It is simply that women like t appear more intuitive, to i t iti especially among friends. 56 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. thinking Inspired player may seem expert chess An g ght move usin to make the ri ut this B c. gi lo an th intuition rather ely lik king” is more “inspired thin y ud st e lt of intens to be the resu s le ab en , which and experience ular cognize partic re to er ay the pl eces pi s of the ches arrangements ly al ic at m This auto on the board. xt ne e th ory of triggers a mem t ually turns ou us ch hi w move, t one. to be the righ Wait a minute! It smells like someone has been baking a cake. Why would they be doing that? What? A balloon? I thought I was imagining it, but there’s deﬁnitely something going on! Surprise! Out of the blue Sometimes someone grappling with a problem ﬁnds that the solution seems to come “out of the blue” after working on something else for a while. This is probably because irrelevant details get forgotten, so the main elements of the problem come into sharper focus. The person may also come across new information that makes everything slot into place. Woof! Dream wor rk Occasionally people e may even dream the soluttion to a problem. In the winterr of 1861, German chemist August Kekulé was G ttrying to ﬁgure out the structure of a benzene molecule. Whille dozing in fro ontt off the th ﬁre, ﬁ he h dreame d ed d off a snake k biting its tail. According to Kekulé, this gave him the clue e that the molecule was a ring o of carbon and hydrogen ato oms. Benzene molecule structure (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. 57 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Memory Works (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. HOW YOU (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Peeople wh People Peo who go blind ndd often oft ften continue to ft “see”” things bec because ecause the bra brain rain is wire wired red ed to pro process roces ess vi es visual info information. form rmation. Having paid attention, your brain n ﬁlters out irrelevant information and focuses cu on the important data. This is often an u unconscious process—for example, a ﬂicker off movement in this pool catches hes your attention o and you instinctively nstinctively foc focus on the swimming g animal. a Filter and focus fo ocus Our senses are constantly receiving eiving information about the world around us. s. Mo Most is irrelevant, so our brains ﬁlter and sort ort it, leaving only the data that requires our close attention. tte The information that we gather in this way iss stored in our memories and is the basis of conscious u thought. THINK NK 60 Attention The data gathered by your senses passess into your sensory memory. Visual data a iis held there for less than a second, bef before being erased if you do not pay attention entio to it. Attention is the vital ﬁrst stage age in the mental processing of any sensory ensory input. If you don’t pay attention, ention, p perhaps because you are thinking about something else, the th information simply goes out of your head. 61 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Ste Stereotypes Labeling leads us to create cre mental models of all kinds of things things, ngs, s from f animals to people and social grou groups. These are called stereotypes. People ople ar are scared of snakes because they think all snakes conform to a venomous stereotype. In fact, this is a harmless grass snake, showing that the stereotype is often wrong. The brain’s habit of creating stereotypes can be destructive, leading to social problems such as racial prejudice. When your brain registers sensory data as important, it instantly labels abels it as a pa particular type of experience erience or pro problem. This helps it devise a rapid response without getting bogged down in rap detail. So once yyou realize that this is a snake, you don’t go through a mental al checklist to assure yourself that you are right. You label it, and take a step back. After all, some snakes are venomous. Labeling NOT VENOMOUS HABITAT: TAT Rainforest LATIN NAME: M Morelia spilota cheynei NAME: Ju Jungle carpet python NOT VENOMOUS HABITAT: Semiaquatic LATIN NAME: Natrix natrix NAME: Grass snake VENOMOUS HABITAT: Terrestrial LATIN NAME: Crotalus atrox NAME: Western diamondback rattlesnake Conscious thoug thought ught is only a fraction fra fr ract ction ct of wh what is going on inside your brain— bra rain— unconscious unco conscious thought thoug ught is co constantly constantl tly going on in the background, backkgro kground, d, influencing influen encing your beh behavior. ehavi vior.r. Often you see only partt of the picture and have to ﬁll ﬁl in the rest using data stored in your memory. A few clues are often enough, because your brain is programmed to make sense o of sketchy information that might be important to your safety. In this th case, the animal’s head looks familiar, so you mentally ental ﬁll in the rest of its body as that of a snake, which m might be dangerous. This happens before you get et a good go view of it. Joining the dots Your brrain processes your