Main Common Mistakes at IELTS Intermediate: And How to Avoid Them

Common Mistakes at IELTS Intermediate: And How to Avoid Them

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This invaluable little book highlights the real mistakes that students make in the exam - and shows how to avoid them. Based on analysis of thousands of exam scripts, each unit targets a key problem area. Clear explanations and exercises help students to use the language accurately. Regular tests offer students a further opportunity to check and consolidate what they have learnt. • Highlights common mistakes that learners really make. • Based on analysis of thousands of exam scripts. • Short, snappy explanations focus on key problem areas. • Includes exam-style exercises.
Year:
2007
Edition:
1
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Language:
english
Pages:
33
ISBN 10:
0521692466
File:
PDF, 22.95 MB
Download (pdf, 22.95 MB)

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Persian Gulf
Perfect. Many Thanks
07 July 2018 (16:50) 
Deepanshu kaler
its very good site i can read any book without any cost.
12 June 2021 (18:09) 

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M

428.0076
C967C

2007

--~,
Test 6

19
20
21

33

Are there any special times I should use the?
35

How do I make a verb passive?

What is register?

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

36

When do I use the passive?

1

37
2

Test 7

38

a

In the USA this situation

b

In USA this situation

a

The table shows number Ot people working

b

The table shows the number or people working

is totally

different

is totally different
in Britain in 1976.
in Britain in 1976.

We use the

22

Adjectives and adverbs

23
24

Noun or adjective?

40
41

Verb confusion 1 - courses and study

Test 8

• with countries or places where the name refers to a group of islands or states: the
United States, the Middle East, the United Arab Emirates, the UK
•
•
•
•
•

42

43

25
26

Verb confusion 3 - money and problems

27

Noun confusion 1 - money and work

Verb confusion 2 - describing charts and figures

Test 9

45

• with a single country or place: America, England, China
• to talk about something in general. We use the plural if we are talking about
something in general; we use the to identify one specific example. Compare:
People with reading difficulties often have problems with numbers.
The number eight is considered lucky in some countries.

47

48

Noun confusion 2 - advertising, travel and young people

29

When do I need to use an apostrophe?

30

Common spelling errors

Test 10

We don't use the

46

28

50

2 Correct the mistake below.

51

52

Your hairstyle is

53

Answer key

with superlatives: the best, the longest, the highest
with cardinal numbers: the first, the second, the third
when there is only one in the world: the environment, the internet, the sun
to refer to the only one in this particular area: the government, the police, the river
in the phrase: the same as

55

3 Complete the sentences below using the words in brackets. Decide whether or not
to use the, or whether to use the plural.
1 The main advantage of
is that it gives us access to
information from all over the world. (internet)
2 My;  father has fished in
all over Australia. (river)
3 Life in
is very different from life in my country. (America)
4 According to the graph,
of people moving into the city each
year has more than doubled. (number)
as the total figure for 1982. (same)
5 The total figure for 1976 was
than in my country. (USA)
6 Obesity is much more common in
increase
occurred
in 1999. (greatest)
7 The graph shows that
8
travels around
at a speed of 3,700
kilometres per hour. (moon, earth)

5

Singular or plural?

Which nouns don't have a plural form?

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1 a I don't have manytime to complete my assignment
b I don't have muchtime to complete myassignment

1 a There are several problem with this idea,
b There are several problems with this idea,
2 a Many charity organisations provide a great deal of help,
b Many charity organisation provides a great deal of

If you use a plural noun, you must use a plural verb. The verb must 'agree' with the
noun:
In my country there are very few cars that use leaded petrol. (plural verb + plural noun)
I like studying during the day but my friend prefers studying at night. (singular noun +
singular verb)

'I

We use a plural noun with:
• plural verbs: are, were, have, do, play, etc.: There are a lot of books on the table.
• numbers greater than one: 30 cars, 100 students
• many: It is annoying that so many buses drive past because they are full.
• the number of The number of buses on our roads has increased each year.
-(:{Note that we use a plural noun but a singular verb after the number of
We use a singular noun with:
• singular verbs: is, was, has, does, plays, etc.: There is only one bedroom in the fiat.
• a/an or one: a car, one student
-(:{Note that some nouns can look plural but are singular (news, mathematics) and
some nouns have a different form in the plural (children, men, women, people).
2 Correct the mistake below.

2 a WhenI did a search on mycomputer. I could only rind a few inrormations about the topic.
b WhenI did a search on my computer. I could only rind a little inrormation about the

Some nouns in English are 'uncountable'. This means they do not have a plural form.
Some common uncountable nouns are: advice, advertising, food, furniture, garbage,
information, knowledge, money, shopping, time, traffic, travel.
With uncountable nouns, you must use:
• the singular form: food, information, money
• a little / amount of / much / some: How much money do you have?
The amount of traffic on the roads is increasing each year.
• a singular verb: There was already a little furniture in the fiat.
If a noun is uncountable, you cannot use:
• a plural.form: -£l£lWees, furnitures, garbage-s, informatioNs, knowledges
• a/an: an ad~'ice, a garbage, a knowledge
• a few / many / number of: a few shopping, many traffic, the number of knewlcdge
• a number: three tra~'C!s,four furniture
• a plural verb: There were alirtle furniture in the fiat.
-(:{If you want to add a number to an uncountable noun, you can use a piece of /
some / a few pieces of a piece of advice, three pieces of furniture, a few pieces of garbage
2 Correct the mistake below.

The number
studying
increased

of IVoman

science
dramati call y

_fLrL

last year.

The
The number of

we produce is increasing.

dramatically last year.

3 Underline the correct word in each sentence.

3 Correct the mistakes in these sentences. There may be more than one mistake in
each sentence.

1 The childs / children are playing in the street.

1 My tutor was very helpful; he gave me one very good advice about how to study.

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

The number of men / man studying science has decreased.
There are a lot of persons / people in my class.
I enjoyed studying mathematics a lot; I found it / them very interesting.
The news were / was very upsetting.
How many classes / class do you have today?
A person / people I really admire is my uncle.
My father watch / watches a lot of sport on TV:
6

I was surprised by the number of times it took us to reach the castle.
You need a great deal of knowledges to become a doctor.
The informations we were given by the tour guide were not very helpful.
When we visited the park, we were upset to see so many garb ages left there.
We arrived late because there were so many traffic on the road.
I can't wait to visit the market and do a few shopping.
The furnitures in the hotel room were quite old but they were very comfortable.

1

-

3 Look at the following advertisement
the phrases in the box.
1 Underline the correct word or phrase in the following sentences.

1 The garbage is / are collected every Tuesday.
2 Advertising in the school newsletter is / are a waste of time.
3 A lot of food in restaurants is / are thrown away every day.
4 Many idea / ideas for new products never reach the manufacturing stage.
5 My sister gave me lots of advice / advices that was / were very useful.
6 Over three hundred student / students signed the petition for a new study area.
7 There are a lot of similarity / similarities between your country and mine.
8 There is / are more women on my course than men.
. -----------_._.
....
.. ----~""_ ..
internet
100,000 people
Australia
Sweden
Faroe
Malta
Islands
75.527
64.709 accessing
62.209
Iceland
67.406
76.027
Finland
62.914
New
75.539
79.306
68.140
4
Korea,
United
Kingdom
Number
people
the per
Country
2Greenland
FillZealand
inSouth
the gaps
usingof 64.925
one
of the words from
the box. Decide whether you need to
add the.
I

_--_----,
_
_._

l

How many

How much

Is

and fill in the gap in each question using one of

Are

Is there

1
Room for rent in
share house close to
bus. Must help to pay
bills (electricity, etc.).
For more details
phone: 3768900

I

food included in the rent?
a lot of traffic in the area?

2
3
4

any other transport nearby?
does the electricity usually cost?
any pets in the house?
money will I need to pay each week?
people are living in the house?
a lot of furniture in the room?

5
6
7

8

__ ...... _~

Are there

Fill in the blanks using a word from the box. Make any changes necessary.
advice

bird

child

company

house

person

plastic

transport

1 The travel agency was hopeless; they didn't even give us one useful
2 The number of new
being built in our area has doubled.
3 Most large
operate on a global scale nowadays.
4 Many
believe that globalisation has both advantages and
disadvantages .
5 Today, in my country, school-age
do not exercise as much as in the
past.
6 The blades of the fan are made of
7 There are several kinds of
in my home town but my favourite is the
ferry .
8 There has been an increase in the number of native

killed by cats

this year.
5 Correct the 14 mistakes in the text below.
Faroe Islands
internet
same
Sweden
table

largest
list
United Kingdom

Malta
number one
United States
world

(1).
shows the top ten countries in terms of internet usage.
(2)
country is New Zealand, which has (3)
number of
intern et users. (4)
is at the bottom of (5)
Surprisingly,
(6)
does not feature in the top ten at all. However, a little-known group
of islands called (7).
is ranked fifth in (8)
(9)
.
and (l0)
are ranked third and fourth. Both have almost
(Il)
number of users, with over 75,500 people per 100,000 accessing
(12)

.

8

The globalisation has had an enormous impact on many part of the world. Nowadays,
even in some of most remote parts of world, we can connect to internet and conduct
business. However, they is advantage and disadvantage to this. One disadvantages, for
example, is that the local culture and language can be affected. It can also mean that
local businesses has to reduce their prices to compete with bigger overseas companies.
However, there are advantages; for example, globalisation can bring more business to a
small area, which is good for the local economy. It may also help to stop young person
moving away from more remote area. If a young person have the chance to run a
business and be successful no matter where he or she lives, then perhaps more people
will choose to stay in these smaller communities. It also means that news from around
the world are available to everyone, and this can also reduce the feeling of isolation.
9

r
When do I use the present simple tense?

How do I write large numbers?

1 Choose the correct sentence in each pair.

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 a Nowadaf:Js,oor bodies becoming 'old' mochlater than 100 f:Jearsago.

1 a
b
2 a
b

b NowadafJs,oor bodies become 'old' mochlater than 100 f:Jearsago.
2 a Children lost their freedom if thef:Jhave too manuresponsibilities.
b Children lose their freedom if theU have too manuresponsibilities,
/

We use the present simple tense:
• to make general statements about our world: The earth moves around the sun.
• to show a pattern or general truth: People work in order to meet their basic needs.
• with adverbs offrequency: always, usually, often, sometimes, never: People who are
too lazy to walk often use their cars instead.
• with expressions such as: nowadays, these days, today (with a general meaning):
Many students today do their research via computer rather than through books.
• for verbs showing opinions or feelings, e.g. believe, think, hope: I think that we
should all do as much as we can to improve our environment.
We form the present simple tense with the base form of the verb. We add s or es to
form the 3rd person singular:
I play
I watch
you play
you watch
he/she/it plays
he/she/it watches
we play
we watch
you play
you watch
they play
they watch

II11

The government spent ten millionsdollars on edocation last uear.
The government spent ten milliondollars on edocation last uear.
There were thoosands of people at the football match,
There were a thoo50nd of people at the football match,

When we talk about a specific large number, we do not add s to the number:
200,000 = two hundred thousand (not two ,'1ul'ldl'edthous{1l'l{is)
10,000,000 = ten million (not t.cl'lmillions)
The noun that follows is always plural:
There must have been at least three thousand students at the protest.
We use the plural form of large numbers + of to give an approximate idea of how many:
There must have been thousands of students at the protest.
We can use a instead of one. One is more formal:
If I won a million dollars, I would probably take a year off and travel around the world.
The president promised to increase the health budget by one million dollars.
~ We usually use numerals for numbers that cannot be written in one or two words:
More than two million people attended last year. but: 2,001,967 people attended last year.
You should write fractions in words: half a (million); a/one third of a (million); three
quarters of a (million); one and a quarter (million); one and three quarter (million):
According to the chart, in 2004 over half a million Ukranians went to the cinema.
2 Correct the mistake below.

