Main Soccer Step-By-Step
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New York This edition published in 2010 by: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. 29 East 21st Street New York, NY 10010 Additional end matter copyright © 2010 by The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Jennings, Madeleine. Soccer step-by-step / Madeleine Jennings and Ian Howe. p. cm.—(Skills in motion) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-4358-3362-3 (library binding) 1. Soccer—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Howe, Ian, 1962– II.Title. GV943.J393 2009 796.334—dc22 2009012538 Manufactured in the United States of America All other content copyright © 2009 Axis Publishing Limited, London contents introduction 4 passing 12 control 24 shooting 34 getting past opponents 44 turns 54 heading the ball 66 running with the ball 76 goalkeeping 84 for more information for further reading index 92 93 94 introduction SOCCER is one of the most popular team sports in the world.The spread failed to show the key point of every movement. By studying the sequence of both the men’s and women’s game has been helped hugely by the of photographs in this book and copying the body shapes and foot amount of media coverage given to the sport, with professional games movements, you can easily enhance your skills and develop new ones. from all over the world transmitted to all households with a television. Every soccer skill seen on our televisions started somewhere: a practice field, playground, local park, or even a clumsy first attempt in the backyard. People play sports for a variety of reasons, ranging from fun, competition, a way of keeping fit, or purely as a social activity where they can meet new friends. All sports provide enjoyment, fitness, and the learning of new skills, which, in most cases, are different from the skills used in everyday life. Whatever the individual reason for taking up soccer, ; there is always room for improvement. Professional and amateur players are constantly striving to enhance their abilities on the field, and this requires a well-balanced training program. For years, ordinary coaching manuals using ordinary photographs WARMING UP Always warm up before a training session to get the blood pumping throughout your body and to help prevent injuries.Try lifting one leg at a time and lightly touching the top of a stationery ball with the soles of your shoes (left) or keeping on your toes while passing the ball between your feet (far left). introduction | 5 what is a skill? how to receive the ball at any height or angle, bring it under control, and By definition, a soccer skill is a series of interlinked moves that requires progress play, just as strikers need to learn defensive moves. So, aim to special ability or expertise. It also requires special training. There is a make learning new skills an enjoyable part of training sessions. beginning, middle, and end to each skill, and these can be practiced individually, then put together and practiced in their entirety. Learning skills should be fun, so do not work on one exercise for more than 15 minutes at a time. Always move onto a new activity before you tire of the old one. An entire skills training session should not exceed 1 hour for players under 13 years of age. This book concentrates on the following basic skills: 1. CONTROLLING 2. PASSING 3. DRIBBLING 4. TURNING 5. SHOOTING 6. HEADING 7. GOALKEEPING As the game becomes more competitive, technical, and physical, all players—regardless of their position on the field —require a broader range of skills. Defenders need to learn putting skills into practice Once you have become familiar and competent with each of the different soccer skills, you need to learn when to use them. Do not use a complicated skill when there is a simpler alternative. Before you even come into contact with the ball, you need to ask yourself questions: Am I in danger of losing the ball? Do I need to use a defensive skill? Are there teammates nearby? Can I pass the ball? Is the path clear to run with the ball? Can I aim for the goal? Deciding what skill to use when is what makes a good player. practice makes perfect With quality practice sessions, you should see improvements in your skills within a six-month period. Monitor your skills and fitness level on a simple chart (see opposite). For instance, if you are practicing turns, time yourself for one minute over 5 yards (4.5 meters) to see how many you can make. Record the result and check in a week’s time over the same distance for the same amount of time. If you do just one more, you know you are improving. START OFF SLOW Always start each section of a training skill at a walking pace. Pay specific attention to your body shape and the part of the foot (contact surface) you need to use to play the ball. As you become more confident and comfortable with the moves, you can pick up the pace. introduction | 7 KEEPING RECORDS DATE SCORE DATE / THE CHALLENGE turns turn between two cones 5 yd (4.5 m) apart 1 minute 1/1/10 10 1/8/10 11 working with a friend passing through cones 10 yd (9 m) apart 1 minute 1/1/10 20 1/18/10 22 passing DURATION / SKILL SCORE DATE / SCORE 1/15/10 12 DATE / SCORE 1/22/10 11 heading shooting dribbling If you are not improving at a particular skill, don’t worry. Just go back over clothing (see pp. 8–9).You should not practice if conditions are wet, or if it section by section, trying to identify the parts of the skill that you need you are not feeling well or are tired or injured. Always wait until you have to improve on, and work on those again. Remember always to set yourself fully recovered; otherwise, you may cause a long-term repetitive injury. achievable targets—it goes hand in hand with skills improvements. ball trajectories play safe Experiment with the ball and you will find that you can create different Overtraining is just as bad as not training enough. Many young soccer movements by striking the ball at different angles with different parts of players suffer burnout by playing in too many games, accompanied by the foot. For example, striking the right side of the ball with the inside of excessive training over a short period. You should always rest between your right foot will bend the ball left. Striking the left side of the ball with games and training sessions to achieve your maximum level of performance. the outside of your right foot will bend the ball right. And striking the ball Other things to bear in mind include wearing the appropriate protective underneath will send it spiraling up. equipment footwear PLAYING ON CONCRETE Wearing the appropriate training shoes is very important when practicing good tread. If it has been raining, the surface may be slippery, so always soccer skills. Different surfaces and weather conditions call for different check before you start to practice or play a game. Do not practice if kinds of footwear. Choosing the right one will help you maximize your puddles are still visible on concrete surfaces. Wear sneakers that have a flat surface and skills and avoid any injuries. PLAYING ON SOFT GROUND Choose soccer footwear for comfort and safety, not for color or any other style aspect. Make sure you wear the correct size—wearing ones that don’t fit can cause long-term injuries. A basic pair of sneakers with flat surfaces and a good tread should