experiences and all the information gathered by your senses. Most of this data is discarded, but the imp portant perceptions, facts, and skills are stored in your memory. This enables you to think, learn, and be creative. Ignored Any information in the sensory memory that you ignore is thrown out right away. Sensorry memory This part of memory holds a lot of in nformation for a few seconds at most. Input All the data from your senses enters your sensory memory store. Memo Me mory ry sto store res s Your me emory is divided into three se ections—sensory, short terrm, and long term. Only the e most important informattion makes it into the ﬁnall section. All the rest is th h hrown out. t Stimulus Nerve cell Attention If you pay attention to any items off inform it i f ation, ti they pass into your short-term memory. WHAT IS Electrical signal E 62 Making memories Making connecttions When a nerve cell ll receives a stong enough stimulus, it ﬁres an electrical signal onto a neighboring nerve cell. Memories are formed by electrical signals i l making ki connections ti b between t nerve cells so that they form a network. The more often the network is activated, the stronger it gets, creating a long-term memory. Permanent P b bond Links form The more the linked cells are stimulated, the stronger the bond becomes. Vivid m emorie When you s are feelin g very em changes in otiona your brain boost nerv l, chemical They stren e activity. gthen the memory-f creating vi orming pro vid long-t cess, erm mem why you o ories. This ften have is u n u clear reca ll of events sually that you experi enc state of hig ed in a h emotion . Memory web The signals continue to ﬁre until a web of nerve cells is formed. This represents a single memory. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Prefrontal cortex Short-term memories Amygdala Unconscious and emotional memories Putam men Learned skills and prrocedures Hippoccampus Spatiall memories Cortex Memories of personal and life events Temporal lobe Learned facts and details Recognition and re ecall It is much easier to recognize a memoryy you are looking for than to recall it. Look at the picture of the girl below for ﬁve seconds and th hen cover her up. Now look for her in the photo o on the right. g Even though gh you’ve seen her for a verry short time, you should re ecognize her. But if you had to d h describe her, you would pro obably ﬁnd it a lot harrder. Where do we remem mber? The cortex and Th d hippocam hi mpus are e the main areas of the brain responsible for mem mory, but different parts of the brain store different types of memories. Use it o or lose it If you d don’t think about tthe data in short-tterm memory, it is losst after around 20 seco onds. VVery Ve Ver ery ryy few ffeew peo ppeeeople opl op ople can remem can reeme mem em mbber ber er anythhing anyt anyth ing fr ing ffrom fro rroom om befor bbefo bef efor efor efo fforree the th t e ag age age of thre of reeee.. ree Sh hort-term memory Th hiis has h h li limited i d space, an nd information is soon losst if you don’t think ab bout it enough to pass it on to long-term memory. Long-term memory L m Any informattion that A enters your long-term memory is carefully m c ﬁle ed away so that you can easily recall it. Involuntary recall Have you ever found yourself smelling something and suddenly remembering a certain time or place very strongly? This sensation is called involuntary recall, because your brain has retrieved the memory by itself, without any prompting from your conscious mind. Sounds and nd sights can also cause this, but smells are especially powerful, perhap ps because the part of your brrain that processes scent is clossely sely linked to your memory. 63 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Trip method 1.Tree One way to memorize a list is to visualize a trip that you often take. Link each landmark on the trip with an item on your list—the stranger the result, the easier it is to remember! Then go through the trip in your head to remember the items. The leaves of the tree are pages from a book. Find a good book to read on vacation. This is a vacation to-do list, and here is how to picture each of the items with a landmark on a walk to school: 1. Find a book to read 2. Pack your sunglasses 3. Mail a letter 4. Buy some toothpaste 5. Hang your laundry 6. Remember your sun hat 7. Buy dog g food 8. Get a haircut 2.Sunﬂo ower A ﬂower iss wearing your sungllasses. Remembe er to pack tthem in yo our bag. 3.Sign 3 Sign Si The sign has turned into an envelope re eminding you to mail a lletter. 4.Bridge There’s a tube of toothpaste ﬂoating under the bridge. You need to buy toothpaste. SCH OOL 6.Scarecrow 5.Flags The scarecrow has your sun hat on its head. Remember to take your hat on vacation with you. The ﬂying ﬂags have become socks. You need to hang your laundry. 