2
A thousands of people
came to see the royal
wedding.

came to see the royal wedding.
My brother
3 Underline the correct number in the sentences below.
3 Correct the mistakes in the sentences below.

1 People should act according to what they are believing.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

I

In general, I think our government spent too much money on space trarel.
Nowadays, many people in my country have sent their children to single-sex schools.
These days, more and more people travelling to very distant places for their holidays.
I am hoping it is not too late to save the environment.
The female hen laying on average 5 or 6 eggs per week.
Younger drivers is more likely to be involved in a car accident.
Most doctors are agreeing that the only way to lose weight is by doing more exercise.
10

1 The skeleton had remained hidden for a thousands / thousands of years.
2 The chart shows that three hundreds / three hundred whales were seen here in 1990.
3 Three and a half billion / three and a half of a billion will watch the ceremony.
4 I pay six hundred dollars / six hundred dollar rent each month.
5 Real estate in my city is very expensive; a small house can cost three quarter of a
million / three quarters of a million dollars.
6 A million of / Millions of dollars are spent on space exploration each year.
7 By 2005, more than six hundred / six hundreds of children were enrolled in the school.
8 The company has sold one and a half billions / one and a half billion computers so far.

11

There is / there are
1 Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1 a
b
2 a
b

It is a lovelypark near my house.
There is a lovelypark near my house.
There have veru good restaurants and shops on board the
There are very good restaurants and shops on board the

Examiner:
Candidate:

We use there to say that something exists. We use there is with a singular subject and
there are with a plural subject:
There is an oak tree in my garden. (not It is an oa.letree or There hab'e an oa!e tree)
There are some great movies on at the cinema. (not They are some gr-catmeL'ies)

II

III

We use there is and there are to give new information. We use it is or they are to talk
about something that has already been referred to. Compare:
There is a present for you on the table. (the first time the present has been mentioned)
Mary: What is that you're carrying?
John: It's a present for my sister. (it = what John is carrying)
4 235$3,500,000
$305
$35,000
$35
We do not use the auxiliary verb do to form questions and negatives with there is and
there are:Are there any clean glasses in the cupboard? There isn't a map in the car.
{;:{There cannot be left out: There is a pan of soup and there are some bowls in the
kitchen. (not There is a pan of soup and are seme howls in the kitchen.)

Can you describe a typical morning at your house?
(get up) first because he
Well, my father always (1)
(2)
(start) work at 7 o'clock. The traffic (3)
(be)
very bad in my city so he (4)
(have) to leave at 6 o'clock.
Before he (5)
(leave), he (6)
(wake) my
brother and me up. I (7)
(get up) straight away but my
brother (8)
(prefer) to sleep as long as he can, and he
nearly always (9)

(catch) the last bus to school. My mother
(make) our breakfast while I (11)
(get
(leave) for school at about 7.30.
dressed), then 1(12)
(10)

2 Match each amount (1-5) with its correct written equivalent (a-i). You'll need to
read the words carefully.
andfive
fivehundred
dollar thousands
three
millions
and
dollars
three
hundred
and fiveaecig dollars
thrity-five
dollars
three hundreds
hundred
and
five
thousand
dollars
thirty-five
dollars
1 $305,000
three
and
half million
dollars
five athousands
dollars
hfbd thirty
thirty-five
thousand
dollars