be worn on concrete and indoor surfaces. Wear soccer cleats with changeable cleats. Keep an eye out for uneven wear of cleats and immediately replace any that become sharp on an edge. A new blade system of shoes can also be worn on soft ground. Always keep footwear clean in between games because sloppiness can reflect on your performance. AstroTurf cleats are good to wear when playing on hard ground. introduction | 9 PLAYING ON GRASS In the summer when playing fields become For obvious safety reasons, never use sharp or hard, wear sturdy cleats. fragile objects as markers. the ball goalkeeper’s outfit Always make sure the ball you choose is not too big or heavy for In addition to shin pads, goalkeepers also have the players. Below is a recommended guideline. the option of wearing shirts and shorts with built-in padding. This helps to soften the impact 9 YEARS OF AGE 9 TO 14 YEARS OF AGE OVER 14 YEARS OF AGE UNDER SIZE SIZE SIZE 3 4 5 when they dive toward a ball. Goalkeeping gloves come in many different varieties and vary hugely in price. Choose a pair that fit well and tighten shin pads around the wrist, which prevents them These should be worn during all games and practices whenever from falling off. They should have good grip there is contact between two players. It is illegal to play in games on the palms where they come into without shin pads, and players will be disqualified for failure to do contact with the ball. Some gloves now so. Some pads slip down behind the sock, but others with ankle have reinforced fingers for added protectors need to be put on before socks. Choose your pads protection, but they are much wisely for comfort and maximum protection. more expensive than normal ones. markers You can buy simple markers from sports retailers, but any suitable object can be used to set up working grids for training. Shin pads are an essential part of your soccer equipment. stretching Always warm up your muscles with 10 minutes of stretching before a ● Improves coordination and increases range of motion. training session. Equally important is a cooling-down stretch session once ● Prevents muscle strains (a strong, prestretched muscle resists stress better than a strong, unstretched muscle) and repetitive injuries. you have finished. Stretching has the following benefits. It: ● ● Prepares the body for activity, signaling to your brain that your muscles ● Helps to create body awareness. are about to be used. ● Promotes circulation. Reduces muscle tension by making the body more relaxed. Twisting from side to side with your feet planted on the ground will stretch your hips and lower back. Bending forward with your weight on your front leg will stretch your calf muscles. Leaning forward to touch your toes will stretch your hamstring muscles. Practice with a partner by standing back to back and passing the ball. This will stretch your hips. introduction | 11 go with the flow Flowmotion is a revolutionary photographic coaching system. In a series improve and learn new skills in your own time. The captions along the of detailed photographs, it shows every movement and body shape used bottom of the images provide additional information to help you perform in basic soccer skills and not just the selected highlights. This enables the skills confidently. Below this, another layer of information includes basic readers to teach themselves with far more accuracy, without the presence instructions and symbols indicating when to move forward. On pages 78, of a coach. Just by following the step-by-step Flowmotion pages, you can 79, 82, and 83, the blue marker represents the player’s opponent. dive | 91 goalkeeping dive Sometimes you do not have time to get your whole body in front of the ball, so you will need to dive toward it. Stand about 1 yard (0.9 m) in front of the goal line with your weight evenly distributed on both feet and your hands by your waist. Try to anticipate which way the shot is going before you commit to one side. Once you have committed yourself to a side, aim to get your hands on the ball as soon as possible. Drive off the opposite foot to your intended direction and propel your whole body across the goal. drive off your foot Two vertical lines indicate a pause for holding and checking your position in preparation for your next move. Keep your eyes on the ball all the time you are reaching for the ball. Your hands should remain in the basic “W” shape throughout the dive. Stretch your body as far as you can to reach for the ball. Keep your eyes open and fixed on the ball. extend to your maximum Aim to get both hands firmly on the ball. Keep your head as upright as possible; this will help to prevent you from hitting your head on the ground. Gather the ball into your body as quickly as possible Remember to roll forward onto the ball. Don’t lie back—you could roll over your own goal line by accident. Use your whole body to protect the ball from nearby opponents. When you are firmly in possession, get up and decide on your next play. roll forward protect the ball The triangle indicates continued movement in the sequence. passing passing control and side foot pass The aim of this maneuver is to receive the ball from another player, bring it under control, then pass it on again. The inside of your foot offers the widest surface to make contact with the ball, so pass with this part because it will give you more accuracy. Note that this player is left-footed. ● Keep a close eye on the ball as it ● Start to swing your arms as you ● You may need to sidestep twice comes toward you. Keep your arms run to the right side of the ball. Then before you are in the correct position. out to your sides, away from your sidestep to the left of it. Getting your Stay on your toes all the while, which body, for good balance. body to the line of the ball is crucial. will help you keep your balance. approach sidestep control and side foot pass | 15 ● Once you are in the right position, ● When you have got the ball under ● Use your arms to give your body ● Aim to pass the ball back in the plant your leg firmly to a stop; then control, step back with your left leg to the momentum it needs to carry direction it came from with your left turn your left leg out so you stop the get ready for the outward pass. through with the pass. foot. Practice this skill with both feet, ball with your inside left foot. so you can improve on your least favorite foot. make contact follow through passing control and outside foot pass This is similar to the side foot pass, but instead of using the inside of your foot to pass the ball, you need to use the outside part of your foot. When practicing with a partner, try to keep the ball low to make control easier. ● Face sideways as you start your run ● Your touch on the ball should place ● Put your right foot all the way toward the oncoming ball. Just before it in front of you. You will now be able down; then take a step forward with you reach it, sidestep to your left to to step into the next part of the pass your left foot. get in line with the ball. and the ball will not be stuck underneath your feet. approach make contact control and outside foot pass | 17 ● Aim to strike the ball with your ● As you lean forward, point your ● This type of pass should create ● Try to maintain your composure, right foot, which means you need to foot slightly to the left of the ball. some