8.Bush The bush is getting a haircut, and you need to get one, too! 7.Wall Imagine your dog running along the wall. Remember to buy dog food. 65 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. BRAIN GAMES Memory span Your short-term memory can store a certain amount of information for a limited time. This game reveals your brain’s ability to remember numbers and words. You may be surprised at your own abilities. Step 1 Starting at the top, read out loud each line of numbers, one at a time. Cover up the line and then try to repeat the numbers. Work your way down the list until you can’t remember them all. Most people can hold only seven numbers at a time in their short-term memory, so good job if you could remember more. 438 7209 18546 907513 2146307 50918243 480759162 These games test your capacity for storing numbers, words, and visual information in your memory. They also show the two different ways we remember—recall and recognition. Recall is ﬁnding information in your memory when you need it. Recognition is knowing something when you see it. 1728406395 DO YOU REMEMBER? Visual memory How good is your memory for visual images? Study these 16 pictures for 45 seconds. Then close the book and write down as many as you can. How well did you do? You’ve done well if you have remembered more than half the objects. More than 12 is an excellent result. 66 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Bed, lamp, rug Fork, plate, glass, table Step 2 Now read out these words, one line at a time. Cover up the line and try to repeat the words. Continue down the list until your memory fails. Spider, tree, bird, ﬂower, dog Pencil, scissors, chair, book, ﬁsh, clock Pond, moon, star, grass, worm, bike, stone Most people are better at remembering words than numbers. If you can repeat a string of eight words you have done very well. Drum, bell, ball, racket, rope, box, net, pole Eye, leg, arm, foot, head, ear, toe, hair, nose Bread, milk, cookie, plate, bowl, plum, spoon, apple, banana, orange An artistic eye Do you have a good memory for remembering visual detail? Try this test and see. Recognition vs. recall This game clearly shows you the difference between recognizing and recalling information. Step 1 Step 1 First test your recognition skills. Below are ten countries and ten capital cities. In 30 seconds, see how many you can match up and then turn to page 186 to check your answers. COUNTRIES Israel France India Russia Czech Republic Germany Afghanistan Canada Denmark Argentina CAPITALS New Delhi Ottowa Berlin Prague Copenhagen Jerusalem Buenos Aires Kabul Paris Moscow Look at the picture right and closely study it for two minutes. You may ﬁnd it helpful to draw it. Then cover up the picture and try to draw it from memory. When you think you’ve ﬁnished, compare your drawing to the picture and give yourself a point for every line you got right. Step 2 Now do the same with this picture, left, but this time look for familiar shapes or patterns. For example, does it look like a kite? Again, after two minutes cover up the picture and try to draw it. Figure out your score again and compare it with the previous one. Step 2 Here are another ten countries, but this time you need to try to recall their capital cities in 30 seconds. Check your answers again and then compare your two scores. Spain Ireland China Sweden Iraq Netherlands s Japan Italy Egypt Greece Most people get a better score ffor recognition iti th than recall. This is because having a list of possible answers gives your brain a shortcut to ﬁnding the information stored in your memory. You probably did better in the second test than the ﬁrst because associating the lines with familiar shapes makes them easier to remember. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. 67 BRAIN GAMES ATTENTION PAYING e differenc Spot the ook e for detail? L ey r u yo is w o H e ictures and se at these two p s ce n t ten differe if you can spo . Turn to page between them . u got them all 186 to see if yo Do you have a good memory for detail? These games will put your short-term memory to work, ﬁrst testing how well you remember the detail of a story and then how sharp your eye and brain are at spotting visual differences. Remember, none of the information will go into your memory unless you really focus your attention on the exercise. Important details How well do yo u focus on details when you read? To ﬁnd out, re ad this story through carefu lly, but only once, then se e if you can answer the qu estions below . At last the backyard looked perfect. Jenny admired the orange lanterns hanging from the trees as they glowed in the fading light and the pretty tables dotted around the yard, decorated with candles and pink roses. There was a table laden with champagne, a white chocolate cake, a whole salmon, and a tall pyramid of strawberries. Jenny began to feel excited. Her parents had no idea about the party. They thought they were just going to the movies. Suddenly, she heard a familiar noise that ﬁlled her with alarm—a dog panting. Chester! She had locked him in the kitchen. How had he gotten out? A big, muddy, wet, and very smelly dog raced up and proudly dropped a dead ﬁsh h at her feet. Jenny knew where that had co ome ome from—the Johnsons’ pond next doo or. She groaned and tried to grab Chester’ss collar, but he leaped away. Between two ta ables he ables shook his fur, splattering