2 Correct the mistake below.
Before they built the supermarket,
there had a lot more little shops
in the high street.

3 Find 12 mistakes in the essay below and correct them.

~~~=;::lhr~~~~m;~~
I

_

':/_

\

Before they built the supermarket,

in the high street.

3 Correct the mistakes in the sentences below.

1 In developed countries there is many possible solutions to this problem .
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

- ..-

There no clear trend in the data shown in graph 1.
There is no electricity and are no factories in this area.
Fortunately, they are still a lot of good people in the world .
It is a very small village so there don't have any large supermarkets.
In the first chart, it is a large gap between the cost of living and salaries earned .
In 1990 there was 3 million people working in this industry.
How much work there is to do?
12

P2-

-

···--t· .. ··

p-W

r~IJ.A~~r

--

- -

£

-

--- -

~'i1

.

[~~t~~5:±~~~~~~~~E~:;~
V
._.D@:4...tQiillP-Qr±..Lwh ii::bQ,J;;Q
..L. cJ,I,!,.Q?Q;
fiLP-ri(~ .. Q.f_.£~~2tLfQO
~ri..i.D..
..tb§_;;bQP-2.l-if~

.

I......i::Q.\Jo..lliQD?
..~...Y.§ry..O"j.££icl,!,.lt.Q,t.jj~2 ...W\JQ,.Li2...mQr~J..@,oy_£Q,.r~r2 '"..Q,.r.
..lbo,.±.jb§y_4.g.XJQLr~~ly~..Q.._..£Q,.ir..p-r~(:';_fQLtb§it.....
p-tQ.Md'5-'....
W~..Q,r~~

.±Q....

..gYf9~rQ...sg
..±bi2...i,oQ,I,!,.'STIY,
...NQ.@Q.Q,.Y21
..RlSl .. ;;I,!,.p-gtm<:l..rkd
..i::hQ-iD?
....
f
-I; "'ae. . ....fibr~r;; ....±Q..'Stiby..i'O
......t~h.~Q,._Ig,!]~ ....
Q..~

..±b§..pmfi±2.jb<:J..t...2bg~lQ,ilQ._tQj~£Q,.r~r2,

..~.......
_~:~:Dm(:';z~1~t~~~:~r::~~2~'5it~Q,.tlQD..@4._@k~
..
_.y ..I>--_
)9 - .."
-'7-'.."
-

13

-

-

..
- ..2~r.L
-

..

4 Fill in the blanks in the text with numbers
should contain a fraction.

from the table. Three of your answers

1 Tick the

Number of tractors used in agriculture: top ten countries

I

Rank

j

~ou~try
United States

~ount

lt~lt
India

'W

Relative pronouns (that, who, etc.) are used to connect two separate clauses:
clause I
relative pronoun
clause 2
There are several factors / that / are important in achieving happiness.

1,525,000

Poland

1,306,700

France

1,264,000
1,030,800
905,000

Spain
China

885,000

SOURCE: World
Resources Institute

755,073

The table shows the number of tractors being used by the top ten
countries in the world. The United States has the greatest number of
tractors, with almost (I)
fiV.L~.~~~.~9.~ Japan has less than half
of this amount, with just over

(2)

:W!.4!

f.•.•
.f.~.!-:.r?f:

,

and Italy is

f 'fin£-, ;>. ,I f;ll(L4tA.#.r'Jt~. (¥, v(h.., \
ranked t rd., Wl!h a totii 0 (3),.
:.t :-:../
,.
Inula has Just
(4)
On~
"r4/i
A9"-'-"
rfl1,-Wul
f t!:'l'
over
:
:
e P0 Ian d , France an d Germanyeac h
hi·

J

11

~.':?:.:
Of the bottom three countries on
have over (5) g!:
this list, Turkey has a little under (6) :!'l:.~.1-'
Spain has

! ::

les~~~a?
(7).;..;...•.
'i.,.tl ..;'!.1;: tractors.
(&fl6:Yl..f:.~.:~y~

t

Youshould do that what f:j0u think is
b Youshould do what f:j0u think i:s

1,750,000

9:e!many
Turkey

11

correct sentence in each pair.

a

2 a There are :severalractors that are important in achieving happiness.
b There are several ractors are important in achieving happiness.

2,028,000
"t'l

#10

I

4,800,000

Japan

Which relative pronoun should I use?

,

and China has just over

When information is essential to the sentence and cannot be left out, we use:
• that to refer to things or people: The chart that is on page 10 shows ...
• who to refer to people: The number of women who were enrolled ...
• what to refer to the thing that or the things that: The government should show us
what must be done. (= the thing(s) that must be done)
{;:{Note that you should only use one relative pronoun (not The government must
show us that w.1uilt needs te be denc.).
The relative pronoun can be left out if it refers to the object of a verb, but not if it
refers to the subject of a verb. Compare:
The students that I teach all come from overseas countries. students is the object of the verb
teach, so the relative pronoun that can be left out: The students I teach all come from ...
The students who are studying BAP should see me today. students is the subject of the
verb are studying, so the relative pronoun who cannot be left out (not The students arc
studying EA~TJ should see me teday.).
2 Correct the mistake below.
I need to find someone
can play the piano for our

5 Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with either it, they or there.
I ~:

assembly next month.

..... are several reasons why
to talk to you.
--pI wanted
t

2 I have printed out the letters; .L..~::.;
..are on the desk ready for you to sign.
3 On the next street corner :l.f:.':!":o:. is an excellent new restaurant.
4 .!..:~~:,L.
have a wonderful swimming pool in this hotel.
5 We fiad a lovely holiday in Florence .... 7.:f.!: ..... really is a beautiful city.
6 ..T!-!:~:1::·wereseveral robberies in the area last week.
7 Were,your parents born here or did .::6b?:1: .. move here from another country?
'h'~?t IS wee .
8 Is ..~.,
x
gomg to b e a meetmg

14

I need to find

for our assembly next month.

3 Correct the mistakes in the sentences below.
I This is one of the problems that what can occur when you spend too much money.
2 The teacher inspired me most at school was called Miss Gillies.
3 There are many teenagers do not feel comfortable talking about their problems.
4 It can be very frustrating for those what do not have any power.
5 People work with sick and elderly people must be very patient and kind.
6 People what continue to work after the age of 65 often live longer.
7 I understand that you mean.
8 The chart is on the left shows the number of students enrolled from 1999 to 2005.
15

How do I choose between and, but and or?

Auxiliary verbs

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 a To really help the environment we need to change the way we think or behave,
b To really help the environment we need to change the way we think and behave.
2 a Vegetarians don't eat meat and they get their protein from other foods,
b Vegetarians don't eat meat but they get their protein from other toods.

We use and to join two similar ideas:
Would you like some tea and biscuits?

(==

you can have both of them)

We use but to show contrast between two different ideas:
I have tea but I don't have any coffee, I'm afraid. (1have tea
coffee negative)
We use or to give an alternative:

11I111

,

(==

b I do not agree with this idea,

Do, be and have are called auxiliary verbs. This means that they help to change the
main verb.
Do is used with the infinitive to make negatives or questions:

positive, I don't have any

==

==

Would you like some tea or coffee?

1 a Why they think this?
b Why do they think this?
2 a I am not agree with this idea,

you will choose only one of them)

t? Note: to join two negative ideas, we use or if the subject and the verb are the same:
I don't have tea or coffee. (not: [ tlan't ha1:l€tea and coffee.)
After if I whether, we can use or not to suggest the alternative idea:
We decided to go whether it was raining or not. (== whether it rained or whether it
didn't rain)
2 Correct the mistake below.

I don't agree. (not [ am net agree.) Do you agree? (not Arc yeu agree?)
Do can be used with other question words: Why do you agree? (not Wk.' '.'ou aITee?l
Be is used with -ingverb forms to make the continuous tenses:
I am studying English in Cambridge. (not [studying r;'nglish)
(be is also used with the past participle to make the passive - see unit 19)
Have is used with the past participle of the verb to make the perfect tenses:
I have been here for three months. (not [ am been here or [ been here)
The auxiliary verb must agree with the subject of the verb (see unit 2): Does your
mother drink tea? (not Do your mother drink t-ca?)
t? We make questions and negatives without do if another auxiliary verb is used:
Are you studying here? (not Do you are studying here?) (auxiliary verb be)
2 Correct the mistakes below.

Jenny loves the snow

3 Fill in the blanks with and I but I or I or not.

We

1 The town was quite small; it had no university
college.
2 What shall we do tomorrow? We could go to the beach
after that we could
see a movie.
3 The number of people reaching the age of 100
more is increasing.
4 He had a computer,
without a phone connection he couldn't access the
internet.
5 It had black
blue stripes onit - I can't remember which.
6 Do you know if our team won
?
7 I enjoy playing football

I don't really like watching it.

8 If you study in a country such as Australia, England
will improve dramatically.
16

America, your English

tennis. Do you

3 Underline the correct auxiliary verb in each sentence. Sometimes no auxiliary is
needed.
1
2
3
4
5

What do I does your friend like to eat?
Where do I are you going?
I am I - totally agree with you.
What have I did you done today?
I am I do not believe this.

6 She is I are learning the piano.
7 I was I have not seen her for two years.
8 They - I are went to America for their holiday.

11

4 Fill in the blanks with the correct auxiliary verb: be, do or have.
1 Complete sentences 1-8 using and I but I or I or not and a suitable ending from
the box.
I My grandfather doesn't have a DVD player
2 We swam in the sea
3 I enjoyed the walk
4 I couldn't decide whether
5 The tour fee includes all meals and transport
6 Nowadays, it is difficult to study without a computer
7 I like most drinks

r
I

...not entry to the museum.
...even a television at home .
...to go to the party .

2 Find and correct the 8 mistakes in the conversation below.
11

11

(C = customer, TA = travel agent)
C:
Good morning. I'd like to book a holiday for myself and my family.
TA: Certainly, where would you like to go?
C:
Well, I'd like to go for a week to an island somewhere with plenty to do, and I am
not want to travel very far. Do you can suggest somewhere suitable?
TA: Well, there's a lovely island what is only two hours away by ferry.
C:
That sounds good. Can I fly there?
TA: No, I'm afraid there don't any flights to the island.
C:
I see. How much is it cost for a family of four?
TA: $1000.
C:
TA:

Some people believe that too much money is spent on protecting
animals and endangered species and that we should spend more money
looking after the people on this planet instead. What are your views?
Whether you love animals (1)

The students struggle the most are those without any maths qualifications.
It was my grandmother first taught me about art.
I'm not really sure we have to write about in this essay.
A thermometer is an instrument is used to measure temperature.
I am writing to apologise for I said to you last week.
Venus is a planet you can sometimes see without a telescope on a very clear night.
Yabbies are creatures live in rivers and lakes in Australia.

hate them, they play an important

impact on us all. For example, recent studies have shown that when there are
fewer insects, there are also fewer birds. This means that crops will suffer
because birds play an important

role in pollinating

plants, (2)

they

also eat insects that are harmful to plants.
Human beings are said to be the most dangerous animal on our planet,
(3)

we are also very vulnerable. If our crops fail, this could have

disastrous consequences

for all of us. In other words, we are as dependent

on

the tiny insects of this world as they are on us. They rely on us to protect
their environment.

to decline, (5)

If we do not, their numbers could begin

, even worse, they may become extinct altogether.

It is true that some people are already doing (6)
the environment,

(7)

they can to protect

this is not enough. Nowadays, people always

want to buy the newest and latest gadgets, (8)
'old' mobile phones, computers or toasters (9)

what happens to the
are thrown away? We all

need to realise that our everyday actions can have an impact on whether
(10)

not other animal species survive. We (11)

buying new things altogether;
the way we think (12)

need to stop

however, we do need to change both
the way we behave.

8 The people I know on my course are all from my previous school.

18

role

in our ecosystem. Losing even a tiny insect species could have a very large

them (4)

Is that include the ferry?
Yes, it includes all transport or hotel accommodation.

3 Add a relative pronoun to each of the following sentences. Which two sentences do
not need a relative pronoun?
I
2
3
4
5
6
7

What time
you get home last night?
When
you going to get a new car?
Where
you been? I
been waiting here for ages.
Step hen
arriving on the 6 o'clock flight tomorrow morning.
A special tool
used to cut the aluminium cans to the correct size.
not worry, I
not going to tell your mother about your test result.
My sister wears very strange clothes; she
not care what people think.
At last I
finished my homework!

5 Fill in each blank in the following essay with one word.

8 The price for the hotel includes both breakfast
...I got a little lost near the end ....
dinner.
...1 don't like coffee ....
a laptop at home .
...we walked along the beach collecting shells.

I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

19

How do; I use modal verbs?
1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1 a If workers are sick. the!:!must to sta!:!homeand rest
b If workers are sick. the!:!must sta!:!homeand rest
2 a In this wa!:!.children can learn from what the!:!have done.
b In this wa!:!.children can learning from what the!:!have done.

The following modal auxiliary verbs are followed by the infinitive without to: can,
could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would:
When travelling, we should respect the customs of the countries we visit. (not should te~;
should respecting)
Modal verbs form questions and negatives without using do:
Can I help you? (not: Do ! CGlnhelp you?)
Will you meet me when I arrive? (not Do you will meet me)
You mustn't worry about me. (not You do not must worry aBout me.)

I!

When we talk about obligation or necessity using have or need, we use to + infinitive:
I have to finish my assignment this weekend.
I need to talk to you.
In questions and negatives, have to and need to behave like normal verbs and we use do:
Do you have to pay extra for breakfast? (not nab'eyou to pay)