spin on the ball, which will make and keep your upper body loose and bring your leg across your body. Once you have struck the ball with it curve from left to right. relaxed as you follow through with the outside of your foot, look up the kick. toward your target. kick follow through passing control and change feet To avoid an oncoming defender, you need to be able to change the direction of the ball’s play. To do this, practice receiving the ball with one foot, then passing it on with the other. Changing feet becomes very important once you start dribbling the ball. ● Try to get up on your toes as you ● Once the ball is in easy reach, plant ● Bring the ball under control; then step up to the oncoming ball. Don’t your right foot down and stretch out take your left leg forward, placing the take your eye off the ball. As the ball with your left leg. Turn your left toes foot down slightly across your body. approaches, decide which foot you out to catch the ball on the inside of want to control it with to take it in your left foot. the direction you want. receive the ball control and change feet | 19 ● To change direction, turn your ● Pick up your right leg and turn the ● Look toward your pass and then ● Don’t forget to use your upper shoulders to the right. Keep your eye toes out so you can kick the ball with back to the ball as you move to kick it. body as you follow through with the on the ball as you do so. the inside of your right foot. Strike the ball with the side of your kick as smoothly as possible. foot for accuracy. change direction follow through passing lofted pass Getting height on a stationary ball is useful when you need to pass it into attacking areas, with the aim of scoring a header into the goal. It’s also good for long-distance passing. ● When striking a dead (motionless) ● Gauge the distance between ● Once you are close enough, look ball, look at your intended target; then yourself and the ball as you run back down as you address the ball. begin to approach the ball. toward it. Swing your arms to give you Aim to get your non-kicking foot some momentum and balance. beside the ball. look at target approach target lofted pass | 21 ● As you approach the ball, take your ● Keep your eye on the ball as you ● Lean back with your upper body to ● Follow through by bending your left right leg back and prepare to make use the instep of your right foot to give your kick more power and the knee as you raise your right foot and the loft kick. Begin to lean back. strike the underside of the ball. ball more loft. Lift your arms up and leg as high as possible. This will help out to your sides to help with balance. give the ball height. kick the ball follow through passing distance throwing in To achieve a long-distance throw, hold the ball high above your head, keeping your elbows straight. This will allow you to harness the power in your shoulders and throw the ball a greater distance. Try to make the throw a continous, smooth action. Keep your feet ● Use both hands to hold the ball ● Take a step forward toward the ● Take another step in with your right firmly out in front of you. Look toward throwing-in line with your left leg as leg; then brace your arms and bring your intended target. you raise the ball above your head. them as far back as possible behind behind the line and both hands on the ball. your head to create a catapult effect. look at your target approach the line distance throwing in | 23 ● When you bring your arms forward ● Use your back foot to give your ● Follow through by bending forward ● The strength and distance of the again, the whole of the back and throw added power. Release the ball with your upper body and bringing throw will be determined by the run upper body should create an elastic when it is at head height. your arms down to your side. Make up and the arch of your back. Keep sure both feet are still behind the line. both feet on the ground. effect to power the ball as it uncoils and straightens. release the ball control control chest control To bring a high, incoming ball under control, use your chest. Rather than presenting a completely rigid surface to the ball, let your body give a bit as the ball makes contact. This way you’ll have greater control over the ball when it drops down to your feet. ● As you follow the incoming ball ● Lean back, keep your arms clear of ● Ease your chest back when the ball with your eyes, keep your body alert the ball, and stick out your chest in makes contact. This will help to by bending your knees and elbows. preparation for the arrival of the ball. cushion the ball and give you greater control. The ball should drop to the ground in front of you. make contact chest control | 27 ● Bring your left foot forward for ● Keep your eyes on the ball as you ● Use the right side of your foot to ● Raise your right leg high, and lean stability as you pick up your right foot lean forward and bring your right leg pass the ball on. This is the widest back slightly to follow through with in preparation for the kick. back. Make sure your arms stay out to surface you can hit the ball with, so it the pass-through. Keep your rhythm the side, as this will help with balance. will make your pass more accurate. smooth as you do so. gain control kick follow through control head control Many beginners avoid heading the ball because they are worried it will hurt. However, if you do the move properly, using the correct part of your head, it won’t. The key is to absorb the energy of the ball by easing back a fraction when the ball makes contact. Then, when the ball drops down to the ground, it won’t bounce away. Only practice heading balls for short periods of time. ● Once you have moved into ● As the ball comes toward you, lean position to receive the ball, step back back. Keep your eyes open and onto your right foot. Keep your focused on the ball. elbows bent with your hands up by your chest. lean back head control | 29 ● Aim to make contact with your ● Direct the ball to your side by ● Use your right foot to get the ball ● Place your left foot alongside the forehead. As the ball arrives, lean moving your head down toward your under control; then prepare to pass the ball, pointing in the direction of the farther back so your forehead absorbs feet. Keep your eyes fixed on the ball. ball with the inside of your right foot. kick. Swing back your right leg so you the energy of the ball through the can bring the inside of your right foot neck muscles. in contact with the ball. Follow through make contact prepare to pass with a smooth, flowing motion. follow through control thigh control The key to receiving the ball on your thigh is to keep your entire body supple and relaxed. When the ball comes into contact with your thigh, draw the leg away slightly so you soften its impact. Do not make the mistake of hitting the ball with your knee, as this will ● Stand with your feet hip width ● Keep your eye on the ball as you ● By the time the ball makes contact, apart and knees slightly bent in follow its path down toward you. your thigh should be raised at a readiness for the oncoming ball. Begin to lift up your right knee. 45-degree angle to your body. cause it to bounce away, out of control. track the ball raise knee make contact thigh control | 31 ● Once the ball makes contact, lower ● As you bring the ball under your ● Your left foot should be