them both h with mud and grass. Then he spotted—o or probably smelled—the food table and raced up to it. Paws on the table, he e took a bite of the salmon as a hundred strawberries tumbled to the ground d. 68 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. ssing? What’s mi kly veals how quic This game re om n disappear fr information ca . rm memory your short-te Step 1 Study the 14 objects on the tray for 30 seconds, and then cover the picture. Step 2 Now look at the tray below. Five items have been removed—but which ones? Uncover the picture above and see if you were right. Did you get them all? Questions 1 2 3 4 5 6 What time of day is it? How were the tables decorated? What ﬂav or was the cake? Who was th e party for? Where did Jenny thin k Chester wa s? What is th e last na me of Jenny’ s neighbor s? Look back at the story to ch eck your answers. If you got ﬁve right you’ve done w ell. A good w ay to help remembe r detail is to pi cture what’s happen ing in the stor y in your he ea ad d.. ? Who’s who u at yo e How good ar fe if rences in spotting tiny d solving this patterns? Try e. problem and se Freddy, a much-loved pet tortoise, above right, h has gone missing g. A reward has bee en offered for his retu urn, and the four torrtoises below have be een handed in. But which one is Freddy?? Turn to page 186 to ﬁ ﬁnd out if you are righ ht. A B C D 69 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. 1 1= crocodile 2 = swan 70 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. 3 = worm 8 = doughnuts 9 = snail 8371 After Aft fter ft err jjust one sig sighting, ighting, British Bri ritish mem memory emory ry maestro maes estr es tro ro Dominic O’Bri O’Brien rien en recalled rec re ecalled ed a sequence seq equen ence of 2,808 shuffled shuffl ffled ffl ed playing cards card rds ds with wi only eight eig ei ight errors. err er rrroors rr rs. You can also use number pictures to help you with lists. Imagine you need to buy six eggs, three cartons of milk, two bananas, and eight stamps. Visualize the objects on the list with the number pictures—a rabbit eating an egg, a worm drinking milk, a swan with a banana in its beak, and a stamp with the picture of a doughnut on it, for example. The crazier the picture, the better, because it’s it s more likely to stick in your mind. 7 = giraffe Step 3 6 = rabbit Now study this number for 30 seconds and try to “see” it in pictures. Then cover up the number and try to write it down. Did you ﬁnd it easy to remember using associations? 5 = face Step 2 4 = arm Study the number pictures we’ve created below and try to memorize them. Or invent your own number pictures and learn them. Step 1 MAKING ASSOCIA ATIONS Making links between objects— called association—is a useful way to remember things that you might otherwise forget. The following exercises show you how to make associations that match numbers to pictures, organize words into groups, or link a person with an image so that you never forget a name. 0 = mouth s tures and pic aped picture h s s r re a b il m im u s N ith mbers, numbers w er phone nu dlock b m e Associating m re easier to d on a pa can make it umber use n a r o , te a o help you nt d res can als an importa tu ic p r e b m ue works. . Nu the techniq w for example o h is is h lists. T remember BRAIN GAMES 71 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Step 2 Castle Mouse Book Airplane Greenhouse Insect Goldﬁsh Tractor Carpet Elephant Button If there are no obvious groups, you could imagine items paired together. For example, you could remember a mouse with eyelashes or a ship carrying a banana. Ship Twig Nail Banana Eyelash Tree Mountain Pin Here is a new list. This time, sort the items into smaller groups. One way would be to divide the list into two groups—big or small items. After 30 seconds, cover the list and try to write down all ten items. Was that easier? Pyramid Study the list of ten items below for 30 seconds. Then cover it up and try to write down as many of the items as you can remember. Check the list and make a note of your score. Step 1 Forming a group If you have a long list of words to remember, try breaking the list down into smaller groups. John Now look at the faces belo ow. Can you remember who’s who with h th he help of your associations? Step 2 Look at the people above and make up your own associations for them, based on the ideas above. Step 1 Mary If you ﬁnd it difﬁcult to remember people’s names, try associating a name with a picture. If you meet a girl named Daisy, think of her holding the ﬂower. Or link a person’s name with an object they might have (Doug with a dog) or make up a rhyme (Mike on a bike) to help you. Names to faces Louis Doug Th bra The brain rain has a built-in bbui uilt-iiin n ability ability to to recognize reco rec re eco ccoognize g ize fa gniz faces faces. es. es Lucy Mike Ei ein’s fa Einstein’s Einstei fascination wi with th physics cs beg began egan at th the ag age of five, five ve, e, wh when en he wa watc watched tched ed th the twi twitching witc tching nee needle eed edle of a co compass compa and realized rea re ealiz