They said I don't need to bring my own sleeping bag. (not! needn't to bring)

Illi'

III

I

2 Correct the mistake below.

-jng or to + infinitive?
1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1 a Ijust managed to avoid hitting the car in front of me.
b Ijust managed to avoid to hit the car in front of me.
2 a I want telling !:!ou a little about myself.
b I want to tell you a little about myself,

We use to + infinitive after the following verbs: ask, afford, decide, deserve, help, hope,
learn, offer, prepare, promise, refuse, seem, want, would like:
Summer seems to arrive later and later these days.
Nowadays most people would like to have more money.
Learn how is also followed by to + infinitive:
I want to learn how to drive before I go to university.
After some verbs, we use -ing: avoid, carry on, consider, deny, enjoy, finish, give up,
imagine, involve, keep, like, mind, practise, recommend, resist, suggest:
I really enjoy watching movies at the cinema. (not enjoy to watch)
Lookforward to is also followed by -ing:
I look forward to hearing your reply. (not! loek forwGlrd te hear your reply)
We also use -ing after spend money and spend time:
We spent a lot of money buying CDs last month. We spent $200 buying CDs last month.
She spent a lot of time looking for information on the internet. She spent over three
hours looking for information on the internet.
1::r Note that like can be followed by -ing or to + infinitive.
2 Correct the mistake below.

We've spent over $300
to buy food for the party.

You

3 Correct the mistakes in the sentences below.

1 Nowadays, you can to find internet facilities in most hotels.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

We do not should accept this situation any longer.
If we want to fix this problem, we must trying our best to change our attitude.
We haven't to stop using cars altogether but we do have to use them less often.
Do we can solve the problem of greenhouse gases in our lifetime?
Need you to take any food and drink with you, or are there shops there?
'Paula, you really must to study harder if you want to pass the exam:
In my school, we have to left our mobile phones at home.
20

We've spent
3 Fill in the gaps in the following sentences using the verb in brackets.

1 When I was a student, we couldn't afford
2 I was 13 when I first learnt how
3
4
5
6
7
8

new textbooks. (buy)
(ice skate)

What are you most looking forward to
when your course finishes? (do)
'Keep
the soup so that it doesn't stick to the bottom of the pan: (stir)
My parents have promised
me buy a car when I graduate. (help)
The children spent a long time
the best present for their mother. (choose)
I've decided
medicine at university. (study)
Our teacher suggested
a barbecue on the last day of term. (have)
21

:"l";;"'"

,~ "~

Verbs after adjectives and prepositions

Test 4

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1

a

1 Complete the questions and answers using the words in brackets.

Youngchildren often feel shy to talk to adults.

stamps at the newsagent's? (can/buy)
to the post office. (Yes/can. Not/have to/go)

A: (l)

b Youngchildren often feel shy talking to adults.
2 a It is easy to understand why.

B: (2)

our assignment in this Friday? (have to/hand)
it in until the following week. (No/not have to/give)

A: (3)

b It is easy understanding why.

B: (4)

With feel + adjective we use the -ingform of the verb:
B: (6) Yes, so

After be + adjective, too + adjective and adjective + enough, we use to + infinitive:
seeing her)
I was happy to see her when she arrived. (not! Wfl.S h61f3f3)'
The lecture was easy enough to understand.

2 Join the two sentences together using the words in brackets.
1 They went to the cinema. They didn't go to school. (instead of)

(not enough eGlsyor eGlsyuruierst6lndin{;)

After all prepositions (about, by, fro m,fo r, in, of, without, etc.) we use the -ingform of
the verb; we cannot use a clause (subject + verb):
They celebrated their anniversary by organising a big party.
Thank you for helping me so much with my studies.
He opened the door without thinking about what would happen next. (not without he
thought)
f:r Note that despite, in spite of and instead of are considered to be prepositions:
He did not get the job despite getting excellent grades. (not tlespitc he got)
She went to the library instead of going straight home after school. (not insteGldef she
went)

2 Correct the mistake below.

in spite of she was the
youngest player.

3 Underline the correct word or phrase in the sentences below.
2
3
4
5

..........................................................................................................................

3 I am optimistic about the future. There are so many problems in the world. (in spite
of)

4 We all enjoyed the course. We had to work so hard. (despite)
................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................

I

6 The company went out of business. They spent thousands of dollars on marketing.
(in spite of)

3 Find 12 mistakes with to in the candidate's answers. Youmay need to add to or
delete it.

Alice won the tournament

1 It was easy understanding

2 I enjoyed the party. I did not know anyone there. (despite)

5 My parents gave me some money. They didn't buy me a present. (instead of)

I1

If the following verb is negative, we use not + -ing He got a job despite not getting
good grades.

the test on Saturday? (need to/foe/take)
to the party on Friday. (should/not/go)

A: (5)

New students do not always feel comfortable speaking English to other people.

/ to understand why they liked living close to the beach.

When they finally arrived, the students were too tired cooking / to cook anything.
I felt very nervous presenting / to present my assignment to the class.
The large tree prevented them from getting / to get wet in the rain.
I'm sorry for causing / to cause you so much trouble.

6 The lady in front was wearing a hat that was too big seeing / to see over.
7 They still couldn't afford the hotel in spite of receiving / they received a 10% discount.
8 They decided to rent a flat instead of staying / to stay in a hotel.
22

Interviewer: What kind of thing do you like doing in your spare time?
Candidate: Well, I really enjoy to listening to music and I also like doing sport in my
free time. I think everyone should to look after their body and try keep
fit. I love soccer, and I was actually offered a place in my local soccer
team, but I had turn it down because my parents wouldn't to allow me
take it.
Interviewer: Are there any new skills you would like to learn in the future?
Candidate: Well, as I said, I love music, so I would love to learn to play the guitar one
day. When I was younger, my parents suggested to studying a musical
instrument, but I wasn't interested at that time. If you want be a good
musician, you really must to work hard and keep to practising every day.
At that time, I was spending a lot of time to studying so I couldn't do it
then, but I'm looking forward learning to play some time in the future.

23

4 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in the box.

he gerund or infinitive after allow, advise, make, suggest?
get

make

practise

show

speak

(x

3)

study

waste
1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1 a My school does not allow 05 taking holidat}s daring term.

b Mt} school does not allow os to take holidays daring term.
2 a Oar teacher sagge::.tedmeto bOt}a good dictionary.
bOor teacher soggested I boy a good dictionary.

Some verbs are followed by -ing if there is no object and by to + infinitive if there is a
direct object - advise, allow, forbid, permit:
The teacher allowed talking as long as it was in English. (no direct object)
The teacher allowed us to talk as long as it was in English. (us is the direct object)
Make is followed by the infinitive without to:
My boss made me wear a horrible uniform. (not m6lde me t-obb'06lr)
{;J Note that the direct object must come between the verb and the infinitive:
She allowed her dog to sit in the front of her car. (not She allowed to sit he} dog)

In the passive, these verbs are followed by to + infinitive: be advised, be allowed,
be forbidden, be made, be permitted:
I was advised to contact my travel agent as soon as the plane landed.

'I

Mary was made to swallow a large dose of medicine by the nurse.
Welcome to our school. I am the principal of the college and I'd just like to say a few
words while your teacher is preparing (1)
you a short video about our
lovely town. We are all very pleased that you have decided (2)
at our
college. Some of you are here for only a few weeks, so you can't afford
(3)
any time in your studies. Learning (4)
any language
involves (5)
that language as much as possible. So from today, I
recommend (6)
only English. While you are here, you should consider
(7).
as many friends as possible from other countries so that you don't
spend too much time (8)
your own language. Well, I think the video is
ready now. I hope (9)
the opportunity to meet you all individually at
lunch.

Suggest can be followed by -ingwithout a direct object:
John suggested going to a movie.
If there is a direct object, you can use the infinitive without to, or a that clause:
John suggested we go to a movie. or: John suggested that we go to a movie.
2 Correct the mistake below.

You're

5 Fill in the blanks using the words in brackets.
1 I didn't mind washing the dishes. I was
(happy / do) it.
2 Your essay was
(impossible / mark) because the handwriting was
(too / difficult / understand).
3
4
5
6

Alex felt
(excited / get) ready for the party.
I'm renting a flat because it was
(too / expensive / buy) one.
Our team was just
(not / fit / enough / win) the match.
There is so much bad news that I often feel
(sad / watch) the news
on Tv.
24

3 Correct the mistakes in the sentences below.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

I suggest you going and doing your homework now if you want to watch TV later.
My parents always made me to clean up my room when I was young.
I think people should not be allowed using mobile phones in the cinema.
Nowadays it is forbidden smoking in many restaurants and public areas.
After a lot of effort, I finally made work my new DVD player.
The police advised local residents not to leaving their windows open at night.
This ticket will permit that you enter the museum as many times as you like.
Our teacher suggested to go to the park for our end-of-term party.
25

Stt/Pt try, forget and remember

repositions after adjectives and nouns

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1

a

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

People should stop spending their moneyon the latest fashions.

1 a

Some verbs have a different meaning when they are followed by -ing or to + infinitive,

Some adjectives are always followed by a specific preposition.
At. We say you are bad at, good at or surprised at something:
I was surprised at the number of people who came.
About and with. We say you are angry about or pleased about something but angry
with or pleased with a person:
I am pleased about your new job. I was really angry with John.
After disappointed we use about or with; after worried we only use about:
She was pretty disappointed with / about her exam results.
I am worried about John. They are worried about the test.

==

==

to stop a previously mentioned

The boys were playing and they stopped to watch a large truck go past.
playing in order to watch the truck)
Try + -ing to attempt to solve a problem by doing something.
attempt and fail to do something. Compare:
==

(==

they stopped

Try + to + infinitive

==

I tried turning the tap but the water still poured out. (1 managed to turn the tap)
I tried to turn the tap but it was too old and rusty. (I couldn't turn the tap)
11111:"11

I

brother is good at sport but he is very bad at

b My brother is good in sport but he is very bad in English.
2 a The percentage in women attending university is increasing.
b The percentage of women attending university is increasing.

Stop + -ing to stop an activity. Stop + to + infinitive
activity in order to do something else. Compare:
The boys stopped playing.

i

My

b People should stop to spend their money on the latest fashions.
2 a The government tried stopping this plan but was not successful.
b The government tried to stop this plan but was not successful.

'

Forget / remember + -ing == thinking back to a special/significant time in the past.
Forget / remember + to + infinitive thinking about something that must be done in
the future. Compare:
==

I remember seeing a bull running down the High Street. (this happened in the past)
I must remember to watch the news tonight. (first I must remember, then I will do it)
2 Correct the mistake below.

t(

I

Some nouns are always followed by a specific preposition.
In. We say decrease in, drop in, fall in, increase in, rise in:
There was an increase in attendance at this month's meeting.
Between. To contrast two things, we talk about the difference between them:
The main difference between the American and the Canadian accent is in the vowels.
Of We say: advantage of, disadvantage of, example of, number of, percentage of, use of
The number of people in my class who smoke is incredible.
2 Correct the mistake below.

I lost the race because
The class look
3 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
too hard and enjoy life. (work) 3 Fill in the blanks using a word from this unit and the correct preposition.
1 I've never been very
painting or drawing.
Did you remember
candles for the birthday cake? (buy) .
2 The USNs population is far greater, so there is a big
the two totals.
The burglar tried
the window with a knife but couldn't get in. (open)
3 One
saving money is that you will be able to enjoy your retirement.
Don't forget
a postcard to your grandmother when you're away. (send)
4 The most dramatic
numbers occurred in 1997, with a 30% rise.
At 12 o'clock every day the builders stopped
a lunch break. (have)
S Peter was very
robotics, so he enjoyed the lecture very much.
I will never forget
the pyramids on our trip to Egypt. (visit)
6 The
children with obesity problems is increasing each year.
The cook tried
more salt but the soup was still too bland. (add)
7
One