positioned ● Kick the ball with the inside of your your thigh slightly to cushion the control, step in and turn toward your alongside the ball, pointing in the right foot. Follow through by leaning impact. Use your thigh to guide the ball left. Lean forward and bring your right direction you are aiming toward. back and looking up. down in front of you and to your left. leg back as you prepare to pass. step in pass the ball control side foot control To gain control of a high, lofted pass, you will most likely need to use both feet to settle the ball down onto the ground. Most players prefer to use one foot more than the other, but you should try to develop the weaker foot because it will be useful when ● As you prepare for the oncoming ● As the ball comes toward you, step ● Raise your right knee and turn your ball, make sure your body is relaxed forward onto your left foot. Hold your toes out so the inside of your right and you are up on your toes. arms out to your sides to give you foot faces toward the ball. Step on the greater balance. ball to control it. you are learning to dribble the ball. stop the ball side foot control | 33 ● The ball will most likely bounce a ● Step up to the ball with your left ● As you prepare to kick, bring your ● Focus on the ball as you use the bit toward your left. Transfer your foot, ready to kick with your right. Your right shoulder and leg back. This will inside of your right foot to kick it. weight from left to right so you can left foot should be beside the ball, help give you a good swing so you can Hold your arms out wide as you pick up your left foot and use it to with your toes pointing in the get some height on the ball. follow through with the kick. bring the ball back to the center, direction of your aim. between your feet. center the ball follow through shooting shooting dead ball shoot This technique is good for producing an accurate and powerful shot for a target a long distance away. ● You’ll need to keep your eye on ● Keep your gaze on the ball as you ● Step up with your left leg so your the ball once you begin the shot, so begin to step up to it. Swing your left foot lies right up alongside, or start by fixing a target in your mind’s arms to give you momentum. even slightly in front of, the ball. eye. fix target position non-kicking foot dead ball shoot | 37 ● As you bring your right foot in to ● Try to strike the ball with the front ● To create curl and swerve, ● Follow through with the kick by make the kick, lean slightly over to the of your boot so your laces make approach the ball from right to left, bringing your foot right up to waist left and trail your right shoulder. This contact with the ball. rather than straight on. Striking height. Look up and swing with your will give you more room to swing and different sections of the ball will arms to give the kick more therefore more power behind the ball. produce different flight movements. momentum. For more power, jump off make contact your left, non-kicking foot. follow through shooting left side volley The volley is the most powerful way to kick the ball, and requires not only strength but also precision, timing, and balance. It’s a great ball skill to have, especially if you need to shoot a goal with the ball approaching at waist height. This sequence shows a left-footed player, but you should always practice with your weaker side, as ● As the ball approaches, keep your ● If you use your left foot to kick the ● Pivot on the ball of your right foot eyes firmly fixed on it. You need to ball, lean away with your right as you take take the shot with your strike across the direction of the shoulder as you step up for the shot. left. Keep your left arm out to provide oncoming ball. This will allow your striking foot to good balance. swing across your body at knee height. well as your preferred side. watch the ball approach kick left side volley | 39 ● As you strike the ball with the ● You can practice this skill with a ● If you are throwing the ball in, keep instep (or laces), your whole body partner, who throws a ball toward both feet firmly planted on the should swing across to the right to you. Remember to swap positions ground, bend your knees, and hold the give the ball its momentum. To after a couple of tries. ball with both hands. complete the follow-through, step all the way around onto your left foot. follow through shooting straight volley A straight volley involves kicking the ball back in the same direction as it arrived. It is often used when the ball has been cleared by a goalie or defender. Do not lean back; this will cause the ball to rise too high. ● Watch the ball as it comes in your ● As you step up to the ball, put your ● Keep your eyes fixed on the ball as direction. You need to get well behind arms out to the sides to help you you swing your right arm back and the ball, so adjust your position keep your balance. raise your right knee up high. You accordingly. should hit the ball with the front of your foot so that your laces make approach contact with it. straight volley | 41 ● Keep the angle of your kicking foot ● If you are throwing the ball in, keep ● You can also throw the ball slight so you create a smooth, straight both feet firmly planted on the underarm to your partner. Do not path with the ball. Follow through by ground, bend your knees, and hold the make the throw too hard or fast. raising your kicking leg high and then ball with both hands. stepping forward onto it. follow through shooting shot from side delivery Receiving the ball from a sideon pass and then shooting with just one touch requires a lot of skill. The key is timing your steps and the shot with the arrival of the ball. It may seem tricky, but with practice, it is definitely achievable. Note that this player is left-footed. ● Timing is crucial for this maneuver, ● As the ball comes close, step up ● Allow the ball to come across your so you need to watch the ball closely with your non-kicking leg (in this case, right foot before it comes into contact as it comes all the way into your feet. your right leg). with your left foot. approach If you are right-footed, simply switch the feet instructions. shot from side delivery | 43 ● Keep your eyes firmly on the ball, ● Bring your right shoulder forward ● Aim to strike the ball slightly across ● As you steady yourself, look up to your arms out to the sides, and and your left arm back as you put your body. Once you have kicked the see if the ball has reached its intended elbows behind you as you aim to some momentum into the kick. ball, follow through by stepping target. This shot is difficult to achieve forward onto your left foot. at first, but gets easier with practice. shoot with one touch. make contact getting past opponents getting step over/halfpast scissorsopponents This technique allows you to bypass your defender by putting him or her off balance. You need to have good ball control and be able to dribble quickly from side to side. Performing this at the right distance from the opponent is crucial: too far away and it will ● Crouch over the ball, keeping your ● When you are about 1 to 11⁄2 yards ● Get down low and bend your left arms slightly out to the sides to (0.9-1.4 m) in front of the defender, knee as you make an exaggerated protect the ball from other defenders. begin the move. If you are too close, move toward your left. be