ized ed th that space wa was fu full of unsee unseen een en force forces. forc fo rces es. es Albert Einstein Einstein was the son of an born in Germany in 1879, engineer. When you think of genius, you think of Einstein. This is partly because his ideas are beyond most people’s understanding—the bending of light and the distortion of space, for example. He is most famous for his theories of relativity, which explain how the universe works, and for the equation E=mc2, which has become an icon of inspired mathematical atical thin thinking. nking. Transl Translating lating e extraordinary ideas into clear mathem matics was pa art of his h genius. Bright n 93 whe . in in 18 ath s Einstescinated by m w o h s rtrait dy fa This po 14 and alrea he was id ea At the age of only 16 , Einstein be like to wondere travel at th ed what it e speed o would (300,000 k f light: 186 m) per se ,000 miles c o n d . t avele tr H e realize l d away fr ed that if yo om a cloc u able to lo k at this s ook back peed, and and see it were would neve , th e clock’s h r move—b ands ecause th hands afte e image o r they mo f the ved would with you. never catc Time wou h up ld seem to stand still It takes ge . niu i s to thin k like this . Day job b Einstein stud died physics h i and nd mathematicss, and then got worrk in the p patent ofﬁ ﬁce in Bern, Switze erland, decid ding whether other h r people le’ss inven ntions were worthw while. Meanwhile he wa as thinking hard ab bout physics and the nature of the universe iin hi his spare time, as a hobby rather than a job. The fact that he was not working at a university, where he would have had to focus on the ideas of the professors, meant that he was free to come up with his own theories. 72 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. vity e Relatiwas fascinated by th Einstein ce, and light, spa nature of ns were conclusio time can time. His at th ggling— mind-bo curved, is e c a n, sp slow dow istortion of space ad gravity is g is ﬁxed nd nothin a , e m ti and f light. e speed o except th the core d e as form e id e s e h T lativity. ries of re o e th is h of (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. HOW WE LEARN Find wallet Learning is vital to survival. We often think it is all about skills like reading and writing, but it also involves developing life skills such as safely crossing the street, dealing with other people, and managing money. ey. We learn these things through a combination of conscious effort and unconscious reactions, and everything we learn becomes part of our long-term memory. How much will it cost? Take money Conditioning Learning curve When we are young, we all have to learn a huge amount about the world in a short time. We learn basic skills like walking, eating, and avoiding harm. We discover that everything we do makes other things happen, and we learn how to predict this— and maybe avoid it. We learn much more in our ﬁrst few years than we do in all of the rest of our lives. If an experience always follows a particularr event, or does so only once but is very upsetting, this can create such a strong link in the brain that you react automatically to the event if it happens again. So, for example, if you have been stung by a wasp, you get nervous when you see another one—or any insect with yellow and black stripes. This basic form of learning is called conditioning. rcuits Memory ciing” of the brain is formed at The basic “wir something, n never you lear birth, but whe p of nerve ou gr A s. ge the wiring chan a network rm ther to fo ge to ks lin lls ce n peat the actio that lets you re u yo if ut B t. wan whenever you ork tw ne e th n, ai never use it ag . ly stop working may eventual 76 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Association You learn by making connections between different experiences and skills, creating a web of associated ideas in your brain. When one part of the web is activated, it ﬁres up the rest. If you decide to buy a magazine, for example, this idea triggers an association with the store, the bicycle you will use to get there, the route, the money you will need, and so on. Association also allows you to link the abstract ideas you learn in your classes at school. Which store? Go to st sto s t re Which route? Travel by bike Thhee weig T The weight w weigh we eight ig t off your urr bra bbrain rain iin tr tri triples ttrip tripl riples e es during duri uring ri g you ring yo y r fir your fifirst firs rrst stt th three three thre ree ee year years years yea ars of of lif life l fe as yyou as ou lea ou learn earn arn more more skills skills. skillls. ski Take lock Remember helmet ion d to Imitat gramme rs, n are pro f othe Childre actions o e is th te a imit A lot of th , y adults. especiall n seem pointless a c y r ic mim doll to putting a is such as a lot in th n r we lea t te u a b u , d d a e r b eg ntually w actually way. Eve to y la p d ten from pre sks such ta m r fo r e p g in help ooking. ing and c n e rd a g as Buy a magazine Put in the practice If you keep repeating p something to yourself, you will remember it. This is because the repetition links brain cells into a memory circuit. You can learn a skill like playing the piano in the same way, creating circuits in your brain that enable you to play each tune. Repetitive practice can be dull, but its beneﬁts last a long time. Musicians can stop playing for a year or more, yet quickly pick up the skills if they start playing again. 