:';f~j-tasking is reading em ails while talking on the phone.
I remember
across the road but I have no idea how I ended up in
hospital. (walk)
8 Fortunately, there wa"'s-a steady
the number of road accidents.
26
27

1 Nowadays many people want to stop
2
3
4
S
6
7
8

Underline the correct word or phrase in these sentences.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

1 Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the verbs in the box.
bring

borrow

complete

copy

email

reserve

store

use

Library Rules
• Students are

Cl ).

• It is forbidden (2)

.

food or

• 8ttldents are adVised (3).
• Some
resources are
(4).
a
of any
we do allow
(5)

.

•

to siX items at a time.
into the library at any time.
in the locker's provided .
at exam times. We adVise
you will
well in
.

we

attention to

I was very bad at/in sports when I was at school.
Is it possible to make people give up/to give up smoking?
I stopped working/to work to listen to the news.
I was surprised at/ofhow calm I felt before the performance.
I'll never forget coming/to come first in the race.
I was talking on the phone, but I stopped answering/to answer the door.
My teacher was very pleased for/with my exam results.
Remember brushing/to brush your teeth every morning and night.

4 A teacher has underlined 14 mistakes in this essay. Correct the mistakes for the

student.

.
\

Smokin3

very expensive.
smoke.

• The
(6).
.
COJlIPutElrs;however, to
ensure access for
you ar~ not permitted (7)
.
the
m!3klng a
at the information desk.

•

at least
at 10 minutes
. pm. Webefore
suggestthis(8).time.

any

/..

fnis

fo sfop people

is fne responslbilify

IS

fo

of fne

fney will nof so.ve o.S mucn money for fnew fufure.
fney become ill, fne 30vernmenf
will need fo fo.ke co.re of

mucn money on ci30.reHes,

If

I believe

fnem.
(1-/)

2 Find the 8 places in the text where you need to add a preposition.

wnefner

(f)

o.nd

3overnmenf.
As we co.n see, fnis problem no.s o.n impo.cf on (2) mo.ny o.reo.S our
!tfe (3) One impodo.nf exo.mp/e for fnis is fne economy If people spend foo

Fudnermore,

1111;,:

is 0. dro.in on fne workforce

C/eo.r/y, fnere o.re mo.ny 300d reo.SonS

we need fo o.sk ourselves

Firsf,

Illi" IIn '

co.uses mo.ny neo./fn problems,

fne 30vernmenf

fne dlso.dvo.nf0.3es

fnis problem.

However,

for

does no.ve 0. dufy fo educo.fe people
o.nd we snould

smokin3

if is nof enoU,:JnJusf

fo

o.bouf

0.11(S) .be worried
(iD)

o.dvise people

for
fo nof

smokln3'

The chart shows the number people moving between the villages in the south and the
cities in the north in recent years. The main difference the two sets of figures is that
the percentage people living in the south is decreasing steadily, while there has been a
rise population figures for the northern cities. The biggest increase population in the
northern cities occurred in 2001, and this corresponds with the biggest decrease the
number people living in the southern villages. Since 2002, the number inhabitants in
both the north and the south has remained steady.
7,000,000
6,000,000
5,000,000
4,000,000
3,000,000
2,000,000
1,000,000
o

So, wno.f co.n 30vernmenfs
do? Some 30vernmenfs
no.ve o.lreo.dy (7)fried
fo
increo.se fne fo.x on fobo.cco, buf even fnou3n c'30.reHes o.re expenSive, people
sfill

buy fnem.

no.ve o.lso (3) fried

smokln,9
(/f)

in resfo.uro.nfs

mo.ke people

ci30.reHes

•

(/3) I
mo.y

or bo.rs

wo.ys fo fo.r3ef

fnls

is o.n effecfive

wo.y fo

fo sfop smoki"Ei or o.f leo.sf fo reduce (/2) fne number

fney smoke

sU8!)esf 0.1130vernmenfs

o.lso

I believe

(//.f)

p.revenf

fo o.dopf fnis

more cnildren

sfro.fe3Y

fo fo.ke up fnls

1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
28

findin,9

Ci30.reHe mo.nufo.cfurers
wifnouf succesS. In my counfry, we only
in our own nomes o.nd (/0) Ioeoole
o.re nof 'oermiHed
•

(q) ~~~~~=
o.llow fo smoke

• Villages in the south
Cities in the north

Governmenfs

29

In fnis
unneo./fny

wo.y we
no.bif.

preAosi:tions after verbs

repositions of time and place

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1

a

1 Tick the correct

The company agreed for the pay rise,

1 a I will start mgcourse on June,
b I will start mgcourse in June.

b The company agreed to the pay rise,
2 a The manapologised for standing on myfoot

2 a I am going in London next gean
b I amgoing to London next gean

b The manapologised to stand on my foot

Some verbs must be followed by a specific preposition. Sometimes more than one
preposition is possible and sometimes there is a difference in meaning depending
which preposition is used:

01

Agree. We say you agree with a person or an idea:
I totally agree with the governments decision.
But if you give your consent to something, we use agree to:
Both sides in the war have agreed to the ceasefire.

11 '11i'11i11

I,111'1 I' '

Apologise. We say you apologise to someone but you apologise for something:
Mum made me go and apologise to our neighbours for breaking their window.
Find out, know, learn, teach, think. These verbs can all be followed by about:
Our teacher is trying to teach us about life in the olden days.
Think can be followed by about or of to talk about opinions or future plans:
What do you think about / of the new computer lab? (o}1inion)

'

sentence in each pair.

I'm thinking about / of going back to university next year Jo finish my degree. (future plan
Look. We use look at when we fix our eyes on something and look fo? when we mean
searching for something:
Oh look at the sunset! Isn't it beautiful?
I've lookedfor my homework everywhere. Have you seen it?

We use in with a year, month or part of the day, but on with a day or date:
I came to Australia in 1988. We landed on 1st October, in the afternoon.
We use at with a time and with the weekend and night:
Lets meet at the weekend. Are you free on Sunday at 8:00?
We use for to talk about a length of time:
I have lived in Australia for 18 years.
We use in with cities, countries and places to say where something is or happened:
I met my husband in London.
We also use in with a book, newspaper, magazine, journal, film or TV programme to
say where we read or saw something:
I read some interesting new research in this month's medical journal.
We use at with school, college, university, work and home and to refer to a building:
'Where is dad?' 'He's at work.'
Shall we meet at the cinema? (= meet outside the building)
We use to with a place to show destination:
'Where are you going?' 'I'm just going to the library to do some work.'

2

2 Correct the mistake below.

I spend a lot of time

I'll have to

3 Fill in the blanks using the correct preposition.
1
2
3
4

I don't know very much
The manager agreed
The airline apologised
How did you find out

ancient history.
an increase in staff holidays.
losing my luggage.
our college?

5
6
7
8

What are you thinking
doing in the school holidays?
We went to the zoo because I wanted to look
the penguins.
1 agree
the teacher - you really need to improve your handwriting.
'What are you looking
?' 'My glasses, I can't find them anywhere.'
30

3 Fillin the blanks using the correct preposition.
1
2
3
4

I started high school
1985.
Shall we meet
the library and then go in together?
I have been studying English
3 years.
I was born
June 17th 1991.

5
6
7
8

Pete and Jane go
Australia next week. They are going to study
The movie starts
7:30 so we'll need to get there before then.
That actor was much younger
the movie we saw last night.
I find that I do my best work
night.
31

· Sydney.

The preposition of

1 Tick the correct

'Lst

sentence in each pair.

1 a Our standard of living is muchbetter than in the past
b Our standard tor living is muchbetter than in the

6

This is a talk to high school students. Fill in the blanks using the correct form of one
of the verbs in the box, and a preposition.
agree

2 a Write q letter complaint to the manager.

find out

know

look (x 2)

teach

think

b Write a letter Ot complaint to the manager.

It's that time of year again when our final-year students start to (1)
.
university and all of the decisions that need to be made before then. Your teachers felt
that you needed some advice on this subject and I quite (2)
them, so I
have come along today to do just that. First, talk to your teachers. Not only do they
(3)
(you) their subjects, but they can also give you some very useful
Of is also used after some nouns: government, group, importance, lack, leader, type:
advice about your strengths and weaknesses. Secondly, make a list of what you
People often underestimate the importance offriends and family.
already (4)
university study. That will help you pinpoint what you still
Of is used to talk about quantities with some words: amount, number, a lot, lots, plenr need to (5)
The internet can be an invaluable tool, but there is little
The government is hoping to persuade a large number of people to walk to work.
point in searching for information if you don't know what you are (6)
,
otherwise you can waste hours of valuable study time just (7).
the
Of is used in some prepositions: in front of, instead of
I decided to take the bus instead of the train.
computer screen.
The preposition of is used in some common expressions: cost of living, letter of
apologylcomplaint, etc., period of time, quality of life, standard of living:
My father is always complaining about the high cost of living nowadays.

11

Illi"

2 Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.
Also after because and as a result when they are followed by a noun or gerund:
My cousin couldn't swim with us because o/his bad leg. (not bcca/:ise his bad leg)
1 I agree to what you are saying, but I think there is another side to the argument.
Our football team was demoted as a result of the weather being bad. (not FiS a resbllte 2 The difference with your essay and mine is that I only answered part of the question.
thc wctUhcr I:t'tlS bad)
3 Our teacher stressed the importance to checking our writing for spelling mistakes.
4
Fruit bats emerge in night to feed on the many fruit trees in the area.
2 Correct the mistake below.
5 Can you meet me tomorrow morning in 10:00?
6 I've been working in this coffee shop in six months.
7 My birthday is in 8th November; when is yours?
8 Alex started piano lessons on July last year.

'111,1

11

3 Add the correct prepositions to the following conversation.
Mary:

There is a bus stop

3

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. There may be more than one
mistake in some sentences.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

It is difficult for very old people to have a good quality for life.
The lakes remained empty for a long period time during the drought.
I missed out on a good job promotion as a result my illness.
The government for my country tries to consult everyone about important issues.
I wrote a letter complaint to the airline because they lost my luggage.
There are a large number different types cars on our roads nowadays.
The leader for the opposition was very angry with the result at the election.

8 We ate at home instead to go to a restaurant
food we wanted.
32

because we couldn't decide what type

Thanks for coming everyone. As yo\.! know, Sue, our receptionist is off sick
and it may be some time before she's back (1)
work. I'll have a
replacement tomorrow, but today we'll all need to help out.
Tom:
Well, I teach (2)
the afternoons, but I could cover reception
(3)
an hour this morning. I just need to make sure I have time to
prepare for my presentation (4)
the university (5)
17th June.
Mary:
OK, I'll put you down for 9:00 to 10:00. What about you Margaret?
Margaret: Actually, I can do a couple of hours this afternoon because I managed to
get a lot of work done (6)
the weekend. I've promised to take my
class to see a play (7).
Friday, so I really need to get that organised
this morning.
Mary:
That's fine. I did have a meeting (8)
the city (9)
11:00 but I can
cancel that and cover (l0)
three hours from 10:00 to 1:00 myself. Well
done, everyone! Thank you.
33

4 Underline the correct answer.
oW

1 I quite agree to / with you.
2 'What's Ann doing?' 'She's looking at / for her passport.'
3 I must apologise for / to being late; my car broke down.
4 After a few hours, mum finally agreed to / with take us to the movies.
5
6
7
8

do I make a verb passive?

L Tickthe correct sentence in each pair.
a

My

homeis located in the western part or the city.

b

My

homelocates in the western part or the city.

I stopped at the shops on the way home because / because of I needed some milk.
2 a These funds can be give to the poorer people to help them.
'Where's Bill?' 'He's at the art gallery looking at / for the paintings.'
b These funds can be given to the poorer people to help them.
Tim and Bob couldn't go to the party because / because of their tennis match.
The passive is formed with the verb to be + the past participle of the verb:
I apologised for / to everyone when my phone rang during the meeting.
Nowadays, a great deal of money is spent on advertising.

S Complete the letter using the information from the notes.
Problem

Ijlli

•.

Reason

rooms were noisy

the hotel wasn't finished

couldn't use the pool
son cut his foot
to Mt Etna

the water was so dirty
he swam at the beach

couldn't see the top of the mountain
missedpart of the show
wife sick

it was covered by cloud
the bus broke down

the weather was so bad

she ate undercooked chicken

The verb to be should be changed into the correct tense:
Tense
Passive
present simple
present continuous
simple past
past continuous
present perfect
past perfect

is spent
is being spent
was spent
was being spent
has been spent
had been spent

To make the negative, we put not between the verb to be and the past participle:
We were not told that the rules had changed.

Dear Sir
I am writing to complain about a recent holiday I took with your company.

The passive can also be used in the infinitive form:
Children need to be taught the correct way to behave in public.

First, our accommodation was terrible. It was very noisy as a result of
(1)
, so builders were working on it day and night. Not
only that, but we couldn't use the pool because of (2)
We

After modal verbs, we use the passive infinitive without to:
Some adults believe that children should be seen and not heard.