ineffective; too close and you will be tackled; and if you are too far, the move will not be effective. you will get tackled. protect the ball fake to left step over/half scissors | 47 ● To fake the leftward movement, ● Use the toes of your right foot ● By doing this, you will hopefully ● Once you have passed the you need to step over the ball, rather to push the ball to the right of the have thrown the defender off defender, accelerate away and make a than kick it, and quickly power to the defender; then follow on toward your balance. Before he or she can regain pass or shoot at the goal. other side. right side. equilibrium, you can move forward with the ball. move to the right bypass defender pass the ball on getting shoulder droppast opponents The aim of this maneuver is to throw your opponent off balance. By dipping your shoulder, you are encouraging him or her to lean over one way. You, however, change direction by moving the ball with the outside of your foot. This is a left-footed sequence. ● Keep your eye on the path in front ● Alternate your focus between the ● When you are about 1 yard (0.9 m) of you as you nudge the ball forward ball and the defender as you continue away from your opponent, begin the with your left foot. dribbling the ball forward, gathering move by stepping onto your right foot. speed. edge forward step onto right foot shoulder drop | 49 ● As you shift your body weight onto ● When your opponent moves to ● As you nudge the ball to the left, ● You should now be past your your right leg, dip your right shoulder. the right, you should quickly change your opponent will be struggling to opponent, in full possession and This will encourage your opponent to direction to the left. regain his or her balance. control of the ball. Accelerate away also lean to the right in an attempt to and pass or shoot at the goal. tackle you. The more exagerated the dip, the more effective you will be. move toward the right change direction getting roll over past opponents This is another way of outwitting your opponent and getting the ball past him or her. It involves moving the ball quickly from side to side, creating sudden changes of direction to your path. ● Keep your eye on the ball and your ● Continue focusing on the ball as ● Lean toward your left side and arms out to your sides, which will help you use the outside of your right foot reach out with your right foot so it is you maintain your balance. to edge the ball slowly forward. resting on the ball’s outer surface. move forward reach out to far side of ball roll over | 51 ● Continue leaning to your left as you ● This sudden rolling moving will ● Once you have rolled the ball to ● You should be clear of any defense roll your foot over the ball. You should fool your opponent, who has moved your left, lean forward as you play the now and able to play the ball to the roll the ball with the base of your foot to your left in the expectation that ball with your left foot. left of your previous defender and so it moves from right to left. you will play the ball on this side. accelerate away. use your left foot getting step over past opponents Another way of beating a player is to transfer your body weight from left to right (or vice versa) and step over the ball. This gives the illusion that you are going to play the ball with one foot, but you actually step over the ball and use your other foot instead. ● Push the ball forward with your ● Keep your eye on the ball, looking ● Move your left leg toward the ball right foot. Crouch over the ball as you up every now and then to check your as if you are intending to kick it with stay low to the ground. opponent’s position on the field. your left foot. Instead, take your left leg over the ball. stay low fool your opponent step over | 53 ● Once your left foot is over the ball ● With the defender fooled and off ● Play the ball away from the ● Keep your eyes firmly fixed on the and firmly planted on the ground, balance, you are now free to take the defender with your right foot. Stay low ball as you knock the ball into a good transfer your body weight and play the ball off and around the defender. to the ground. stride pattern. ball with your right foot. pass the defender turns turns stop turn This is the best turn to use when you have a defender running alongside you and you want to shake him or her off by changing your direction suddenly. ● Keep your eyes on the ball as you ● As your opponent draws close to ● Put your leading right foot on top dribble it forward, maintaining close you, keep him or her guessing as to of the ball to stop it suddenly. Use control over it. Look up every few what you are planning to do. your momentum to step over the strides to check your position. dribble forward stationary ball. stop the ball stop turn | 57 ● Plant your right foot in front of the ● You should be turning your body ● Regain your balance as you push off ● As you accelerate in the opposite ball, then pivot on it as you bring your so your back is facing toward your the left foot, and use the right foot to direction, your opponent will, left leg around in a clockwise opponent. Lean back in toward him dribble the ball forward. hopefully, still be moving in the original direction. or her. turn around direction of play. dribble in the opposite direction turns drag turn This maneuver is similar to the stop turn, but has the added advantage of pushing the ball back in the opposite direction before you turn around, giving you a head start. ● As you dribble the ball forward, ● Stay firmly focused on the ball as ● When you have touched the ball take your arms out to your sides to you continue nudging it forward. Look forward with your left foot, bring the help you maintain your balance. up every now and then to check your right foot over the ball. position. Try to keep the defender guessing as to what your next move move forward will be. step over the ball drag turn | 59 ● Make contact with the ball by ● Your left foot should be firmly ● Put the right foot back down onto ● Once you are facing in the placing your right foot on the ball. planted on the ground as you lean the ground, then pivot on the ball of opposite direction, drive off the left Make sure the heel of your right foot forward, and drag the ball back with your right foot as you turn around in a foot to accelerate and follow the ball. is touching its surface. the sole of your foot, working from clockwise direction. heel to toe. drag back begin to turn around turns cruyff turn This turn relies on you fooling your defender into thinking you are going forward when, in fact, you are making a quick about-face maneuver in the opposite direction. ● Keep your focus on the ball and ● Crouch down low, making sure ● Gather speed while keeping control your arms out to your sides as you your shoulders are well over the ball over the ball. About 1 yard (0.9 m) in dribble the ball forward. to protect it from any tackles. front of your opponent, touch the ball forward with your left foot and pretend to kick the ball with your right. dribble forward cruyff turn | 61 ● Instead of kicking the ball, use the ● Lean toward your left as you pull. ● Swivel on your left foot as you turn ● Push off with your left foot as toes to hook the ball and pull it Your right leg pulls the ball in toward your shoulders and then your whole you lean forward over the ball and around