77 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. BRAIN GAMES The one-hand rule To get through a maze where all the walls are connected to the outer boundary, you can use the “one-hand rule.” To do this, always keep a hand on one wall as you go—it doesn’t matter which hand, but don’t swap along the way. Try this method to make your way to the center of this maze—and back out again. The Ancient The Th Ancien ent Egyptians Eg built mazes maz azes es 44,000 ,000 000 years yea ears rs ago. ag ago One pharaoh pharao phara ppharraoh even ev eve ven en bu bbuilt uilt u ilt lt a huge hug uge ge maze maz aze inside nside his pyramid pyrami pyram pyr pyra ramid t baffle to baffl ffle tomb ffl t mb robbers. to robber ro errs. ers MASTERING The brain’s ability to learn helps us solve all sorts of problems, including how to ﬁnd our way out of a maze. Giant hedge mazes are popular attractions—it seems that people like the feeling of getting lost for a while, as long as they can eventually ﬁnd their way to freedom, of course! See if you can make your way through this collection of miniature mazes. If you get lost, ﬁnd the solutions on page 186. MAZES Right or left? You can ﬁnd your way through this more complicated maze using the one-hand rule, too. Once through, try again using your other hand—which route is quicker? 78 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Trial and error Mazes like this one, where some of the walls are not connected to the others, cannot be solved using the one-hand rule. Instead you’ll have to ﬁnd your way through by learning from yyour mistakes. Find your way to the center of the maze and the en out the other side e. Amazing mazes The bigger and more complicated a maze is, the more difﬁcult it is to remember all the wrong turns. The challenge of this maze is to ﬁgure out the route to the dot. Th wo The worl world’s rld’s larg largest rges est es maze maz aze is the Dole Plantation Pineapple Pl Pinea Pi eapple Garden Gard rden Maz Maze aze in Hawa Hawaii, aii, which covers wh cove ver ers rs an area are rea ea of 137,000 sq ft (12,746 sq m) and has nea nearly earl rly 2.5 miles es (4 km) of paths. Over and under This 3-D cube maze couldn’t exist in real life—people would keep falling off it! The way the paths pass under and over one another can make it difﬁcult to keep track of where you’re going—so you’ll have to pay attention. Using the one-hand rule will take you back out the way you came in, so to ﬁnd the exit you’ll have to use trial and error. 79 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. BRAIN GAMES PUZZ PU ZLI ZLI ING ING G PATT TTE TER ERN RN NS S A face in the crowd The more we learn, the better our brains become at spotting even the smallest differences between things. See if you can ﬁnd these two musicians among the group of rock stars below. All alone Without writing anything down or marking the puzzle in any way, see if you can ﬁnd the one creature in the picture that doesn’t appear twice. To do this you will have to learn and remember which items form parts of a pair. Thinking ahead This batch of colorful cupcakes is arranged in a speciﬁc pattern. Can you ﬁgure out what it is? If the sequence was to continue, what would be the color of the 49th and 100th cupcakes? Thhe wo T The world’s world w orl orld’s rrld’s llargest arges arg rrgges e t jjijigsaw est igsaaw igsaw ig w puz ppuzzle uzz uzz zzle le has has 244,000 ,000 ppieces. piec iec ecces. ece es. Itt ta es. es take ttak aakes kkes es ma es many m aany ny mo ny m mont oonths nths to to co ccomplete ompl mpllete. lete eete et ttee. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 80 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. A between different things are important parts of the learning process. We use past experiences and solutions to previous problems, stored in our brains, to help us make sense of new ones. All of these perplexing puzzles require you to spot new w patterns. tt Turn T to t page 187 to to ﬁnd ﬁ d the th answers. B C D F E G H I J K L Missing Mi i pieces i Putting a jigsaw puzzle together is a good example of pattern recognition. Your brain has to work out how each small piece ﬁts together to make the big picture. To do this you need to study both the contents of the pieces and their shapes. Four pieces from this puzzle are mixed up with pieces from a different puzzle. Can you ﬁnd the missing pieces? Polic Po olic oolice licee ffo lice forces for rces rrc ces ces e use u use compu compute cco ompu uter ter ter er sof ssoftw oft fftware ftw tw waare ware are re ttoo hel hhelp elp elp lp them tthe thhem track ttra rrack ra aack ck ppa ck patterns pat att ttern tter erns er rns ooff cr ccrime cri rim rim mee and and ca ccatch atch tch cr ccriminals. cri rimina ri minaals. alls ls.s. Perfect pairs At ﬁrst glance, these patterns look very similar. Give your brain time to study them, however, and you will begin to tell them apart. In fact, each pattern has an exact double, except for one. See if you can ﬁnd the unique pattern among the seven pairs. Spot the sequence These ﬂowers (left) may look randomly arranged, but in fact they have been laid out in a particular sequence. See if you can ﬁgure out the pattern. Which three colored ﬂowers should ﬁnish off the sequence? (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. 