You will be paid on the last Friday of each month.

would have liked to go to the beach more often, but on the first day my son
cut his foot badly as a result of (3)
in the sea there, and
we discovered there was a lot of broken glass in the sand.
Secondly, we paid a great deal of money for two trips. The first one to Mt
Etna was ruined because of (4)
In fact we couldn't even
see the top of the mountain because of (5)
The second
trip was to a show in the local town. However, we missed the start of the
show as a result of (6)
on the way there. Furthermore,
my wife ended up in hospital as a result of (7)
at the
restaurant there.
I would be grateful if you could refund the cost of our trip.
Yours faithfully

2 Correct the mistake below.

3 Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. You do not need to change the tense.
1 The house was sell for over one million dollars.
2 The class has allowed to eat in the staff dining room during the renovations.
3 The potatoes carry along a conveyor belt to a room where they wash and peel.
4 The teacher told to take her class out of the school if the fire bell rang.
S
6
7
8

Fraser Cull en

34

Smoking do not allow in any part of the aeroplane.
The museum was being renovating when we were there, so we could not visit it.
Bus tickets can buy at any newsagents.
New employees have instructed not to operate the photocopier until they are trained.

35

Wha~.is register?
1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 a Many people have been died because Ot this disease.

1 a This type of work attracts

b Many people have died because at this disease.
2 a This data tooK tram 1982 and 1992,

b This type of work attracts

a greater

'1.

at menthan women.

a greater percentage Ot menthan women.

2 a Many old people believe that kids have too muchfreedom nowadays.

b This data was taken tram 1982 and 1992.

b Many old people believe that children have too muchfreedom nowadays.

With active verbs we usually use the following order: subject + verb + object. We use
the passive when we want to put the object of the verb first: object + verb. Compare:
The teacher told the students to close their books. = active (subject + verb + object)
The students were told to close their books. = passive (object + verb)

'Register' means using the right word in the right context. For formal essay writing,
you must use a formal register. This means you should not use informal language.
You should not use:

We use the passive:

equivalent instead: children; all right or acceptable; money; many or a great deal.
• symbols on their own in place of words: not %; $; &; @. You should write the words
in full: percent; money; and; at. Note that % and $ should only be used with
numerals. For smaller amounts we write $50 (not 50 dollars) and 75% (not 75
percent). The noun form of percent is percentage.
• abbreviations: not m; yrs; kgs; no. You should write these words in full: million;
years; kilos/kilograms; number.
• all capital letters: not NOWAJ:>AYS PGOPLG n-tINK n-tAT .. You should use capital
letters only when appropriate: Nowadays people think that...
Look at the following examples:
Companies waste heaps ofhHCks on advertising. -- waste a great deal of money on ...
In 1986 the "%-roseto 67.5. -- the percentage rose to...
Between the~2001
and 2005, over 2m-people died. -- the years ... over 2 million. ..

• informal vocabulary: not kids; ok; bucks; heaps. You should use a more formal

• when we want to make the object the focus of the sentence: The books were sold for
a small profit at the school. (the focus is on the books, not the person selling them)
{::{Note that the verb (were) agrees with the object (the books).
• when the context tells us who carried out the action: A law was introduced to help
protect people in this situation. (we know that the government did this)
• when it is not important who carried out the action: In the factory, the shoes are
cleaned and packed into boxes ready for sale. (we do not need to know who does this)
{::{Note that we can include the 'subject' by adding by + the person/ group: A lot of
waste materials could be recycled by large manufacturers.
2 Correct the mistake below.
-.

-

0

2 Correct the mistake below.
WEAR AT All liMES.

·PRmenVI

~

HIIDCUR SHIUlB ~_~~

c
The new hospital cost over
200 million bucks to build.

Protective headgear
The new hospital

3 Change the following sentences from active to passive. Youwill not need to change
the tense. Youwill need to decide when to leave out the subject.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

A factory worker checks each box for quality. Each box
The government does not permit children under 16 to work. Children
The washing machine is washing your clothes at the moment. Your clothes
A mechanic will repair your car this afternoon. Your car
The agent has sold our house at last. Our house
Something tore the back of my coat. The back of my coat
The employer pays the staff more for working at the weekend. The staff
Burning tyres give off highly toxic chemicals. Highly toxic chemicals
36

3 Correct the register errors in the following sentences. There may be more than one.
1
2
3
4
5
.

Some people believe it is ok to hit small children.
Kids today are much more comfortable using technology than older people.
The no. of people without a job in the yr 2001 was 3.5m.
The government needs to create heaps of jobs to solve this problem.
A LARGEAMOUNT OF $ IS SPENT ON DEVELOPING TOURISM.

6 The female employees tend to go out more during their lunch break than the guys.
7 35% of students agreed with the decision but the % that disagreed was far greater.
8 The baby blue whale gains 90 kgs per day.
31

3 Fill in the gaps in the following paragraph using the information in the diagrams.
How to make a traditional canoe

1 Match the people or group to the correct sentence.
the burglar
the principal

the government
the waiter

the nation

the hospital staff

1 Th e mam
. d'ISh was serve d'lon a SI ver patter.
I
tVie wCl~tey .
2 Each year the most improved student is chosen.
3 A new law has been passed to make the dumping of waste illegal.
4 I realised my keys had been stolen during the break-in.
5 Simon is being treated for minor burns.
6 Our new government will be elected on June 20th.

1 Choose a suitable tree.

2 Strip the bark.

3 Soak the bark.

Now rewrite the sentences in the active using the subjects from the box.
1 .-m.~.~0 .~t.~r.
.!?~r.:m1.~h?.!':!:~
k~..0. .c?~..0..%.~~.v.~r..n
k0.t!~r.

4 Heat the bark over a fire.
Do not allow it to burn.

5 Place the bark between

6 Sew the edges together.

L"?

11.

.

trees to shape it.

2

3
4
5

6

2 Find 10 verbs that should be in the passive and make the necessary changes.
7 You have finished your canoe.
There are two main types of training: behavioural and obedience.
Behavioural training should do on a one-to-one

basis. This type of training

uses to correct any bad habits your dog may have developed, such as
climbing on furniture. Obedience training should do often but only for short periods of time. It is
best to train your dog just before meals so his meal associates with a reward for the training.
It is important

to keep your puppy safe from danger. Many young puppies

injure because

8 Indigenous people use them to catch fish.

The diagrams show how a traditional canoe (1).
First, a suitable tree
(2)
and then the bark (3)
off in one piece. Next, the bark
(4)
in a river so that it becomes soft and pliable. It (5)
.
(then) over a fire but it should (6)
(not) to burn. In order to shape the
bark, it should (7).
between two trees that are growing close together.
Finally, once the bark has cooled, the edges (8)
together. Your canoe
(9)
These canoes (l0)
for fishing.

their owners don't realise how curious they can be. One way to protect your puppy is by
giving him a special

house. The house can make of any suitable

enough for the puppy to move around comfortably.

material

but it must be big

It can use for house-training

your puppy

or to protect him from very young children.
You should never try to win your puppy's affection

by allowing

him to do what he likes. If

your puppy rewards with a cuddle and a pat when he jumps on the furniture,
continue

to do this. To correct jumping,

then he will

first your puppy's feet should place firmly back on

the floor. Then the puppy gives a treat when he is on the floor. It is important
that other people know they cannot pet him or reward him if he jumps

38

up.

to make sure

4 Correct the 10 mistakes in the following text.
The graph shows the no. of people who shop online and the types of stuff that bought.
It is clear that most money spend on travel and accommodation, and the smallest
amount of money is spending on groceries. The first figures available are for the yr
1995, because shopping online was not common before then. The % of people
shopping online was very small initially, and it took ages for people to begin using this
service. However, the majority of people still wanna visit shops in person to do their
shopping, and only 20% of the population say they have ever bought anything online.
Of the 20% who have used online shopping, 75% say they have been received good
value for money and they would definitely use it again.
39

Adjectives and adverbs

NOl,ln or adjective?
(

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1 a This difference can be explained gpite eas!).

1 T~ckthe correct sentence in each pair.
1

b This difference can be explained gpite easil!).
2 a It is clearl!) that people without mone!)do not have as much freedom.
b It is clear that people without mone!)do not have as much freedom.

Adjectives are used to describe a noun: Today life is very complicated. (complicated
describes the noun life)
To describe a whole idea or situation, we can use It is + adjective + that-clause or It is
+ adjective + to + infinitive:
It is essential that you bring back all of your books before the end of term.
It is important to begin studying several weeks before the exam.

jil'
"

Adverbs can be used to describe a verb: We must act quickly. (quickly describes the
verb act) or an adjective: This chart is significantly different. (not significtlnt different)
(significantly is an adverb describing the adjective different).
We use adverbs such as unfortunately to show how we feel about something:
Unfortunately, he's not well. (unfortunately shows I feel this is a bad thing)
f:I Some adverbs are irregular, e.g. fast, hard, well: He ran asfast as he could. (not fastly)
2 Correct the mistake below.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

I didn't play very good / well in our last football match.
In 1980, this figure increased sharp / sharply to 75%.
There was a gradual/gradually
increase in numbers between 1990 and 1995.
It is clear / clearly that people with experience can find a job more easy / easily.
I strong / strongly agree with this point of view.
Severe / Severely punishments may not help to reduce crime.
Unfortunate / Unfortunately, I am unable to attend the meeting this Saturday.
It is vital/vitally important to address these problems before it is too late.
40

Tourismcan be ver!) benefit ,to poorer areas.
Tourismcan be very beneficial to poorer areas.

2 a In m!)job. !)ou need the confidence to address large groups of people.
b In m!)job. !)oU need the confident to address large groups of people.

Sometimes it is easy to confuse a noun with its adjective. Look at the following list of
commonly confused nouns and adjectives:
Noun
Adjective
Noun
Adjective
age
aged
noise
noisy
development
developed
responsibility
responsible
difference
different
significance
significant
education
educational
silence
silent
happiness
happy
sport
sports
true
health
healthy
truth
valuable
maturity
mature
value
nature

natural

youth

young

f:I Note that invaluable means very valuable!
f:I Men and women can only be used as nouns: More men than women work here.
Male and female are used as adjectives: The number offemale employees is increasing
each year. (not women employoes)
You should refer to either men and women or male and female. Do not use the two
different terms together: 1.161lc e/'l'ifJleyees f61r elitnwnecr
the b/:;omcn.

Michael's studying

3 Underline the correct words.

fb

I'm looking for a

3 Correct the mistakes in the sentences below.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

I can't tell the different between the fake designer goods and the real ones.
The advice my tutor gave me was unvaluable in the exam.
It is important to eat a health diet when you are studying or exercising hard.
In some countries, there are no women members of parliament.
I can't study in silent; I need to have music in the background.
A child who is loved is a happiness child.
Both women and males need to be included in these decisions.

8 The landlord complained because we were making too much noisy.
41

Verb confusion 1 - courses and study

Test 8

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 Fill in the blanks in the sentences below using the correct form of one of the words
in the box.

1

a

I don't know where the library is.

b I don't understand where the library is.
a Last summerI studied with you on the course.

2•

2•

benefit
confident
significant

b Last summerI learned with you on the course.

•
•

Know is used to show that you have memorised something or that you are certain
of something: I know all of the irregular verbs. Know describes a state, not an
activity (not! am t-Tyingt-oknow my irregular b'er19s.)and we cannot use it in the
continuous form (not! tlm knowil'tg my irregultlr b'Crbs.).
Learn describes an activity. We learn facts when we try to memorise them: I am
learning irregular verbs for the test. We can also learn a skill: I am learning to play
the piano. We cannot use learn by itself (not! tilmleamingf-or the test.)
Study is usually used to talk about a whole subject area rather than individual skills
or facts: My daughter is studying economics at university (not: am studying lww tt)
play the piano.). We can use study by itself: I am studyingfor the test on Friday.
Note that we can say learn about but not study about: We're learning about World
War I this term. (not we're studying tl80ut).