in the opposite direction. your left side. body counterclockwise to the left. accelerate in the opposite direction. hook the ball turn around turns outside hook This turn is used when you need to make a direction change because there is an opposing player tracking you on your inside. It involves taking the ball back in the opposite direction by keeping your body between the ball and the opponent. ● As you nudge the ball forward, ● Once you have dribbled the ball ● Keeping your eyes on the ball, place keep your arms out toward your sides with your right foot, place the right your left foot on the left side of the and your gaze firmly on the ball. foot down behind the ball. ball; then start to bring your right foot around to the left of the ball. move forward outside hook | 63 ● Transfer your weight onto your left ● Use the outside of your right foot ● Once you have flicked the ball back, ● Lean forward and drive off the left leg as you lean over to your left side to hook behind the ball, and flick it in follow through by pivoting on the left foot as you propel yourself in the to help you maneuver your foot the opposite direction. foot and stepping your right foot other direction. Use your arms to help around in a clockwise direction. you gain some momentum and around the ball. accelerate away. flick the ball step around move in the other direction turns inside hook This turn should be used when you need to change direction because an opponent is on your outside. It involves taking the ball in the opposite direction by keeping your body between the ball and your opponent. ● Keep your eyes fixed on the ball ● Dip your left shoulder slightly as ● Then, place your right foot behind and your hands out to your sides as you lean to the left, and dribble the and to the right of the ball. Keep your you nudge the ball forward. ball with your right foot. eyes fixed on the ball. move forward lean to the left inside hook | 65 ● Place the left foot beside the ball ● Lean toward your left as you turn ● Use the inside of your right foot to ● Look up to check whether your and to the right. This move should your body in a counterclockwise hook the ball, and kick it back in the path is clear, and accelerate off your happen quickly so it comes as a direction around the ball. opposite direction to its original path. left foot as you move back in the surprise to your opponent. opposite direction. hook the ball heading the ball heading power header the ball To get power behind a header, you need to use the whole of your upper body, particularly your neck muscles. Don’t forget to arch your back and thrust your shoulders forward as you reach for the ball. ● Rock forward onto your left foot a ● As the ball approaches, judge its ● Keep your eyes open and begin to couple of times as you build up distance so you can time your rocking arch your body forward to meet the momentum for the header. with its arrival. You are aiming to strike ball. Aim your forehead at the middle the ball with your forehead. of the ball. gather momentum keep your eyes open power header | 69 ● Once the ball makes contact with ● Take turns throwing the ball and ● Throwing the ball underarm will your forehead, arch your back and use heading it. Do not do more than provide a more accurate aim. Make the whole of your upper body to 20 headers at one time. sure you bend your knees and throw power it forward. Aim the ball toward the ball with both hands. your partner’s chest. make contact throw the ball in heading defensive header the ball These are used to defend corners and free kicks by aiming to head the ball away in a direction opposite to which it arrived. Heading the bottom of the ball gives height to defensive clearance. ● To succeed with a defensive header, ● To prepare for the header, rock ● Judge your timing so you power up it’s important to attack the ball to get back and forth, bending down at your to the ball just as it is coming toward maximum distance on your header. knees so they act as a launch pad. you. Aim to hit the bottom of the ball with your forehead. gather momentum judge the timing defensive header | 71 ● As you make contact, extend your ● Aim to get some height on the ball ● The thrower should always be neck away from your shoulders to by looping it to your partner so he or facing toward the sun. Keep your send the ball far and high. she can catch it above his or her head. knees bent and use both hands to throw the ball. make contact throw the ball in heading downward header the ball The downward header is a good technique to use when you are heading for the goal. ● Keep your eyes fixed on the ball as ● Rock back onto your right foot to ● Use your arms for leverage as you it comes toward you. You need to create a launch pad for your header. launch yourself forward. Aim to get time your move to reach the ball at You can do this a few times to your forehead above the ball. Plant just the right time. develop greater momentum. both feet firmly on the ground to provide a solid base from which to rock back make your header. downward header | 73 ● Tilt yourself forward to get above ● Add some power to the header by ● If you stand with your feet apart, the ball; then tilt your head down so following through with the upper you can ask your partner to aim the your forehead connects to the top of body. Tilt your head down so the ball header between your feet. the ball. heads toward the ground. make contact follow through heading jumping headerthe ball When competing for an oncoming high ball, you will need to leap up high to get your head to the ball first. Try to get a good running start, and use your whole body— bending your knees and elbows, and arching your upper back—to get the height ● Keep your eyes on the ball as you ● Bend your elbows to use your arms ● Bring your head back as you aim to take a run up toward it. Bend your for extra leverage as you jump up strike the ball with your forehead. knees as you run toward it. toward the ball. Keep your eyes open the whole time. you require. jump up strike the ball jumping header | 75 ● To give your header some power, ● If you stand farther back than usual, ● Throw the ball underarm to get arch your back when you make you will be able to throw the ball more accuracy. Bend your knees and contact with the ball. Make sure to higher than normal. This will allow your use both hands. bend your knees to cushion your partner to run up for the header. return to the ground. follow through running with the ball running running short distances with the with the ball ball Dribbling the ball short distances is an important skill to master. You need to keep your eyes on the ball, but at the same time, be aware of your surrounding defenders and the route you aim to take. ● Keep your body crouched low over ● Begin to move the ball forward by ● Next, use the inside of your foot to the ball, with your arms out to the tapping it firmly with the outside of propel the ball farther forward and sides. Focus on the ball. your foot. keep it on track. stay low move the ball forward running short distances with the ball | 79 ● Keep your eyes firmly fixed on the ● Try to keep the ball no more than ● As you continue to tap the ball ● When you become more confident ball, but try to maintain an awareness 12–16 inches (0.3–0.4 m) away from with the inside and outside of both at dribbling the ball, quicken