82 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Bodily intelligence The ability to effectively use your body is not normally associated with intelligence, but it does involve intellectual skills. You need certain mental abilites to coordinate the movements that are essential to sports and other physical activities. Interpersonal intelligence This covers the sympathetic understanding that is vital if you are to relate to the motivations and desires of other people. It enables you to give good advice to friends who may have problems but also allows you to work effectively with others. 1R1R *RRGE\H" This type of intelligence involves a sensitivity to written and spoken language. It may enable people to easily learn languages, but it also includes the ability to use language to express yourself and communicate complex information. This is a form of intelligence that gives a person the ability to appreciate, perform, and compose musical patterns. It involves recognizing and working with musical pitches, tones, and rhythms and is similar to linguistic intelligence. <HV\HV +HOOR Linguistic intelligence Musical intelligence Anyone yone with the ability to navigate accurately and visualize things in three dimensions is using their spatial intelligence. It also covers the skills involved in sports like tennis and many forms of art, such as architecture and sculpture. Sp patial intelligence This is when someone has the ability to logically analyze problems, detect patterns, and carry out mathematical calculations. It covers both scientiﬁc and mathematical thinking, so it may also apply to people who rarely use mathematics. Mathematical h ti l i intelligence t lli (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. One aspect of intelligence is the ability to understand yourself and appreciate your own feelings, fears, and motives. It could be described as knowing how you “tick” and being able to use that information to regulate your life. Intrapersonal intelligence W usually rate people’s intelligence We by their ability to explain or use b ccomplex ideas. Intelligence can also be described as the ability to a experience, learn, think, and adapt e tto the world. According to psychologist Howard Gardner, you can be intelligent H in eight ways, combining different degrees of each. However, this idea d of “multiple intelligences” is only one o of many theories about intelligence. o A of us have different abilities, and multiple intelligences All iss just one way of describing them. Most people combine many skills in varying degrees, while some perform very m well in only a few. Looking at the intelligence types above, w how would you describe yourself? h What about you? W This type of intelligence enables you to recognize, understand, and use various features of your environment. It covers your ability to make sense of the natural world, but it may also affect how you respond to any environment. Naturalist intelligence Various tests have been devised to measure intelligence. The results are given a numerical value called an intelligence quotient, or IQ. IQ tests usually involve general knowledge, arithmetic, reasoning, memory, puzzle solving, decoding, and analyzing shapes. But they do not rate things like interpersonal skills and may not be fair to people from different cultural backgrounds. Intelligence quotient psychologist H oward Gardne began to ques r tion the notion of a single type of intelligence in the 1970s, an d he published his theory of m ultiple intellige nces in 1983. Although his th eory has been hotly debated, it has helped un dermine the cr ude idea that intelligenc e can be accura tely measured by IQ tests. Howard Ga rdner American TYPES INTELLIGENCE 83 George Washington Carv Carver arver rvver did not know the yea rve year ear or date of his birt birth, rth, rt so hee neve never ver er knew wh which day w was as his birt birthday. birthd rthday. rt Carver during his house like this . have lived in a like to be poor Carver would knew exactly what it was He . od early childho Determined student Carver was named after his slave owner, Moses Carver, who raised the orphan as his own child after abolition. Eventually, George got a place in school and later went to college. At ﬁrst he studied art and music, but in 1891, he transferred to Iowa State Agricultural College, where he was the ﬁrst black student. An African American born in the South before the abolition of slavery, George Washington Carver fought racism to become a respected scientist, educator, and inventor. His main interest was