Take can be used in a similar way to study to refer to a subject area: I am taking a
course in marketing. It is also used to refer to the individual subjects Within a
course: I have to take at least 3 marketing subjects to get the diploma.
Enrol is used to say that you are listed in the official records for a course. I have just
enrolled in an art course.

We would like

develop

different

health

nature

responsible

1 I didn't have the
to join the school debating team.
2 We hope this new source of power will lead to the
of new businesses
in our area.
3 There is a great deal of evidence that a diet of fast food is not
4
5
6
7

If you make a mistake, it is important to take
for your actions.
At first Joe didn't realise the
of his discovery.
It was almost impossible to tell the
between the twins.
In some ways, it is better to use
ingredients like sugar and butter
rather than manufactured foods.

8 Studies have shown that exercising three times a week is
heart.

for the

2 Correct the 8 mistakes in the following text.
Teacher

Student

Why do you think that education has become so important nowadays?
Well, I think people are more concern these days about being success
in their career. And nowadays you really have to be very well education
if you want to get a good job. Our life is also more competition these
days, so you have to study hardly at school and university. I think good
qualifications can make a big different in getting the job you want. You
also need to be able to speak English good, so it's importance to study
languages as well as other subjects.

3 Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the words in brackets.

1 The figures in the two charts are
3 Choose the correct verb to complete the sentences below.

1 We're learning / studying about Ancient Rome this term.
2 I've decided to enrol in / learn a photography course this summer.
3 I can hum the tune but I don't know / learn the words.
4
5
6
7
8

In high school you know / study many different subjects.
Before you can fly a plane, you need to learn / study how to land.
Jane is learning / studying in London this year.
Do you know / learn the telephone number for the school?
I can't go out on Friday. I have to learn / study for my end-of-year exams.
42

2
3
4
5
6
7

different. (significant)
In 2002 the number of houses sold increased
(slight)
These figures fell
in 2005. (sharp)
The concert was
noisy. (incredible)
, we didn't get to see the Eiffel Tower on our trip. (sad)
The lecture on robotics was
interesting. (extreme)
The number of students enrolled in the course rose
from 1995 to
2005. (steady)

8

, I feel that we spend far too much money on space exploration.
(personal)
43

4 Circle the correct words in the following extract.

"It takes more than good qualifications to become a good
teacher." To what extent do you agree?
I had a mixture of teachers when I (1) learned / studied at school. Some
were interesting and some were boring, some were (2) excellence /
excellent and others were not so good. But what does it take to make a
good teacher?
One of the best teachers I have ever had was when I (3) enrolled / took

I'll

Verb c~nfusion

2-

describing charts and figures

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1

a

In 2002 the figure increa:sed from 30% to 25"/•.

b

In 2002 the figure decrea:sed from 30"/, to 25%.

a

The flow chart di:splaf):Sthe qpantity

b

The flow chart shows the qpantitf)

2

of electricitf)
of electricity

con:SlJmed each f)ear.
con:SlJmed each year.

Describing charts
Graphs and charts can show facts:
The two graphs show the number of people employed by the company in 1980 and 1990.
We use indicate when we want to draw a conclusion about the figures in the charts:

a course in ancient history at university. I had never been very
(4) interest / interested in history before, but this teacher managed to
make the classes so (5) entertainment / entertaining that it was never
dull. However, there is more to being a good teacher than personality.

These figures indicate that the company is growing in size each year.
We use illustrate to refer to evidence or proof of something:

My history teacher at school had only a limited knowledge of his

Look at the figures displayed on the screen. (= show on a screen)
The girls' work was displayed for all to see. (= make sure it can be easily seen)
Did I tell you about my accident? (= give a verbal or written account of a story)

subject and I don't think that we (6) knew / learned a great deal from
him. It is (7) clear / clearly that good qualifications can also be
important.
A good teacher needs to use their (8) imagine / imagination to create
lessons that are (9) helping / helpful as well as (10) education /
educational. They also need to gain the (11) respect / respectful of
their students. Such teachers are usually (12) extreme / extremely

These figures illustrate the need for better management of our resources.
We do not use demonstrate, display or tell to describe a chart. Compare the following:
The salesman demonstrated the machine for us. (= show how something works)

Describing figures
If figures go up, we use increase or rise: Temperatures rose in May.
If the figures go down, we use decrease or fall: The number of bats fell in 2004.
If the figures stay the same, we use remain steady or show little/no change: The figures
show little change since 2001.
2 Correct the mistake below.

popular with students. It is (13) important / importantly for teachers
to be (14) genuine / genuinely interested in their students and their
job in order to do it well. Perhaps there would be fewer problem
students in schools if there were more 'good' teachers.

I

:'.:

~..-:'

I

.rl o~~'

Jii:~-

t ~~"~"

I'm using slides to
3 Choose the correct verb to complete the sentences below.

1 The figures illustrate / indicate that enormous changes have occurred.
2 The book demonstrates / tells the story of a young boy and his life in Africa.
3 The greatest increase / decrease was in 1997, when it peaked at 56 tonnes.

4
5
6
7
8
44

The pie chart on the right illustrates / tells how serious this problem has become.
Most shops use shelves to display / show their products.
The figures reached a low in 2002, when they fell / rose to only 15%.
The two graphs indicate / show the total number of men and women enrolled.
If you are unsure how the camera works, 1can demonstrate / show it to you.
45

Verb confusion 3 - money and problems

Nbur",confusion 1 - money and work

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1

a

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

Weare buying more and more moneyon cars each year.

1 a Those who do manualwork often earn less money.

b Weare spending more and more moneyon cars each year.

b Those who do manualwork often earn less wages.

2 a Weneed to stop this problem as soon as possible.
b Weneed to solve this problem as soon as possible.

2 a People without computer skills find it difficult to get ajob nowadaf:!s.
b People without computer knowledge find it difficult to get ajob nowadaf:!s.

Money: buy or spend?
We use buy to say what we bought or where we bought it: 'I bought a new jumper last
week.' 'Where did you buy it?' (= which shop did you buy it from)
We use spend to talk about money: I spent over $250 on mobile phone calls last month.
When we use spend by itself, the idea of money is understood in the sentence:
We are spending more on 'petrol than ever before. (= we are spending more money on
petrol)
We are buying more petrol than ever before. (= the focus is on the petrol)
Problems: avoid, fix, prevent, repair, resolve, solve
11'11

I

We fix or repair something that is broken: took my watch to the jewellers to get it fixed.
We solve problems: We must try to solve the unemployment problem.
We resolve difficult situations and issues: What can we do to resolve this situation?
We prevent problems so they do not happen (prevent from + -ing; prevent + noun / -ing):
We need to do all we can to prevent this from happening. (= to stop this happening)
2 Correct the mistake below.

• A salary is the total amount that a professional person is paid each year: The
marketing job offers opportunities to travel and an attractive salary.
• A wage is the amount of money earned each week/ month for casual or manual
work: Tim got a painting job with a wage of $400 per week.
• We use money in a more general sense: Nowadays people need to earn a lot more
money to be able to buy a house. (not Barn a let mere wages)
• Job refers to the type of work you do: My job is to manage the staff or a particular
task: At home, my job is to do the ironing.
• Work can be a noun or a verb and is used in a general sense: (uncountable noun)
It took a lot of work but I finished the project. (verb) My dad works in a bank.
Workplace is the place where you work: It is better to train in the workplace rather
than at a college.
• Knowledge refers to facts you have studied over time, and skills refer to practical
ability. Compare: His knowledge of history is amazing. I have good typing skills.
• We use employment and unemployment to talk about general work trends:
Unemployment figures fell this week. Employee = a worker, employer = a boss.
2 Correct the mistake below.

It took me two hours
to resolve the oil leak

Conditions at the factory

in my car.

were so bad that the employers
decided to go on strike.

It took me two hours
3 Fill in the blanks with a suitable verb from this unit.

1 It is important to teach children how to save money as well as how to

Conditions at the factory
it.

2 We must take the necessary action to
this issue as quickly as possible.
3 If we are to use nuclear power, we have to do everything we can to
a
disaster like ChernobyL
4
5
6
7
8

Winning a great deal of money cannot
all of your problems.
How much did you
on video games last year?
We closed all the windows to
the rain from coming in.
I have to save a lot of money because I want to
a car next year.
I can do most things at home but I can't
electrical goods ifthey don't
work.
46

3 Fill in the blanks with a suitable noun from this unit.

1 I paid more tax last week because of the extra
I earned.
2 I know a lot about cars but I don't have the mechanical
to fIx them.
3 I read a book on the life and
of Louis Pasteur, the famous scientist.
4
5
6
7
8

]oe's
gave him a promotion and a higher
The problem of
is a key issue for this year's election.
Moving house is such a big
that I don't ever want to do it again.
Many workers can become ill if the conditions in their
are not good.
I gave up my part-time
as it was affecting my school
47

Correct the 10 vocabulary mistakes in the following extract.

1 Complete

the sentences below with the correct form of one of the verbs in the box.

demonstrate

display (x2)

1 The televisions were
2
3
4
5
6

illustrate

show

tell

agree or disagree?
In some countries,

at the front ofthe store.

The shop assistant
the new televisions for us.
Martin used an image of a television to
his point.
The departure times were
on the television in our hotel room.
Jill
us all about the new television she had just bought.
This chart
the number of televisions sold in the last month.

2 Fill in the blanks in the following text. Use a different verb or phrase for each space.
40,000

--

30,000

jobs

o

1985 1990' 1995 . 2000 2005

The graph (1)
the number of professional and manual jobs
available over a 20-year period. The number of manual job vacancies
(2)
dramatically between 1985 and 1990, but then it
(3)
over the next 5 years from 1990 to 1995. The number of
professional jobs available also (4)
between 1985 and 1990,
reaching a peak of approximately 15,000. The figures then (5)
until 2005, when they (6)
to 10,000. The figures for manual jobs
(7)
since 1995. These figures (8)
that,
overall, there are fewer professional jobs available than manual jobs.
3 Choose the correct word to complete the following sentences.
1
2
3
4

little incentive

The government is doing all it can to resolve this problem / situation.
Unemployment is one issue / problem that I don't think we will ever be able to solve.
Let's look at some ways to prevent / solve this situation from happening again.
By the end of the meeting, we had resolved all of the issues / problems raised by the
staff.

5 We need to employ a Human Resources manager who can prevent / solve our
staffing problems.
6 We finally resolved / solved the issue of who would wash up by buying a dishwasher.

48

to

for these people to work. One way to prevent the problem

of unemployment

would be for employees to pay their employers more

money for jobs which do not require a great deal of knowledge, such as
cleaning jobs.

safe and comfortable

at all times, so that people can feel happy about

going to work.
If we want to resolve unemployment

10,000

11'1

employed people are given money by the government

help them until they can find a suitable job. However, manual workers
often receive salaries that are too low to live on; this means that there is

Paying more wages is only one way to encourage people to work, however.
We also need to consider the working place. We need to ensure that it is

Manual jobs

-+- Professional

20,000

If we want to reduce unemployment, we need to pay workers more money for
manual jobs. This will encourage people to work. To what extent do you

from increasing,

then we need to do

what we can to encourage people to continue working. This situation will
not be solved unless we deal with the issue of working conditions as well
as money.

~,,-~j,~:

5 Complete the following conversation with the correct form of either spend or buy.
Teacher: What kinds of things do young people generally spend their money on?
That's difficult to say because girls tend to (1)
different things
Student:
from boys. Many of the young girls I know prefer to (2)
their
money on clothes, for example. They also like (3)
lots of
accessories like jewellery or make-up. But my brother, for example,
(4)
most of his money on video games. He (5)
at least one new one per month; I'd say he (6)
about $100 a
month on video games.
Teacher: Can you tell me about something you have bought recently?
Erm, I (7)
a new mobile phone last month. It cost me quite a
Student:
lot, and then I (8)