your of who and what is around you. you. Any farther and you may quickly feet, dip your shoulders and bend your pace. As you build up speed, you can lose control over it. knees to help you shift your weight lift your head up to see around you. from side to side. develop pace shift your weight running running long distances with the with the ball ball Knowing when to run with the ball and when to pass it is what makes a good soccer player. Running a long distance requires only a few touches of the ball. In addition to pace, you will need good control of the ball. Look up occasionally to avoid tackles and assess the situation. ● Start by focusing your eyes firmly ● Push the ball forward a good ● Make sure your first touch of the on the ball in front of you. Try to keep distance, using either the inside or ball is a good one because this will your shoulders over the ball and your outside of your foot, depending on create the stride pattern for the arms out to your sides to protect it your intended path. next touch. from defenders. protect the ball touch the ball running long distances with the ball | 81 ● Accelerate your pace. Bend your ● Each touch of the ball should push ● As you touch the ball forward, ● Do not push the ball too far elbows and swing your arms back and it a good distance to maintain your make sure you look up so you can forward, or you will run the risk of forth to create momentum. stride pattern. think about your final pass. losing control over it. accelerate shift weight running dribbling with both withfeet the ball Most players have a favorite foot with which they prefer to play the ball. But don’t neglect developing your weaker foot. Although it is difficult, being able to use both feet is a very useful skill when it comes to warding off defenders while running with the ball. ● Crouch down low to the ground ● Keeping your body over the ball, ● As you shift from side to side, dip with your shoulders over the ball. step in with your left foot, and use the your shoulders. This will help you Start by tapping the ball forward with outside part to move the ball along. transfer your body weight. your outside right foot. crouch down low use left foot shift your weight dribbling with both feet | 83 ● Step in with your right foot again ● Keep your arms out by your sides ● Now use the outside of your left ● To maintain control over the ball, and use the outside part of the foot and bent at the elbows to help you foot again to move the ball. The ball keep your knees bent and your eye to move the ball. with your balance. should be moving forward in a shallow firmly focused on the ball. zigzag manner. use right foot maintain balance goalkeeping goalkeeping basic catch Standing between the posts in the line of fire is not everyone’s idea of fun. But goalkeeping is vital for the game and requires not only bravery, but also agility, sound judgment, and good kicking skills. You should aim to always keep up on your toes and be aware of your position in your goalkeeping area—don’t remain on your goal line. Always wear the necessary goalkeeping equipment for games, and try to wear gloves during practice. ● Stand about 1 yard (0.9 m) away ● As the ball comes close, step from the goal line. Bend your knees toward it. Keep your eyes firmly fixed and keep your weight evenly distributed on the ball as you reach up with both over the feet. Bend your elbows and hands to catch it. keep your hands out in front of you. stand steady reach up basic catch | 87 ● Spread your palms wide so your ● Continue to cradle the ball tightly ● Keep the ball close to you as you ● Once you have looked both ways hands make a “W” shape. Once you with both hands as you bring it in step out and turn your head, first to and found a suitable space, you can make contact with the ball, tighten toward your chest. the left and then to the right, as you either kick the ball or throw it out to prepare to pass the ball. one of your players. your grip so you are holding it firmly. grip the ball look both ways goalkeeping catch above head For a high incoming ball, you will need to adjust your position so you can leap up into the air with your arms outstretched above you. ● Keep your body supple as you ● Once the ball is in the air, step ● Reach up with both your hands, prepare yourself for the shot. Bend forward well away from the goal line. making sure the palms are spread your knees and elbows, and maintain You don’t want to stumble back with wide apart and are facing the ball. your focus on the ball. the ball and accidentally cross it. step forward raise arms catch above head | 89 ● Step onto your toes as you stretch ● Once you have caught the ball, ● With the ball safely in your ● Take your right shoulder back and your body high into the air. You should draw it in quickly toward your chest possession, look around for bring your left one forward as you be aiming to catch the ball at its with both hands. opportunities to pass the ball. prepare to throw the ball out. highest point. draw the ball into your chest goalkeeping dive Sometimes you do not have time to get your whole body in front of the ball, so you will need to dive toward it. ● Stand about 1 yard (0.9 m) in front ● Try to anticipate which way the ● Once you have committed yourself ● Keep your eyes on the ball all the of the goal line with your weight shot is going before you commit to to a side, aim to get your hands on the time you are reaching for the ball. Your evenly distributed on both feet and one side. ball as soon as possible. Drive off the hands should remain in the basic “W” opposite foot to your intended shape throughout the dive. your hands by your waist. direction and propel your whole body across the goal. drive off your foot dive | 91 ● Stretch your body as far as you can ● Aim to get both hands firmly on ● Gather the ball into your body as ● Use your whole body to protect to reach for the ball. Keep your eyes the ball. Keep your head as upright as quickly as possible. Remember to roll the ball from nearby opponents. When open and fixed on the ball. possible; this will help to prevent you forward onto the ball. Don’t lie back— you are firmly in possession, get up from hitting your head on the ground. you could roll over your own goal line and decide on your next play. by accident. extend to your maximum roll forward protect the ball for for more more information information American Youth Soccer Organization (AYSO) AYSO National Support & Training Center 12501 South Isis Avenue Hawthorne, CA 90250 (800) 872-2976 Web site: http://soccer.org/home.aspx The AYSO was established in the Los Angeles area in 1964 with nine teams. Today, it has more than 50,000 teams and more than 650,000 players. The AYSO has been the leader in establishing groundbreaking youth soccer programs in the United States. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) FIFA-Strasse 20 P.O. Box 8044 Zurich, Switzerland Web site: http://www.fifa.com/index.html FIFA is an association governed by Swiss law founded in 1904 and based in Zurich. It has 208 member associations and its goal, enshrined in its statutes, is the constant improvement of football (what is known in North America as soccer). Major League Soccer (MLS) 420 5th Avenue, 7th Floor New York, NY 10018 (877) 557-3774 Web site: http://www.mlsnet.com Major League Soccer is the top-flight professional soccer league in the United States. It was founded in 1996, after the country hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup. Web Sites Due to the changing nature of Internet links, Rosen Publishing has developed an online list of Web sites related to the subject of this book. This site is updated regularly. Please use this link to access this list: http://www.rosenlinks.com/sim/socc for further for further reading reading Buckley, James. Pelé. New York, NY: DK Children, 2007. Cline-Rasome, Lesa. Young Pelé. New York, NY: Schwartz & Wade, 2007. Crisfield, Deborah W. The Everything Kids’ Soccer Book: Rules, Techniques, and More About Your Favorite Sport! (Everything Kids). Avon, MA: Adams Media, 2009. Dorrance, Anson, and Gloria Averbuch. The Vision of a Champion: Advice and Inspiration from the World’s Most Successful Women’s Soccer Coach. Chelsea, MI: Huron River Press, 2005. Garland, Jim. Youth Soccer Drills: 84 Drills for Beginning and Intermediate Players. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 2003. Gifford, Clive. The Kingfisher Soccer Encyclopedia. Boston, MA: Kingfisher, 2006. Gifford, Clive. Soccer: The Ultimate Guide to the Beautiful Game. Boston, MA: Kingfisher, 2004. Goldblatt, David. The Ball Is Round: A Global History of Soccer. New York, NY: Riverhead, 2008. Hamm, Mia. Go for the Goal: A Champion’s Guide to Winning in Soccer and Life. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks, 2000. Hornby, Hugh. Soccer. New York, NY: DK Children, 2008. Hunt, Chris, ed. The Complete Book of Soccer. New York, NY: Firefly, 2008. Koger, Robert. 101 Great Youth Soccer Drills. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Pelé and Robert L. Fish. My Life and the Beautiful Game: The Autobiography of Soccer’s Greatest Star. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, 2007. Radnedge, Keir. The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Soccer. London, England: Carlton Books, 2002. Shea, Therese. Soccer Stars. New York, NY: Children’s Press, 2007. U.S. Soccer Federation and Michael Lewis. Soccer for Dummies. New York, NY: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2000. index index A B age guidelines 5, 9 arm movements chest control 26–27 control and side foot pass 14–17 cruyff turn 60–61 dead ball shoot 36–37 drag turn 58–59 dribbling with both feet 82–83 head control 28–29 headers: defensive 70–71 downward 72–73 jumping 74–75 power 68–69 left side volley 38–39 lofted pass 16–17 outside hook 62–63 roll over 50–51 running: long distances with ball 80–81 short distances with ball 78–79 shot from side delivery 42–43 shoulder drop 48–49 side foot control 32–33 step over/half scissors 46–47 straight volley 40–41 throwing in 22–23 approach, waist height 38 AstroTurf cleats 8–9 awareness, body 10 back, lower 10 ball 9 dead 20, 36–37 high oncoming 26–27, 88–89 stationary 4, 20–21 trajectories 7 basic catch 86–87 beginners: head control 28 bending 7 warming up 10 blade system 8 body awareness 10 shape 4, 6, 11 weight transfer 52–53 burnout 7 bypass defender 46–47 C calf muscles 10 catching above head 88–89 basic 86–87 changing direction cruyff turn 60–61 drag turn 58–59 inside hook 64–65 outside hook 62–63 roll over 50–51 stop turn 56–57 changing feet 18–19 chest control 26–27 circulation 8 clearance, defensive 70–71 cleats 8–9 clothing 7 coordination 10 coaching: manuals 4 system 11 concrete surfaces 8 contact surface 6 control 5 change feet 18–19 chest 26–27 head 28–29 outside foot pass 16–17 running with ball 80 side foot 32–33 side foot pass 14–15 thigh 30–31 controlling skill 5 corners 70 cruyff turn 60–61 D dead ball shooting 36–37 defenders 5 bypass 46–47 getting past 48–49 defensive clearance 70–71 defensive header 70–71 direction, changing 50–51, 56–65 distance throwing in 22–23 dive 90–91 downward header 72–73 drag turn 58–59 dribbling 5, 32, 46 changing feet 18 record-keeping 7 short distances 78–79 with both feet 82–83 E equipment 8–9, 86 F feet both, dribbling with 82–83 changing 18–19 preference 32, 38, 82 fitness levels 6 footwear 8–9 free kicks 70 G index | 95 gaining height 20–21, 74–75 gloves 9 goal, heading for 72–73 goalkeeping 5, 84–91 outfit 9 grass 9 J knees 30 oncoming ball 26–27, 74–75, 88–89 oncoming defenders 18–19 opponents 44–53 outside foot pass 16–17 outside hook 62–63 overtraining 7 H L P half scissors 46–47 hamstrings 10 head control 28–29 headers 28–29 defensive 70–71 downward 72–73 jumping 74–75 power 68–69 record-keeping 7 heading for goal 72–73 heading skill 5 height on ball 20–21, 74–75 high lofted pass 32 high oncoming ball 26–27, 88–89 hips 10 hooks inside 64–65 outside 62–63 leaning forward 10 left side volley 38–39 left-footed player left side volley 38–39 shot from side delivery 42–43 shoulder drop 48–49 side foot pass 14–15 lofted pass 20–21, 32 long distance passing 20–21 running 80–81 target 36 throwing in 22–23 pace 6, 80 padding 9 partners 10 defensive header 71 downward header 73 jumping header 75 left side volley 39 outside foot pass 16–17 power header 69 practice with 10 straight volley 41 pass, lofted 20–21, 32 passing 5, 12–23 changing feet 18–19 distance throwing in 22–23 lofted 20–21, 32 outside foot 16–17 record-keeping 7 side foot 14–15 playing surfaces 8–9 power header 68–69 practice with partner 10 jumping header 74–75 K M markers 9 muscles 10 N I injuries 7, 8, 10 inside hook 64–65 neck muscles 68–69 O defensive header 71 downward header 73 jumping header 75 left side volley 39 outside foot pass 16–17 power header 69 straight volley 41 R record-keeping 7 roll over 50–51 running with ball 76–83 dribbling with both feet 82–83 long distances 80–81 short distances 78–79 S safety 7, 9 sending off 9 shin pads 9 shooting dead ball 36–37 left side volley 38–39 record-keeping 7 side delivery 42–43 skill 5 straight volley 40–41 short-distance running 78–79 shoulder drop 48–49 side delivery 42–43 side foot control 32–33 side foot pass 14–15 side-on pass 42 skills coaching system 11 control 24–33 definition of 5 equipment 8–9 getting past opponents 44–53 goalkeeping 84–91 heading 66–75 passing 12–23 practice, putting skills into 6–7 running with ball 76–83 shooting 34–43 turns 54–65 soft playing surfaces 8 sports shops 9 stationary ball, lofted pass 20–21 step over 46–47, 52–53 stop turn 56–57 straight volley 40–41 strains 10 stretching 10 strikers 5 surfaces 8–9 T tackles 46, 80 target-setting 7 thigh control 30–31 throwing in 39, 41 long distance 22–23 training shoes 8, 9 training sessions 5 start off slow 6 warm-ups 10 trajectories 7 transfering body weight 52–53 turning skill 5 turns 54–65 cruyff 60–61 drag 58–59 outside hook 62–63 record-keeping 7 stop 56–57 twisting 10 V volley left side 38–39 straight 40–41 see also shooting W waist height approach 38 walking pace 6 warming up 4, 10 weaker foot 32, 38, 82 weather conditions 8 working grids 9 about about the author the author Ian Howe is a fully qualified coach in the Football Association (England’s governing body for soccer), specializing in the coaching of children aged 5–16. Along with two other coaches, he cofounded the successful Palace Soccer School in the early 1990s. The school has close links with many top soccer league clubs throughout England. His work has taken him to many other countries, including the U.S., where he has acquired many new, valuable training methods and techniques from a wide array of professional coaches.