agriculture, especially promoting crops that poor farmers could grow for food and other purposes. In the process he improved the lives of people often too poor to help themselves. His achievements helped undermine racial prejudice and blazed a trail for other African Americans to follow. Carv Carver rvver once said, “ Wh rve When yyou can do the common things of life fe in an uncommon way, way, you will command the att attention ttention of the wo tt worl world. rld.” nd Peanuts a s potatoe improve In the early 19 the few places 00s, Carver’s laboratory at Tu where black Am ericans couldskegee was one of learn plant sc ience. College teacher In 1896, Carver was invited to lead the agriculture department at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama— a college founded for the education of ex-slaves. He stayed at Tuskegee for 47 years, teaching the students farming techniques and ways of becoming self-sufﬁcient. The head of the institute called Carver “one of the most thoroughly scientiﬁc men with whom I am acquainted.” to Carver wanted farmers whose or po of es the liv usted by the land was exha ting of cotton— an relentless pl crop of the the main cash ts sed his studen region. He advi r he tton with ot to alternate co eet peanuts and sw as crops such ith w up e m so ca potatoes. He al ese crops, th r fo es us many ints, plastics, pa , including dyes plosives. He oil, and even ex ld enable his hoped this wou ake their own students to m em. he d of buying th ea products inst 84 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Everyone eryone thinks, thin but some people think in a less disciplined d way than others. others They say things ngs gs that don’t add up. Someone might say that she hates all animals but then sa ay that she really likes her neighbor’s cat. The two statements contradict each other, so you don’t know which one to take seriously. Pe eople who talk like this are often said to be lacking in logic—they logic they can’t can t analyze what they say and see the ﬂaws in it. Logic is all about thinking clearly. ing reason r Flawed that all ﬁsh live in wate n a If you say ﬁsh, you c harks are water. in ve and tthat s li s at shark conclude th that penguins can ay s u But if yo uins are since peng , d n a i swim im, this is w s ds can ir b ll a , s d bir asoning is ng. The re clearly wro ncluding ause the co rogression ﬂawed bec a logical p ’t n is t n e statem rst one. frrom the ﬁ Use your head Logic involves using sound reasoning to draw the right conclusions from known facts. If you cannot fault the reasoning, it is likely that the conclusions are correct. Checking the reasoning is an important part of logical thinking. But perfectly good reasoning is no use if the basic facts are wrong, so you have to check those as well. THE DESTROYS CAUSE THAT BACTERIA ECAY TOOTH D Testing the argument T The ability to test the argument is important when you can’t test th he conclusion. Bacteria are well known to cause tooth decay, so it is logical to argue that a toothpaste that destroys bacteria will help prevent tooth decay. You have to trust the logic, w because you have no way of testing the effect on your teeth. 86 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Persuasive logic Many people use logic to persuade others. If someone says something that you don’t believe but then backs it up with a solid logical argument, you might start to believe it. But if there is no logical argument to back it up, you will not be persuaded. This makes logic very important for lawyers and politicians such as Hillary Clinton. Logic and philosophy Computer logic The intellectual discipline of philosophy, ﬁrst practiced by the ancient Greeks, is mostly about logic, because it uses reasoned argument to investigate concepts such as truth, beauty, and justice. To many people, these exercises are intellectual games, as we believe we know the answers through common sense. But common sense can be misleading if it is based on false ideas. The rigorous, logical argument encouraged by the study of philosophy has real practical value. Logic is vital to computing. All computers are controlled by long strings of electronic instructions called programs. These are devised by programmers who have to convert their ideas into a code that a comp puter can read. If the coded in nstructions are not logical, the program will not work. Makes you ur teeth shine, , and shiny teeth are healthy teeth Checking the facts Very often people come up with conclusions that are based on ideas that are wrong. If making teeth shiny really did make them healthy, the argument in this advertisement would be ﬁne. But simply brushing your teeth does not prevent tooth decay, so the facts are wrong. It’s important to check the facts as well as the logic. 87 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. Free association When you think logically, you retrieve information from your memory and use it to solve problems. But sometimes your mind wanders and makes associations without conscious direction. This tends to happen when you are very relaxed. Phob Ph obia ias s Many peo Many eop