over $200 on phone calls, so it's been a
really expensive purchase so far!

49

Noun confusion 2 - advertising, travel and young people
1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.

Advertising on TV is the best way at increasing your business.
b Advertisement on TV is the best way at increasing your business.
2 a How was your travel to Canada?
1

a

b How was your trip to Canada?

1 a I am sorry but I wont be able to come to f:)ourpartf:) on Saturday.
b I am sorrf:) but I won·t be able to come to your partf:) on Saturdaf:).
2 a Children's tOf:)sare muchmore sophisticated now than in the past
b Childrens toys are muchmore sophisticated now than in the past

• Advertise is the verb and advertisement (it can be shortened to advert) is the noun.
We can also use commercial to refer to TV advertisements: I saw a really funny
advertisement / commercial on TV last night. We use advertising to refer to the
industry: My sister works in advertising.

We use apostrophes

• We use journey or trip to talk about getting from A to B: The journey / trip to
Australia was really long.

These contractions are mostly used in spoken or informal language:
I can't find Peter anywhere - he isn't in the staffroom or in his office.
• after people or animals to show possession: Mary's hat, the eat's food dish

• Travel is a verb and an uncountable noun which refers to taking journeys in general:
We travelled for hours before we saw any sign of life. Air travel is very cheap these days.
• Trip can also refer to a holiday or an excursion: I needed a break so I decided to take
a trip to the coast. (not Bnr:irkd fn Nh frm,ni'i

!

iH1i

When do I need to use an apostrophe?

(;J

• We usually use youth to refer to a stage of life: I did a lot of travelling in my youth. It
is rarely used to talk about people; instead, we use young person or young people.
2 Correct the mistake below.
III

• to shorten words and show that some letters have been left out:
cannot ~ can't; could not ~ couldn't; do not ~ don't; he will ~ he'll;
will not ~ won't; she would ~ she'd.

We do not use an apostrophe
• with possessive pronouns, such as its, ours, theirs, yours:
The caterpillar stays in its cocoon until metamorphosis is complete. (not it's cocoon)
• when we add s to a singular noun to make it plural, even if we are using a
commonly abbreviated word: CDs, TVs (not: ~
~)
• to show possession with things. Instead, we use of the: the leg of the chair (not-the-chair's leg)
2 Correct the mistake below.

v~
The male Emperor penguin
looks after it's young.

I wish I had something

3 Fill in the blanks with a suitable word or phrase from this unit.
1 Have you packed any snacks for the train
2 The
we placed in train stations bring us the most business.
3 We need to give the
in our society a lot more opportunities if we
want them to grow into responsible adults.
4
5
6
7
8

I'll apply for a job in
when I finish my marketing course.
I was very unhappy with the skiing
organised by your company.
Would you prefer to
by train or by plane?
Is it more effective to
a product on TV or in magazines?
We are looking for a
with an interest in computers to fill the post.
50

The male Emperor

3 Correct the mistakes in the sentences below. Some sentences may have more than
one mistake, some may be correct.
1
2
3
4
5
6

I put Jack coat on a hanger in the cupboard.
I cant understand why older people dont like modern music.
I bought three new CD's this week.
The dog wagged it's tail when it saw the children.
Fresh avocado's on sale today!
Which one is mine and which one is her's?

7 Can you put this in the car's boot for me?
8 It's about time you fixed that car of yours.

51

CoinnjQn spelling errors
1 Write the underlined

1 Tick the correct sentence in each pair.
1 a gomepeople believe that there should be more women in goverment
b gomepeople believe that there should be more women in government
2 a It is the responsibilitfj of everfj contrfj to protect the environment
b It is the responsibilitfj of everfj countrfj to protect the environment

Some words are spelled incorrectly because they are similar to another word:
• to or too? I want to go to the park. I wanted a new computer but ended up with a
printer too. (= as well)
• there or their? Your book is there, on the table. Students must buy their books before
the start of term.
• though or through? Several students chose Russian though they had never studied a
language before. The tour guide led the group through some areas of ancient rainforest.
Sometimes there is confusion over British and American spellings:
e.g. programme = British
program = American
~ Use either British or American spellings, but do not mix the two different styles:
(UK) It's my favourite colour. or: (US) It's my favorite color. (not It's my f61b'oblrit-c
color.)

ill

The following words are also often spelled incorrectly. Pay particular attention to
those with double letters: accommodation, advertisement, always, benefit, beginning,
business, commercial, country, different, environment, government, nowadays,
occurred, passenger, restaurant, teacher, which

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

He'd never seen a kangaroo before.
We'd like to see the menu, please.
She's already got a car.
We couldn't see any fish in the river.
They've been waiting for ages.
They're leaving in the morning.
It's a shame you can't stay.

2 . Add 8 apostrophes to the following conversation.
Sally: Im going to need some help to clean up tomorrow. Are you busy?
Tim: III be able to do a bit early on but then Ive got to go to the airport. Mums plane
lands at 12:00.
Sally:
Tim:
Sally:
Tim:

Oh, yes. Id forgotten your mum was coming. How long is she here for?
Shes only here for a few weeks.
Oh, so she wont be here for your party, then?
No. That reminds me, I havent got any petrol in my car. Can I borrow yours?

3 Complete the following text with a suitable form of journey, travel or trip.
Describe a holiday you remember well. You should say
where you went
how you travelled
what you did there
and say why you remember it so well

2 Correct the mistakes below.

I

It says, 'Two star acomodation available.
Includes breakfast. Good resturant:

It says, 'Two star

1_ ..

QOe.hQli_dgy.lIe~~Ly.LgQfLRl~ejj.Qitl9

! ...

r.Jten..·L.r.Ji¥! .. !~·.lr.Jeot.r.JJtiLg.jt,end:..fj[91:._y.Le

..Q)""",=.""" •.,,•.•..•.....r.tQQk.to

l2y:Jr.g.lrLglld ..fuenr.Je ..bQd..gOQti:eI.±r:P,nJ~l

3 Correct the spelling mistakes in the sentences below.

1 The goverment of my contry has introduced a new system to encourage recycling .
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

words without a contraction.

1 My dog won't eat tinned food.

I am not sure wich of the students has brought there camera.
Nowdays you need to be sure to read advertisments carefully.
It makes good comercial sense to invest time and money in your busines.
My geography teatcher taught us a lot about the enviroment.
The passangers had to walk throught several corridors to reach the plane.
My sister has to watch her favourite TV programme every nite.
There are many benifits in using the internet to book acomodation.
52

Vv'\1ere
..r.Je.. CClwbtfue.ferry:.J

tWi¥!

Hgnce._

--(1) ....." ....". '.'" ....." .•".JQ.LOndQn

.....", ..."...~.." •......'.'.. tQ ..get tQ. [)Qver,

..gCesuYJ.QJgh.ifQ.$Qi09-and.

my JrJend

vJQ$---

...giQ.)<;
....
fue_I'v'hQle.(l1l ........••... =..••
".." •......•
" .•...
:_.We.had..PLgDned.JQ.QPeng.MO,.QC -three.
Wee1gj2L..

"•." .•...........
,

!.. JaiOedc,Q091:So±Jy

p[Q;}ndJrgoct

__
QO MJJike.Q

..gOd..9fteL onJys3ew

and.camPiYJgJ..M

dQ.y5,.Q,)[Jeot.$were.soQking

it
wet

L~~;~:o;
~:;;;v~:~==~;;;;±G"'"t=Jce""

1-~9,ye-@~-\Q-go-~"(JI'Lfrt-

IkL"""""· "••..•.. ".. ~.J'I~:It!±.<vi"h:
53

Answer key

4 Correct the 12 vocabulary and spelling mistakes in the following text.

Unit 1

'There is far too much advertising on TV these days.' Do you agree?
Nowdo.'js, if 'jou watch
to watch

0.

0.

pr05ro.mme On 0. COmmercial TV station,

lo.r5e number of o.dvertisln5 to. It seems that

price we po.'j for free-tO-o.ir
on\'j are constant

o.nno'jln5, but the'j also mean that

consto.ntl'j told to bu'j thin5s the'j dont need or eat thln5s that
It often seems

0.5

'jou should expect

television o.dvertlse lS the

TV. But is thlS price hl5her than we realise?

advertlsin5s

Not

'jouths are bein5
aren't

throu5h chlldren are beln5 speciflco.\I'j tar5eted

health'j.

b'j the cOmmercial

industr'j because the'j mo.k..ethere

COmmercials ver'j colorful and \olld, and so even

ver'j 'jolln:J chlldren are attracted

to them.

I

1 1

thlnk.. It is impOrtant to realise

that TV 's are 0. ver'j effectlve teo.chin:J tool and we ShOllldtherefore
tak? more Care wlth how this medillm is llsed.

I

I

a
2 b
Z not the same as mine
3 1 the intern et
2 rivers
3 America
4 the number
5 the same
6 the USA
7 the greatest
8 The moon, the earth
UnitZ

lib
2 a
2 women studying science increased
3 1 children
2 men
3 people
4 it
5 was
6 classes
7 person
8 watches

5 Complete the crossword below.

I

Unit 3

lib

Across -3
4
5
9
11
12
13

advantage
the person who leads a class
our surroundings
currently
a person who travels on a bus, plane or train
a place to eat
I'm not sure
one to choose.

14 England is a
15 not the same

.

54

Down ~
1 the start
2
6
7
8

a place to stay
the opposite of never
happened
another word for commerce

10 we use this to sell a product

2 b
Z amount of garbage
3 1
very good piece of advice about...
2
the amount oftime it took us ...
3
great deal of knowledge to ...
4 The information we were
given ...was not very helpful.
5
to see so much garbage left there.
6
there was so much traffic ...
7
and do some shopping.
8 The furniture ...was quite old but it
was very comfortable.
Test 1

1 1
2

5
6
7
8
2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

advice, was
students
similarities
are
The table
The number one
the largest
The United Kingdom
the list
the United States
the Faroe Islands
the world
Sweden
Malta
the same
the internet

3 1 Is
2 Is there
3 Is there
4 Howmuch
5 Are there
6 Howmuch
7 Howmany
8 Is there
4 1 piece of advice
2 houses
3 companies
4 people
5 children
6 plastic
7 transport
8 birds
5 (1) Globalisation has had; on many (2)
parts of the world; some of (3) the most
remote; of (4) the world; connect to (5)
the internet; However, (6) there are (7)
advantages and (8) disadvantages to
this; One (9) disadvantage, for example;
local businesses (10) have to reduce;
stop young (11) people moving; more
remote (12) areas; a young person (13)
has the chance; news from around the
world (14) is available.

is
is

3 is
4 ideas
55

9 catches
10 makes

Unit 4
lIb
2 b
2 watches TV for 8 hours every day
3 1
according to what they believe.
2
government spends too much ...
3 ...in my country send their...
4 ...people travel to very distant...
5 I hope it is not...
6 The female hen lays on average .
7 Younger drivers are more likely .
8 ...doctors agree that the only...

'11

~II

11 get dressed
12 leave

2 1

5

Unit 6

lIb

Test 2
1 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

i

3 agriculture (l) is very important; our
farmers (2) grow a wide; this (3) helps
to reduce; which also (4) reduces the
price; their day (5) begins very; often
(6) work until late; weather also
(7) makes their working; many farmers
(8) feel that: We (9) need to encourage;
chains (10) take a large; The
government (11) need/needs to
address; that they (12) protect this.
4 2 two million
3 one and three quarter million
4 one and a half million
5 a million or one million
6 a million or one million
7 nine hundred thousand
8 three quarters of a million
5 1 There

Unit 5
lIb
2 a
2 Thousands of people
3 1 thousands
2 three hundred
3 three and a half billion
4 six hundred dollars
5 three quarters of a million
6 Millions of
7 six hundred
8 one and a half billion

2 b
2 there were a lot more little shops
3 1 ...countries there are many ...
2 There is no clear trend ...
3 ...and there are no factories ...
4 Fortunately, there are still a lot...
5
so there aren't any large .
6
chart, there is a large gap .
7 In 1990 there were 3 million .
8 How much work is there to do?

g

2 f
3 h
4 b

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

They
there
They
It
There
they
there

Unit 7
lIb
2 a
2 someone who/that can play the piano
3 1
problems that can occur ...
2
teacher who/that inspired ...
3
teenagers who/that do not feel...
4
those who/that do not have ...
5 People who/that work with .
6 People who/that continue .
7 I understand what you mean.
8 The chart that is on the left ...

gets up
starts
is
has
leaves
wakes
gets up
prefers
56

Unit 8
lIb
2 b
2 but lames hates it
3 1 or
2 and
3 or
4 but
5 or
6 or not
7 but
8 or
Unit 9
lIb
2 b
2 We are going to play tennis. Do you
want to join us?
3 1 does
2 are
3 -

4
5
6
7
8
Test 3
1 1
2

have
do
is
have
-

or even a television at home.
and we walked along the beach
collecting shells.
3
but I got a little lost near the end.
4
or not to go to the party.
5,
but not entry to the museum.
6
or a laptop at home.
7
but I don't like coffee.
8
and dinner.
2 C:
plenty to do, (1) but I (2) do not
want... (3) Can you suggest ...
TA: ...island (4) that is only...
TA: ...there (5) aren't any flights .
C: How much (6) does it cost .
C: (7) Does that include the ferry?
TA: ...all transport (8) and hotel...

3 1 The students that/who

struggle ...

2
grandmother that/who first. ..
3
sure what we have to write ...
4
an instrument that is used to ...
5
apologise for what I said ...
6 Venus is a planet that you can ...
7 ...creatures that live in rivers .
8 The people that/who I know .
1::1: Numbers
6 and 8 do not need a
relative pronoun.
4 1 did
2 are
3 have, have
4 is
5 is
6 Do, am
7 does
8 have
5 1 or
2 and
3 but
4 and
5 or
6 what
7 but
8 but
9 that
10 or
11 don't
12 and
Unit 10
lIb
2 a
2 can't smoke in this restaurant
3 1 ...you can find intern et facilities ...
2 We should not accept this ...
3 ...we must try our best .
4 We don't have to stop .
5 Can we solve the problem ...?
6 Do you need to take any food .
7
you really must study harder .
8
we have to leave our mobile .

57

Unit 11
1 1 a
2 b
2 over $300 buying food for the party
3 1 to buy
2 to ice skate
3 doing
4 stirring
5 to help
6 choosing
7 to study
8 having

3 I really (1) enjoy listening to music